The impact of social isolation on pain interference: A longitudinal study

TitreThe impact of social isolation on pain interference: A longitudinal study
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursKarayannis, NV, Baumann, I, Sturgeon, JA, Melloh, M, Mackey, SC
JournalAnnals of Behavioral Medicine
ISSN0883-6612, 1532-4796
Mots-clésChronic pain, Pain interference, Physical function, Social isolation
Résumé

Abstract
Background : Evidence suggests social interactions play an important role in pain perception. Purpose : The aim of this study was to determine whether
social isolation (SI) in people with persistent pain determines pain interference (PI) and physical function over time. Methods : Patients seeking care at a tertiary pain management referral center were administered the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS.) SI, PI, physical function, depression, and average pain intensity item banks at their initial consultation and subsequent visits as part of their routine clinical care. We used a post hoc simulation of an experiment using propensity score matching (n = 4,950) and carried out a cross-lagged longitudinal analysis (n = 312) of retrospective observational data. Results : Cross-lagged longitudinal analysis showed that SI predicted PI at the next time point, above and beyond the effects of pain intensity and covariates, but not vice versa. Conclusions : These data support the importance of SI as a factor in pain-related appraisal and coping and demonstrate that a comprehensive assessment of the individuals’ social context can provide a better understanding of the differential trajectories for a person living with pain. Our study provides evidence that the impact of pain is reduced in individuals who perceive a greater sense of inclusion from and engagement with others. This study enhances the understanding of how social factors affect pain and have implications for how the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions may be improved. Therapeutic interventions aimed at increasing social connection hold merit in reducing the impact of pain on engagement with activities.

URLhttps://academic.oup.com/abm/advance-article/doi/10.1093/abm/kay017/4969712
DOI10.1093/abm/kay017
Custom 1

{:status: Advance online publication}

The transition to marriage for cohabiting couples: Does it shape subjective well-being and opinions or attitudes toward family?

TitreThe transition to marriage for cohabiting couples: Does it shape subjective well-being and opinions or attitudes toward family?
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuteursRyser, V-A, Le Goff, J-M
ÉditeurTillmann, R, Voorpostel, M, Farago, P
Book TitleSocial Dynamics in Swiss Society: Empirical studies based on the Swiss Household Panel
Series TitleColl Life Course research and Social Policies.
Volume9
Pagination47–59
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Place PublishedCham-Heidelberg
ISBN Number978-3-319-89556-7
Résumé

Although marriage and cohabitation appear to be increasingly equivalent across Western countries, extensive research has demonstrated that married and cohabiting individuals still differ in terms of attitudes and well-being. Married people tend to express higher life satisfaction and more traditional opinions and values, whereas cohabiters tend to report more depressive symptoms and a more egalitarian division of tasks. Little is known about the roots of these differences. This study focus on the Swiss Household Panel subsample of respondents who lived together before they married. Its aim is to understand whether degrees of traditionalism and happiness might exist prior to marriage or, alternatively, whether it is the transition to marriage that implies changes in happiness and traditional values. Results tend to demonstrate that individuals have a high probability of responding similarly before and after the transition to marriage and validate the former hypothesis. However, results also show that the variables that play a key role before the marriage do not necessarily play the same role after. That means that marriage contributes to changing the way people assess different domains of their life as well as the hierarchy of the importance of the sociodemographic characteristics that influence individuals‘ subjective well-being, and opinions or attitudes toward family.

