Parental leave within the broader employment trajectory: What can we learn from administrative records?

TitreParental leave within the broader employment trajectory: What can we learn from administrative records?
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursZhelyazkova, N, Ritschard, G
JournalEquality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal
Volume36
Ticket7
Pagination607–627
Date Published08/2017
Mots-clésEmployment trajectory, parental leave, sequence analysis, Work-family reconciliation
Résumé

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an analysis of parental leave use and long-term employment trajectories of parents in Luxembourg based on anonymous administrative records. This is the first systematic analysis of parental leave take-up rates and return rates for Luxembourg using a large and reliable data set. Design/methodology/approach: The authors use highly detailed administrative data to calculate take-up and return rates for parental leave for both men and women working in Luxembourg. To gain deeper insights into the employment trajectories of parents, the authors deploy the visualisation tools of the TraMineR package, which allow the authors to trace developments over time. Findings: The authors estimate take-up rates for parental leave at 72 per cent for mothers and 13 per cent for fathers. The return rates for mothers are 88.4, 99.4 and 70.8 per cent depending on whether they took full-time, part-time or no parental leave. In contrast, over 95 per cent of fathers remain employed following parental leave. The trajectory analysis reveals that the event of birth is a clear turning point for the majority of the female trajectories, but not for the male ones. Originality/value: The paper contributes to the literature in at least several ways. First, this is the first available paper presenting the situation in Luxembourg using a large and reliable data set. Second, by including fathers in the analysis, the authors contribute to the available knowledge of male use of parental leave, which has been the subject of continued policy efforts in the past decades. Finally, the authors show how parental leave can be analysed using sequence analysis tools and how this method offers additional, holistic insights into work-family patterns over time.

URLhttps://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/EDI-05-2017-0109
DOI10.1108/EDI-05-2017-0109
Short TitleParental leave within the broader employment trajectory

Precision, reliability, and effect size of slope variance in latent growth curve models: Implications for statistical power analysis

TitrePrecision, reliability, and effect size of slope variance in latent growth curve models: Implications for statistical power analysis
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursBrandmaier, AM, von Oertzen, T, Ghisletta, P, Lindenberger, U, Hertzog, C
JournalFrontiers in Psychology
Volume9
Date Published02/2018
Résumé

Latent Growth Curve Models (LGCM) have become a standard technique to model change over time. Prediction and explanation of inter-individual differences in change are major goals in lifespan research. The major determinants of statistical power to detect individual differences in change are the magnitude of true inter-individual differences in linear change (LGCM slope variance), design precision, alpha level, and sample size. Here, we show that design precision can be expressed as the inverse of effective error. Effective error is determined by instrument reliability and the temporal arrangement of measurement occasions. However, it also depends on another central LGCM component, the variance of the latent intercept and its covariance with the latent slope. We derive a new reliability index for LGCM slope variance—effective curve reliability (ECR)—by scaling slope variance against effective error. ECR is interpretable as a standardized effect size index. We demonstrate how effective error, ECR, and statistical power for a likelihood ratio test of zero slope variance formally relate to each other and how they function as indices of statistical power. We also provide a computational approach to derive ECR for arbitrary intercept-slope covariance. With practical use cases, we argue for the complementary utility of the proposed indices of a study's sensitivity to detect slope variance when making a priori longitudinal design decisions or communicating study designs.

URLhttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00294/full
DOI10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00294
Short TitlePrecision, Reliability, and Effect Size

Illness and intelligence are comparatively strong predictors of individual differences in depressive symptoms following middle age

TitreIllness and intelligence are comparatively strong predictors of individual differences in depressive symptoms following middle age
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursAichele, S, Rabbitt, P, Ghisletta, P
JournalAging & mental health
Date Published10/2017
ISSN1360-7863 (Print) 1364-6915 (Online)
Mots-clésaging, cognition, depression, fluid intelligence, machine learning
Résumé