URLhttps://www.springer.com/de/book/9783319895567#otherversion=9783319895574
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-89557-4_4
Short TitleThe Transition to Marriage for Cohabiting Couple

Doping risk and career turning points in male elite road cycling (2005–2016)

TitreDoping risk and career turning points in male elite road cycling (2005–2016)
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursAubel, O, Lefèvre, B, Le Goff, J-M, Taverna, N
JournalJournal of Science and Medicine in Sport
ISSN14402440
URLhttps://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1440244018300707
DOI10.1016/j.jsams.2018.03.003

Integrating who “we” are with what “we” (will not) stand for: A further extension of the social identity model of collective action

TitreIntegrating who “we” are with what “we” (will not) stand for: A further extension of the social identity model of collective action
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
Auteursvan Zomeren, M, Kutlaca, M, Turner-Zwinkels, F
JournalEuropean Review of Social Psychology
Volume29
Nombre1
Pagination122–160
ISSN1046-3283, 1479-277X
Mots-clésCollective action; social protest; social identity; moral beliefs; politicisation; values; right violation
Résumé

Collective action refers to any action that individuals undertake as group members to pursue group goals such as social change. In this chapter, we
further extend the Social Identity Model of Collective Action (SIMCA) by including not just (politicised) identity but also moral motivations into its core, effectively integrating who “we” are with what “we” (will not) stand for. Conceptually, we utilise self-categorisation theory’s notion of normative fit to elaborate this special relationship between the moral and identity motivations for collective action. Empirically, we review two research projects (the experimental and survey-based Value-Identity Fit Project and the longitudinal Politicisation Project) that both suggest that the SIMCA needs to be extended to include, both conceptually and empirically, a broader range of (violated) moral beliefs and a focus on identity content. We discuss key implications of expanding the core of the SIMCA for the social psychology of collective action and social change, and suggest new directions for future theorising and research in this field.

URLhttps://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10463283.2018.1479347
DOI10.1080/10463283.2018.1479347
Short TitleIntegrating who “we” are with what “we” (will not) stand for

Trajectories of vulnerability: A sequence-analytical approach

TitreTrajectories of vulnerability: A sequence-analytical approach
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuteursBühlmann, F
ÉditeurTillmann, R, Voorpostel, M, Farago, P
Book TitleSocial Dynamics in Swiss Society
Series TitleLife Course Research and Social Policies
Pagination129–144
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedCham, Switzerland
ISBN Number978-3-319-89556-7 978-3-319-89557-4
Résumé

A growing proportion of the European population faces situations of vulnerability. Stable employees feel more and more at risk of losing their job or of experiencing a deterioration of their employment situation (Gallie et al. 1998). The share of standard employment relationships are declining, whereas atypical and precarious employment is on the rise (Hipp et al. 2015). In addition, joblessness in different forms—invalidity insurance, social assistance, early retirement—has also grown in recent decades (Paugam 2005). One of the unresolved issues is the relative scope of these phenomena. First, the advocates of what we could call exclusion thesis contend that only a small and marginal group is touched by material poverty and that this deprivation is inherently accompanied by isolation and segregation (Paugam 2005). A second approach, most famously brought forward by Robert Castel (2002), contends that not only the margins but also the larger zones of the labour market are characterised by precariousness. In a third perspective, it is asserted that work, even in formerly prestigious and well-paid occupations, is less and less socially recognised (Bourdieu 2003; Paugam 2000).

URLhttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-89557-4_9
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-89557-4_9
Short TitleTrajectories of Vulnerability

Bien-être des individus dans des familles non-standards en Suisse - Cadre introductif à une série d’analyses de l’Enquête sur les Familles et les Générations (EFG-2013)

TitreBien-être des individus dans des familles non-standards en Suisse - Cadre introductif à une série d’analyses de l’Enquête sur les Familles et les Générations (EFG-2013)
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursRossier, C, Sauvain-Dugerdil, C, Bernardi, L
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume68
Pagination1-20
PublisherNCCR LIVES
Mots-clésbien-être, diversité des formes famille, politiques familiales, Suisse
Résumé

En Suisse comme dans les autres pays européens, les formes des familles se sont diversifiées. La littérature suggère que le bien-être des individus dans différentes configurations familiales dépend étroitement du contexte institutionnel : plus les institutions sont adaptées à cette diversité, plus les déficits de bien-être rencontrés par des individus dans des formes atypiques seront faibles. Or, en Suisse, les institutions encadrant la famille restent fortement structurées autour du modèle de Monsieur Gagne-Pain. Dans ce numéro spécial, nous nous interrogeons sur le bien-être des individus dans différentes formes de famille atypiques ou minoritaires en Suisse. Dans ce cadre introductif, nous soulignons les spécificités de la diversification de la famille en Suisse et faisons un point sur la littérature traitant du bien-être dans diverses formes familiales. Nous décrivons ensuite le système de politiques familiale et de genre suisse, qui, nous en faisons l'hypothèse, médiatise le lien entre bien-être et structure familiale. Nous définissons la notion de bien-être et discutons de ses différentes mesures, avant de détailler l'Enquête des Familles et des Générations (2013) qui a permis les analyses présentées ici. Nous terminons par un résumé des différents articles qui forment ce numéro groupé.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2018.68

The Consequences Of Divorce For Mothers And Fathers: Unequal But Converging?

TitreThe Consequences Of Divorce For Mothers And Fathers: Unequal But Converging?
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursKessler, D
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Nombre71
Pagination1-30
PublisherNCCR LIVES
Type of ArticleRESEARCH PAPER
ISSNISSN 2296-1658
Mots-cléschange, divorce, happiness, income, well-being
Résumé

If families adhere to a male breadwinner model, mothers and fathers accumulate different kinds of resources. On one hand, this implies that divorces have different consequences for mothers and fathers. While a divorce translates mothers’ low career investments into greater economic consequences for them, fathers suffer more emotionally due to deteriorations of the relationships with their children. On the other hand, the consequences of divorce converge between mothers and fathers over time as gender roles become more egalitarian. For the context of Switzerland, this study tests whether a) divorce leads to greater declines in economic well-being for mothers than for fathers, b) whether mothers report smaller declines in emotional well-being than fathers and c) whether or not these patterns were stable between a cohort of parents who divorced in the 1990s and a cohort of parents who divorced between 2009 and 2013.
The study draws on cross-sectional Swiss surveys that asked respondents about their incomes, emotional well-being and partnership histories. I measured the effects of divorce by comparing parents who recently divorced from their first spouse with balanced samples of parents who are still married in their first marriage. The results suggest that in both cohorts, on average, mothers experience greater declines in available incomes as a result of divorce than fathers and that mothers and fathers suffer similar declines in emotional well-being. Hence, confirming the crucial role of the type of resources for the consequences of divorce, divorced fathers have an advantage over divorced mothers in available income but not in emotional well-being. Potential explanations for the historical stability of such results despite divorced mothers’ greater labor market participation and the introduction of shared legal custody are mothers’ increases in lowly paid part- time work, a stable low share of divorce children living with their fathers and fewer adult alimony orders.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2018.71

Union Libre, Égalité et Bien-Être en Suisse.

TitreUnion Libre, Égalité et Bien-Être en Suisse.
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursLe Goff, J-M, Ryser, V-A
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Nombre70
Pagination1-27
PublisherNCCR LIVES
ISSNISSN 2296-1658
Mots-clésBien-être, Égalité de genre, Interférence famille-travail, Réseaux bayésiens, Union libre
Résumé

Les naissances de couples non-mariés se diffusent lentement dans la société suisse. Elles remettent en question la place de l’union libre qui depuis son apparition dans les années soixante-dix jouait essentiellement un rôle de prélude au mariage. Les couples non-mariés ayant des enfants montrent une division plus égalitaire des tâches, plus d’autonomie et moins d’attitudes traditionnelles à l’égard de la famille, comparativement aux couples mariés. Paradoxalement, ces couples témoignent d’un moindre bien-être. Cet article s’interroge sur les relations entre statut marital, inégalités au sein du couple et moindre bien-être. Basés sur une exploitation des données Suisses de L'Enquête sur les familles et les générations 2013 (EFG), nos résultats tendent à montrer que les jeunes couples ayant des attitudes égalitaires choisissent plus souvent de rester non-mariés lorsqu’ils ont un enfant. Qu’ils soient mariés ou non, les conjoints ayant des attitudes égalitaires expriment un moindre bien-être que les couples ayant des attitudes traditionnelles. Les raisons de ce moindre bien-être sont liées à la difficulté de concilier vie familiale et vie professionnelle, surtout pour les femmes. Les conflits au sein du couple quant à eux, résulteraient plutôt d’une augmentation des affects négatifs.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2018.70