Objective: We compared the importance of socio-demographic, lifestyle, health, and multiple cognitive measures for predicting individual differences in depressive symptoms in later adulthood. Method: Data came from 6203 community-dwelling older adults (age 41–93 years at study entry) from the United Kingdom. Predictors (36 in total) were assessed up to four times across a period of approximately 12 years. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Geriatric Depression Scale. Statistical methods included multiple imputation (for missing data), random forest analysis (a machine learning approach), and multivariate regression. Results: On average, depressive symptoms increased gradually following middle age and appeared to accelerate in later life. Individual differences in depressive symptoms were most strongly associated with differences in combined symptoms of physical illness (positive relation) and fluid intelligence (negative relation). The strength of association between depressive symptoms and fluid intelligence was unaffected by differences in health status within a subsample of chronically depressed individuals. Conclusion: Joint consideration of general health status and fluid intelligence may facilitate prediction of depressive symptoms severity during later life and may also serve to identify sub-populations of community-dwelling elders at risk for chronic depression.

URLhttps://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13607863.2017.1394440
DOI10.1080/13607863.2017.1394440

Memory deficits precede increases in depressive symptoms in later adulthood

TitreMemory deficits precede increases in depressive symptoms in later adulthood
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursAichele, S, Ghisletta, P
JournalThe Journals of Gerontology: Series B
Date Published01/2018
Mots-clésBi-directional, depression, Longitudinal Change, memory
Résumé

Objectives: We examined bidirectional, time-ordered associations between age-related changes in depressive symptoms and memory. Method: Data came from 107,599 community-dwelling adults, aged 49–90 years, who participated in the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Depressive symptoms were measured with the EURO-D inventory, and memory was evaluated as delayed recall of a 10-word list. Participants were assessed up to five times at 2-year intervals. Dynamic structural equation models were used to estimate longitudinal and time-ordered (lead-lag) relations between depressive symptoms and memory performance. Results: Depressive symptoms increased and memory scores decreased across the observed age range, with worsening mostly evident after age 62 years. These long-term changes were moderately negatively correlated (r = −.53, p

URLhttps://academic.oup.com/psychsocgerontology/advance-article/doi/10.1093/geronb/gbx183/4827964
DOI10.1093/geronb/gbx183

Intraindividual variability in inhibition and prospective memory in healthy older adults: Insights from response regularity and rapidity

TitreIntraindividual variability in inhibition and prospective memory in healthy older adults: Insights from response regularity and rapidity
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursJoly-Burra, E, Van der Linden, M, Ghisletta, P
JournalJournal of Intelligence
Volume6
Ticket13
Pagination1–27
Date Publishedmar
Mots-clésamplitude of fluctuations, autoregressive parameter, functional adaptability, functional diversity, Go/NoGo SART task, intraindividual variability, prepotent response inhibition, prospective memory, random process fluctuation
Résumé

Successful prospective memory (PM) performance relies on executive functions, including inhibition. However, PM and inhibition are usually assessed in separate tasks, and analytically the focus is either on group differences or at most on interindividual differences. Conjoint measures of PM and inhibition performance that take into account intraindividual variability (IIV) are thus missing. In the present study, we assessed healthy older adults’ level of performance and IIV in both inhibition and PM using a classical Go/NoGo task. We also created a prospective Go/NoGo version that embeds a PM component into the task. Using dynamic structural equation modeling, we assessed the joint effects of mean level (μ), an indicator of amplitude of fluctuations in IIV (or net IIV; intraindividual standard deviation, iSD), and an indicator of time dependency in IIV (the autoregressive parameter ϕ) in reaction times (RTs) on inhibition and PM performance. Results indicate that higher inhibition failure, but not IIV, predicted PM errors, corroborating the current literature on the involvement of prepotent response inhibition in PM processes. In turn, fastest RT latency (μ) and increased net IIV (iSD) were consistently associated with prepotent response inhibition failure, while coherence in RT pattern (ϕ) was beneficial to inhibition performance when the task was novel. Time-dependent IIV (ϕ) appears to reflect an adaptive exploration of strategies to attain optimal performance, whereas increased net IIV (iSD) may indicate inefficient sustained cognitive processes when performance is high. We discuss trade-off processes between competing tasks.