Lone Parenthood and Employment Trajectories: A Longitudinal Mixed-Method Study

TitreLone Parenthood and Employment Trajectories: A Longitudinal Mixed-Method Study
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursStruffolino, E, Bernardi, L, Larenza, O
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume67
Nombre67
Pagination1-33
PublisherNCCR LIVES
Type of ArticleRESEARCH PAPER
ISSNISSN 2296-1658
Mots-clésemployment, lone parenthood, mixed-method, sequence analysis, Switzerland
Résumé

This study explores heterogeneity in employment trajectories occurring before, during, and after the transition to lone parenthood (LP) in a life-course perspective. Lone mothers are usually both primary caregivers and breadwinners: The transition into LP leads to an increase in economic and care needs that may compromise work-family balance and condition labor-market participation. Our mixed-method approach combines biographical calendars (SHP data, N=462) and semistructured interviews (N=38) of lone mothers residing in Switzerland. Using sequence and cluster analysis, we reconstruct employment trajectories around the transition to LP and estimate the probability of specific patterns by individual and household characteristics that help or hinder labor-market participation. We then contrast these results with findings from a content analysis of narrative interviews focusing on values and norms concerning work and care. We identify five employment patterns characterized by either an increase in labor supply (especially for those with more/older children) or by stability in or out of the labor market (for highly educated or younger mothers respectively). The analyses of the narratives provide insights on how employment opportunities and decisions differ by entry mode into LP, the postseparation relationship with the children’s father, and the ability to mobilize individual, social and institutional resources. Our findings suggest that effective policies encouraging lone mothers’ labor-market participation should consider their normative priorities when facing work and care trade-offs and the availability of informal and formal support, which ultimately shapes their work-related decisions.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2018.67

Lone Mothers’ Repartnering Trajectories and Health: Does the Welfare Context Matter?

TitreLone Mothers’ Repartnering Trajectories and Health: Does the Welfare Context Matter?
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursRecksiedler, C, Bernardi, L
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume66
Pagination1-23
PublisherNCCR LIVES
Mots-clésfamily policy, health disparities, lone mothers, repartnering, welfare states
Résumé

This paper examines the relationship between lone mothers’ repartnering trajectories and health in three distinct welfare contexts: the dual-earner, market-oriented, and general family policy model. Inspired by the resources and the crisis model, we apply mixture modelling for event-history analysis to the Harmonized Histories data. We uncover six distinct repartnering trajectories that vary with respect to the timing, type, and stability of higher-order unions for different cohorts of lone mothers. The few associations between repartnering trajectories and health differ systematically and significantly by welfare context. Lone mothers with some, yet unstable repartnering, reported better health in market-oriented contexts, compared to those living in general and dual-earner contexts. Market-oriented contexts were also those where unstable repartnering was more frequent. Overall, findings suggest that a less-generous welfare may encourage unstable, temporary repartnering out of economic need, while welfare contexts with more comprehensive family support allow for more stable repartnering choices.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2018.66

Is there public support for a longer and more gender equal leave scheme in Switzerland?