URLhttp://www.mdpi.com/2079-3200/6/1/13
DOI10.3390/jintelligence6010013

Daily internet time: towards an evidence-based recommendation?

TitreDaily internet time: towards an evidence-based recommendation?
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursBerchtold, A, Akre, C, Barrense-Dias, Y, Zimmermann, G, Suris, J-C
JournalEuropean Journal of Public Health
Pagination1–5
Mots-clésadolescent, child, evidence-based practice, health outcomes, internet, screen time
Résumé

Background: Since 2001, a recommendation of no more than 2 h per day of screen time for children 2 years of age or older was adopted in many countries. However, this recommendation was rarely examined empirically. The goal of the present study was to question this recommendation in today’s connected world. Methods: We used data from the ado@internet.ch survey (spring 2012), a representative sample of 8th graders in the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland (n = 2942, 50.6% female). Internet use, health outcomes, substance use, well-being and socio-demographic characteristics were considered. Bi-variate statistical analyses were performed. Results: All outcomes were significantly associated with the time spent on internet, more time being associated with a higher prevalence of adverse consequences. Youth spending on average one more hour on Internet per day than the reference category (1.5–2.5 h) did not differ in terms of adverse health outcomes. Differences began to appear on sleeping problems, tobacco use, alcohol misuse, cannabis use and sport inactivity with youth spending between 3.5 h and 4.5 h per day on internet. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the absence of justification for setting a limit to only 2 h of screen time per day. Significant effects on health seem to appear only beyond 4 h per day and there may be benefits for those who spend less than an hour and a half on internet.

URLhttps://academic.oup.com/eurpub/advance-article/doi/10.1093/eurpub/cky054/4973864
DOI10.1093/eurpub/cky054
Short TitleDaily internet time

Understanding trends in family formation trajectories: An application of Competing Trajectories Analysis (CTA)

TitreUnderstanding trends in family formation trajectories: An application of Competing Trajectories Analysis (CTA)
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursStuder, M, Liefbroer, AC, Mooyaart, JE
JournalAdvances in Life Course Research
Volume36
Pagination1-12
Date Published06/2018
ISSN1040-2608
Mots-clésevent history analysis, Family formation, Secularization, sequence analysis, Youth unemployment
Résumé

Over the past 50 years, family formation trajectories have undergone major changes in the events that occur as well as in the timing and order of these events. Whereas previous studies showed when and how these shifts occur, not much research has been conducted to test why these changes have taken place. This paper tests two possible explanations, namely cultural (secularization) and economic (youth unemployment) change using the Fertility and Family survey of the Netherlands conducted in 2008. We also employed a new method, Competing Trajectories Analysis (CTA), which combines features of sequence analysis and event history analysis, to examine the relationship between secularization and youth unemployment and pathways into adulthood. Our results show that the start of family formation is postponed in times of high secularization and youth unemployment, when pathways including early marriage and parenthood become less popular, and cohabiting without having children becomes more popular.

URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1040260818300285
DOI10.1016/j.alcr.2018.02.003

Prospective Memory Is a Key Predictor of Functional Independence in Older Adults

TitreProspective Memory Is a Key Predictor of Functional Independence in Older Adults
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursHering, A, Kliegel, M, Rendell, PG, Craik, FIM, Rose, NS
JournalJournal of the International Neuropsychological Society
Volume24
Pagination1–6
Date Published04/2018
ISSN1355-6177, 1469-7661
Mots-clésaging, delayed intentions, Everyday functioning, Instrumental activities of daily living, Memory for intentions, Old adulthood
Résumé

Objectives: Prospective memory (PM), the ability to execute delayed intentions, has received increasing attention in neuropsychology and gerontology. Most of this research is motivated by the claim that PM is critical for maintaining functional independence; yet, there is a dearth of empirical evidence to back up the claims. Thus, the present study tested whether PM predicts functional independence in older adults using validated behavioral performance measures for both PM and functional independence. Methods: Fifty-eight healthy older adults performed a computerized PM paradigm, the Virtual Week task, as well as a timed version of an instrumental activities of daily living (TIADL) task. Furthermore, we assessed vocabulary, processing speed, and self-reported prospective remembering. Results: TIADL scores correlated significantly with performance in the Virtual Week task, vocabulary, and processing speed. Hierarchical linear regressions revealed that vocabulary and Virtual Week performance were significant predictors for TIADL. However, self-reported PM scores did not predict everyday functioning. Conclusions: The findings indicate that PM is an important cognitive ability for successful and independent everyday life beyond vocabulary. Moreover, the results show a substantial incremental contribution of intact PM performance for the prediction of everyday functioning by using objective PM measures.

URLhttps://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society/article/prospective-memory-is-a-key-predictor-of-functional-independence-in-older-adults/C76245304041305A0D9EE74A2745E71F
DOI10.1017/S1355617718000152

Age and sex differences in intra-individual variability in a simple reaction time task

TitreAge and sex differences in intra-individual variability in a simple reaction time task
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursGhisletta, P, Renaud, O, Fagot, D, Lecerf, T, de Ribaupierre, A
JournalInternational Journal of Behavioral Development
Volume42
Ticket2
Pagination294–299
Date Published03/2018
ISSN0165-0254
Mots-clésgeneralized additive models, intra-individual variability, lifespan, Simple reaction time
Résumé

While age effects in reaction time (RT) tasks across the lifespan are well established for level of performance, analogous findings have started appearing also for indicators of intra-individual variability (IIV). Children are not only slower, but also display more variability than younger adults in RT. Yet, little is known about potential moderating sex effects on RT-IIV. We analyzed responses in a simple RT task with 120 trials in children, younger, and older adults. To best capture sex differences we used generalized additive models (GAMs), a semi-parametric regression approach, to fit splines relating nonlinearly age to RT, and capable of testing sex differences therein. This method is more adequate to test sex differences in nonlinear age relations than polynomial regression. Results show that (a) males are faster than females (except in the older adults), and (b) in younger and older adults, males are less variable than females. No sex difference in IIV emerged in children. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that sex differences in RT variability may be attributable to brain effects of sex hormones, in particular estrogen, whose receptors are present in several brain regions involved in information processing and attention, which are systems involved in the regulation of variability in information processing. Thus, according to this hypothesis, sex differences in RT-IIV should be present after puberty, but not in pre-pubertal children.

URLhttp://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0165025417739179
DOI10.1177/0165025417739179

Intra-individual variability from a lifespan perspective: a comparison of latency and accuracy measures

TitreIntra-individual variability from a lifespan perspective: a comparison of latency and accuracy measures
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursFagot, D, Mella, N, Borella, E, Ghisletta, P, Lecerf, T, de Ribaupierre, A
JournalJournal of Intelligence
Volume6
Nombre1
Pagination1-18
Date Published03/2018
Mots-clésintra-individual variability, life-span, reaction time, working memory
Résumé

Within-task variability across trials (intra-individual variability (IIV)) has been mainly studied using latency measures but rarely with accuracy measures. The aim of the Geneva Variability Study was to examine IIV in both latency and accuracy measures of cognitive performance across the lifespan, administering the same tasks to children, younger adults, and older adults. Six processing speed tasks (Response Time (RT) tasks, 8 conditions) and two working memory tasks scored in terms of the number of correct responses (Working Memory (WM)—verbal and visuo-spatial, 6 conditions), as well as control tasks, were administered to over 500 individuals distributed across the three age periods. The main questions were whether age differences in IIV would vary throughout the lifespan according (i) to the type of measure used (RTs vs. accuracy); and (ii) to task complexity. The objective of this paper was to present the general experimental design and to provide an essentially descriptive picture of the results. For all experimental tasks, IIV was estimated using intra-individual standard deviation (iSDr), controlling for the individual level (mean) of performance and for potential practice effects. As concerns RTs, and in conformity with a majority of the literature, younger adults were less variable than both children and older adults, and the young children were often the most variable. In contrast, IIV in the WM accuracy scores pointed to different age trends—age effects were either not observed or, when found, they indicated that younger adults were the more variable group. Overall, the findings suggest that IIV provides complementary information to that based on a mean performance, and that the relation of IIV to cognitive development depends on the type of measure used.

URLhttp://www.mdpi.com/2079-3200/6/1/16
DOI10.3390/jintelligence6010016
Short TitleIntra-Individual Variability from a Lifespan Perspective

‘And we are still here’: Life courses and life conditions of Italian, Spanish and Portuguese retirees in Switzerland

Titre‘And we are still here’: Life courses and life conditions of Italian, Spanish and Portuguese retirees in Switzerland
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuteursBolzman, C, Vagni, G
ÉditeurVlase, I, Voicu, B
Book TitleGender, Family, and Adaptation of Migrants in Europe - A Life Course Perspective
Pagination75–97
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan
Place PublishedLondon, United Kingdom
Résumé

This book discusses the challenges faced by international migrants and returnees after years of experience in other countries....

Notes

status: Advance online publication

URLwww.palgrave.com/gb/book/9783319766560

Assessing adherence to multiple medications and in daily life among patients with multimorbidity

TitreAssessing adherence to multiple medications and in daily life among patients with multimorbidity
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursInauen, J, Bierbauer, W, Lüscher, J, König, C, Tobias, R, Ihle, A, Zimmerli, L, Holzer, B, Battegay, E, Siebenhüner, K, Kliegel, M, Scholz, U
JournalPsychology & Health
Volume32
Ticket10
Pagination1233–1248
Date Published10/2017
ISSN0887-0446
Mots-cléselectronic medication adherence, multimorbidity, multiple chronic conditions, multiple medications, polypharmacy, self-report
Résumé

Objective: Chronic conditions often require multiple medication intake. However, past research has focused on assessing overall adherence or adherence to a single index medication only. This study explored adherence measures for multiple medication intake, and in daily life, among patients with multiple chronic conditions (i.e. multimorbidity). Design: Eighty-four patients with multimorbidity and multiple-medication regimens completed three monthly panel questionnaires. A randomly assigned subsample additionally completed a 30-day daily diary. Main outcome measure: The Non-Adherence Report; a brief self-report measure of adherence to each prescribed medication (NAR-M), and in daily life. We further assessed the Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS), and a subsample of participants were randomised to electronic adherence monitoring. Results: The NAR-M indicated M = 94.7% adherence at Time 1 (SD = 9.3%). The NAR-M was significantly correlated with the MARS (rt1 = .52, rt2 = .57, and rt3 = .65; p

URLhttps://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/08870446.2016.1275632
DOI10.1080/08870446.2016.1275632
Identifiant (ID) PubMed28043163

High-density lipoprotein cholesterol level relates to working memory, immediate and delayed cued recall in Brazilian older adults: the role of cognitive reserve

TitreHigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol level relates to working memory, immediate and delayed cued recall in Brazilian older adults: the role of cognitive reserve
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursIhle, A, Gouveia, ÉR, Gouveia, BR, Freitas, DL, Jurema, J, Tinôco, MA, Kliegel, M
JournalDementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Volume44
Pagination84–91
Date Published07/2017
ISSN1420-8008, 1421-9824
Mots-cléscognitive functioning, Cognitive leisure activity, Cognitive level of job, cognitive reserve, education, High-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, life course, older adults
Résumé

Aims: The present study set out to investigate the relation of the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level to cognitive performance and its interplay with key markers of cognitive reserve in a large sample of older adults. Methods: We assessed tests of working memory, immediate and delayed cued recall in 701 older adults from Amazonas, Brazil. The HDL-C level was derived from fasting blood samples. In addition, we interviewed individuals on their education, past occupation, and cognitive leisure activity. Results: A critically low HDL-C level (

URLhttps://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/477846
DOI10.1159/000477846
Short TitleHigh-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Level Relates to Working Memory, Immediate and Delayed Cued Recall in Brazilian Older Adults
Identifiant (ID) PubMed28743108

The interplay of intention maintenance and cue monitoring in younger and older adults’ prospective memory

TitreThe interplay of intention maintenance and cue monitoring in younger and older adults’ prospective memory
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursBallhausen, N, Schnitzspahn, K, Horn, SS, Kliegel, M
JournalMemory & Cognition
Volume45
Nombre7
Pagination1113–1125
Date Published06/2017
ISSN0090-502X, 1532-5946
Mots-clésaging, Focality, Maintenance, Monitoring, prospective memory
Résumé

The retention phase of a prospective memory (PM) task poses different challenges, including demands to store or maintain an intended action and to realize the right moment for action execution. The interplay of these processes in younger and older adults has not been explored so far. In this study, the authors examined the impact of maintenance load and task focality on PM in 84 younger and in 83 older adults. Results indicated that PM performance and ongoing task response times were strongly affected by maintenance load and age. However, a focality effect only emerged when maintenance load was low but not when attentional resources were deployed for maintaining a more demanding intention. These findings suggest that maintenance and monitoring requirements compete for similar attentional resources. Furthermore, maintenance load may affect postretrieval processes through its impact on working-memory resources, which can restrain the typical advantage of focal over nonfocal PM tasks.

URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.3758/s13421-017-0720-5
DOI10.3758/s13421-017-0720-5

The effect of the ProBalance Programme on health-related quality of life of community-dwelling older adults: a randomised controlled trial

TitreThe effect of the ProBalance Programme on health-related quality of life of community-dwelling older adults: a randomised controlled trial
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursGouveia, BR, Gouveia, ÉR, Ihle, A, Jardim, HG, Martins, MM, Freitas, DL, Kliegel, M
JournalArchives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Volume74
Pagination26–31
ISSN0167-4943
Mots-clésaging, Balance training, Gerontology, Health Promotion, quality of life, rehabilitation
Résumé

Background Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important health outcome in older adults. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of the ProBalance rehabilitation programme on HRQoL of community-dwelling older adults with balance impairments and to investigate whether effects differ between age groups and/or HRQoL components. Methods A single-blind, randomised controlled trial included community-dwelling older adults, aged 65–85, with balance impairments. Participants (n=52) were randomly allocated to an intervention group (IG) or a control group (CG). A rehabilitation programme included gait, balance, functional training, strengthening, flexibility, and 3D training. A group-based intervention was administered over a period of 12 weeks (90-min sessions, 2days per week). A wait-list control group was instructed to maintain their usual activities during the same period. Participants’ HRQoL was assessed using the SF-36 questionnaire. The time points for assessment were at zero (pre-test), 12 (post-test), and 24 weeks (follow up). Results A trend for higher HRQoL in the IG compared to the CG and a significant interaction of group with time were found, with significantly higher increases in HRQoL from the pre-test to the post-test (and to follow-up) in the IG, compared to the CG. Results were independent of age group (young-old vs. old-old) and HRQoL component (physical vs. mental). Conclusions Present results suggest that the ProBalance programme had a beneficial effect on HRQoL of community-dwelling older adults, which held across young and old adults and not only comprised physical but also mental HRQoL. Clinical Trial Registration Number: ACTRN12612000301864.

URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167494317302777
DOI10.1016/j.archger.2017.08.012

The influence of training task stimuli on transfer effects of working memory training in aging [L’influence des stimuli de la tâche d’entraînement de la mémoire de travail sur les effets de transfert dans le vieillissement]

TitreThe influence of training task stimuli on transfer effects of working memory training in aging [L’influence des stimuli de la tâche d’entraînement de la mémoire de travail sur les effets de transfert dans le vieillissement]
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursCantarella, A, Borella, E, Carretti, B, Kliegel, M, Mammarella, N, Fairfield, B, de Beni, R
JournalPsychologie Française
Date Published07/2017
ISSN0033-2984
Mots-clésaging, Effets de transfert, Emotional stimuli, Entraînement de la mémoire de travail, Mémoire de travail visuospatial, Stimuli émotionnels, transfer effects, vieillissement, Visuospatial working memory, working memory training
Résumé

Working memory (WM) training is known to produce benefits in older adults’ WM. Transfer effects to untrained abilities, however, remain controversial and several aspects are thought to influence the generalization of benefits, including the kind of stimuli used in the training tasks, an aspect rarely addressed in older adults. Objective The present study had two aims: (1) to test the efficacy of a visuospatial WM training procedure in older adults, in terms of specific and transfer effects; (2) to examine in two experiments whether the type of stimuli used in the training task influences the training's effectiveness. Experiment 1 adopted images with a neutral valence while experiment 2 used emotionally positive images based on evidence that older adults tend to remember positive stimuli better. In both experiments, specific training-related gains in a visuospatial WM task (the criterion task) and transfer effects on measures of verbal WM, visuospatial short-term memory, processing speed and reasoning were examined. Maintenance of training benefits was also assessed at an 8-month follow-up. Method Seventy older adult (63–75 years old) volunteers (35 for experiment 1, and 35 for experiment 2) were randomly assigned to a training or active control group. The same visuospatial WM training procedure was used in both experiments, manipulating only the type of stimuli used (neutral in experiment 1 and emotionally positive in experiment 2). Results In both experiments, only trained participants showed specific benefits in the WM criterion task. These gains were also maintained at the follow-up, but no transfer effects were identified. Conclusion Overall, our findings using the present visuospatial WM training paradigm suggest that it is less effective, in terms of transfer effects, than the same paradigm administered verbally in a previous study, regardless of the type of stimuli used in WM training tasks (neutral or emotionally positive stimuli).

S’il a été montré que l’entraînement de la mémoire de travail (MdT) produit des améliorations de la MdT chez les personnes âgées, les effets de transfert de tels entraînements restent controversés. L’étude présentée a deux objectifs : tester l’efficacité d’une procédure d’entraînement de la MdT visuospatiale et examiner l’effet du type de stimuli utilisés dans la tâche d’entraînement sur le résultat de l’entraînement – en termes d’effets spécifiques et de généralisation à des tâches non entraînés. Soixante adultes âgés (63–75 ans) ont suivi une même tâche d’entraînement, comportant soit des stimuli neutres (expérience 1), soit à valence positive (expérience 2). Les résultats montrent un effet positif de l’entraînement sur la tâche critère de la MdT (également maintenu après 8 mois) mais aucun effet de transfert n’a été mis en évidence, indépendamment du type de stimuli utilisés dans les tâches d’entraînement visuospaitale de la MdT.

URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0033298417300213
DOI10.1016/j.psfr.2017.04.005

The effect of stereotype threat on age differences in prospective memory performance: differential effects on focal versus nonfocal tasks

TitreThe effect of stereotype threat on age differences in prospective memory performance: differential effects on focal versus nonfocal tasks
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursZuber, S, Ihle, A, Blum, A, Desrichard, O, Kliegel, M
JournalThe Journals of Gerontology: Series B
Pagination1-8
Date Published08/2017
Mots-clésIntentional behavior, motivation, Task-instructions
Résumé

Objectives: The current study examined the effects of stereotype threat on prospective memory (PM) performance in younger versus older adults by using a focal (i.e., low cognitive demands) and a nonfocal (i.e., high cognitive demands) PM task. Method: Sixty younger and 60 older adults performed an event-based PM task, in which task instructions were experimentally manipulated. Half of the participants received instructions that emphasized the memory component of the task (memory condition; i.e., high stereotype threat for older adults) whereas the other half was instructed that the task evaluated participants’ reading-ability (reading condition; i.e., low stereotype threat). Results: Older adults’ PM performance was worse than younger adults’ only in the memory condition and these effects were specific for nonfocal PM cues as well as for old-old adults. Discussion: Conceptually, this indicates that stereotype threat particularly impacts age effects for cognitive processes associated with executive control and that this particularly affects old-old adults. Therefore, the current findings illustrate for the first time that age differences in PM can be influenced by stereotype threat and suggest changes in controlled attention as possible cognitive pathway.

URLhttps://academic.oup.com/psychsocgerontology/advance-article/doi/10.1093/geronb/gbx097/4079974
DOI10.1093/geronb/gbx097
Short TitleThe Effect of Stereotype Threat on Age Differences in Prospective Memory Performance

Improving older adults’ working memory: the influence of age and crystallized intelligence on training outcomes

TitreImproving older adults’ working memory: the influence of age and crystallized intelligence on training outcomes
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursHering, A, Meuleman, B, Bürki, C, Borella, E, Kliegel, M
JournalJournal of Cognitive Enhancement
Volume1
Ticket4
Pagination358–373
Date Published12/2017
ISSN2509-3290, 2509-3304
Mots-cléscognitive training, older adults, prospective memory, Transfer, working memory
Résumé

To counter age-related decline in cognitive abilities, interventions such as working memory trainings have shown some promising results in old age. Yet, findings are mixed and there is enormous interindividual variability in training and transfer effects. Thus, it is still an open question which person-specific factors may moderate training and transfer effects in working memory interventions in older adults. The present study investigated this issue in the context of an established verbal working memory training. Eighty-eight participants (age range 60–82 years) performed either four sessions of the Borella et al. (Psychology and Aging 25(4):767–778, 2010) working memory training or of a visual search training as active control condition or belonged to a passive control group. Before and after the training, participants performed a test battery to assess different cognitive abilities and everyday competence. Furthermore, we included questionnaires on personality factors and intrinsic motivation as possible covariates. The training group showed a substantial training gain in the working memory criterion task that was not found in the active control group. Furthermore, only participants of the working memory training showed also near transfer to another working memory task. No far transfer effects including everyday competence emerged. In terms of possible moderators, age and crystallized intelligence influenced the training and transfer gain in the training group. In conclusion, our results showed that working memory can be improved in older adults and improvements transfer to a non-trained working memory task. However, person-specific factors have to be considered to understand who benefits from the training and why.

URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s41465-017-0041-4
DOI10.1007/s41465-017-0041-4
Alternate JournalJ Cogn Enhanc

Participations sociales au temps de la retraite. Une approche des inégalités et évolutions dans la vieillesse

TitreParticipations sociales au temps de la retraite. Une approche des inégalités et évolutions dans la vieillesse
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2017
AuteursBaeriswyl, M
ÉditeurBurnay, N, Hummel, C
Book TitleL’impensé des classes sociales dans le processus de vieillissement
Series TitlePopulation, Family, and Society
Pagination141–170
PublisherPeter Lang
Place PublishedBern, Switzerland

The relation of education, occupation, and cognitive activity to cognitive status in old age: the role of physical frailty

TitreThe relation of education, occupation, and cognitive activity to cognitive status in old age: the role of physical frailty
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursIhle, A, Gouveia, ÉR, Gouveia, BR, Freitas, DL, Jurema, J, Odim, AP, Kliegel, M
JournalInternational Psychogeriatrics
Volume29
Ticket9
Nombre9
Pagination1469–1474
Date Published09/2017
ISSN1041-6102, 1741-203X
Mots-cléscognition, cognitive reserve, grip strength, older adults, physical frailty
Résumé

ABSTRACT Background: It remains unclear so far whether the role of cognitive reserve may differ between physically frail compared to less frail individuals. Therefore, the present study set out to investigate the relation of key markers of cognitive reserve to cognitive status in old age and its interplay with physical frailty in a large sample of older adults. Methods: We assessed Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in 701 older adults. We measured grip strength as indicator of physical frailty and interviewed individuals on their education, past occupation, and cognitive leisure activity. Results: Greater grip strength, longer education, higher cognitive level of job, and greater engaging in cognitive leisure activity were significantly related to higher MMSE scores. Moderation analyses showed that the relations of education, cognitive level of job, and cognitive leisure activity to MMSE scores were significantly larger in individuals with lower, compared to those with greater grip strength. Conclusions: Cognitive status in old age may more strongly depend on cognitive reserve accumulated during the life course in physically frail (compared to less frail) older adults. These findings may be explained by cross-domain compensation effects in vulnerable individuals.

URLhttps://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/international-psychogeriatrics/article/relation-of-education-occupation-and-cognitive-activity-to-cognitive-status-in-old-age-the-role-of-physical-frailty/307F7F8D1E1BFEE4DB802FAF1199EFF0
DOI10.1017/S1041610217000795
Short TitleThe relation of education, occupation, and cognitive activity to cognitive status in old age

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