TitreIs there public support for a longer and more gender equal leave scheme in Switzerland?
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursValarino, I
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume65
Pagination1-29
PublisherNCCR LIVES
Mots-clésattitudes, gender equality, leave policies, policy preferences, Switzerland, welfare state
Résumé

Switzerland has a comparatively short and gendered leave scheme: paid maternity leave lasts 3,5 months and there are no statutory paternity or parental leaves. In the past decade this issue has received increased public and political attention and a popular initiative in favor of a 4-week paid paternity leave was successfully submitted and will be put to national vote. The present study addresses this highly topical issue by analyzing individuals’ attitudes toward three dimensions of leave policies (ideal leave length; gender division of leave; and leave financing system) and whether there is public support for a longer and more gender equal leave scheme in Switzerland. The study is based on 2013 MOSAiCH survey data, which is representative of the Swiss population aged 18 and over (N=1181).
Results show divided preferences regarding the ideal leave length, with about half of the sample wanting a leave that exceeds the current one (i.e., 5 months or more). This proportion rises to 68% among women under 50 years of age, suggesting that a gender and generational cleavage exists. Results show on the contrary a large consensus regarding gender division of leave preferences. About 80% of respondents consider that fathers should at least take part of the leave; and among them, about half consider they should share it equally. Logistic regression analyses show that institutional and cultural factors, as well as individuals’ life course stage and values are associated with wanting a longer and a more gender equal leave scheme. The article concludes on the implications of the results, in the wake of a national vote on paid paternity leave implementation.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2018.65

The impact of physical activity and sex differences on intraindividual variability in inhibitory performance in older adults

TitreThe impact of physical activity and sex differences on intraindividual variability in inhibitory performance in older adults
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursFagot, D, Chicherio, C, Albinet, CT, André, N, Audiffren, M
JournalAging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition
Pagination1–23
ISSN1382-5585
Mots-clésaging, inhibition, intraindividual variability, physical activity, sex differences
Résumé

It is well-known that processing speed and executive functions decline with advancing age. However, physical activity (PA) has a positive impact on cognitive performances in aging, specifically for inhibition. Less is known concerning intraindividual variability (iiV) in reaction times. This study aims to investigate the influence of PA and sex differences on iiV in inhibitory performance during aging. Healthy adults were divided into active and sedentary groups according to PA level. To analyse iiV in reaction times, individual mean, standard deviation and the ex-Gaussian parameters were considered. An interaction between activity level and sex was revealed, sedentary females being slower and more variable than sedentary men. No sex differences were found in the active groups. These results indicate that the negative impact of sedentariness on cognitive performance in older age is stronger for females. The present findings underline the need to consider sex differences in active aging approaches.

URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13825585.2017.1372357
DOI10.1080/13825585.2017.1372357
Identifiant (ID) PubMed28868969

The influence of emotional material on encoding and retrieving intentions: an ERP study in younger and older adults

TitreThe influence of emotional material on encoding and retrieving intentions: an ERP study in younger and older adults
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursHering, A, Kliegel, M, Bisiacchi, PS, Cona, G
JournalFrontiers in Psychology
Volume9
Nombre114
ISSN1664-1078
Mots-clésaging, EEG/ERP, emotions, partial least squares (PLS), prospective memory
Résumé

Prospective memory is a cognitive process that comprises the encoding and maintenance of an intention until the appropriate moment of its retrieval. It is of highly relevance for an independent everyday life, especially in older adults; however, there is ample evidence that prospective memory declines with increasing age. Because most studies have used neutral stimuli, it is still an open question how emotional factors influence age-related differences in prospective remembering. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of emotional material on prospective memory encoding, monitoring, maintaining, and retrieval in younger and older adults using behavioral and electrophysiological measures. We tested 24 younger adults (M = 26.4 years) and 20 older adults (M = 68.1 years) using a picture one-back task as ongoing activity with an embedded prospective memory instruction. The experimental task consisted of three sessions. In each session, participants had to encode series of images that represented the prospective memory cues for the consecutive block. The images were either of pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral valence. The pictures used in the ongoing task were likewise of pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral valence. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to assess the neural correlates of intention encoding, maintenance and self-initiated retrieval. We did not find age differences between younger and older adults on the behavioral level. However, the ERP results revealed an interesting pattern that suggested for both age groups elevated attentional processing of emotional cues during encoding indicated by an elevated LPP for the emotional cues. Additionally, younger adults showed increased activity for unpleasant cues. During the maintenance phase, both age groups engaged in strategic monitoring especially for pleasant cues, which led to enhanced sustained positivity. During retrieval, older adults showed increased activity of ERP components related to cue detection and retrieval mainly for pleasant cues indicating enhanced relevance for those cues. In conclusion, emotional material may influence prospective remembering in older adults differently than in younger adults by supporting a mixture of top-down and bottom-up controlled processing. The results demonstrated a negativity bias in younger adults and a positivity bias in older adults.

URLhttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00114/full
DOI10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00114

The relationship of physical activity to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in a sample of community-dwelling older adults from Amazonas, Brazil

TitreThe relationship of physical activity to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in a sample of community-dwelling older adults from Amazonas, Brazil
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursGouveia, ÉR, Ihle, A, Kliegel, M, Freitas, DL, Jurema, J, Tinôco, MA, Odim, A, Machado, FT, Muniz, BR, Antunes, AA, Ornelas, RT, Gouveia, BR
JournalArchives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Volume73
Pagination195–198
ISSN0167-4943
Mots-clésBody fat distribution, Dyslipidemia, liveswebsite, Modifiable behavior patterns, socioeconomic status
Résumé

Objectives (1) To study the relation of physical activity (PA) to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and (2) to investigate if the strength of these associations holds after adjustments for sex, age, and other key correlates. Methods This study included 550 older adults from Amazonas. HDL-C was derived from fasting blood samples. PA at sport and leisure, smoking, alcohol consumption, and socioeconomic status (SES) were interviewed. Waist circumference (WACI) was assessed. Results HDL-C was positively related to PA sport, PA leisure, and SES (0.22≤r≤0.34; p≤0.001) and negatively related to smoking and WACI (r≤−0.10; p{\textless}0.05). Controlling for sex and age did not affect these relationships. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that the relation of HDL-C to PA sport and leisure remained significant when controlling for all other investigated correlates (0.14≤β≤0.24; p≤0.001). Discussion In order to prevent low HDL-C in older adults, promoting PA seems to be an important additional component besides common recommendations concerning weight reduction.

URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167494317301875
DOI10.1016/j.archger.2017.08.004

The role of leisure activities in mediating the relationship between physical health and well-being: differential patterns in old and very old age

TitreThe role of leisure activities in mediating the relationship between physical health and well-being: differential patterns in old and very old age
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursIhle, A, Gouveia, ÉR, Gouveia, BR, van der Linden, BWA, Sauter, J, Gabriel, R, Oris, M, Fagot, D, Kliegel, M
JournalGerontology
Volume63
Nombre6
Pagination560–571
ISSN0304-324X, 1423-0003
Résumé

\textbf{\textit{Background:}} Recently, Paggi et al. [Gerontology 2016;62:450-458] for the very first time showed in a cross-sectional sample of 259 adults aged 18-81 years that the relation of physical health to psychological well-being was mediated via frequency of leisure activity participation. \textbf{\textit{Objective:}} To extend this framework, we followed theories on successful aging and vulnerability to propose to add a differential perspective predicting that certain individuals may be more vulnerable than others and therefore may show differences in the mediation pattern. Specifically, we examined whether mediation patterns were differential in certain populations, such as in old-old (compared to young-old) adults and in individuals who carried out a low (compared to those with a high) number of activities. \textbf{\textit{Methods:}} We analyzed data from 3,080 individuals on physical health (number of chronic diseases, subjective health status, and subjective evaluation of change in health over the last 10 years), frequency of participation in 18 leisure activities, and physical and psychological well-being using moderated mediation models with a path model approach that allowed the simultaneous estimation of all model paths, including their significance. \textbf{\textit{Results:}} We found that the relation of physical health to physical and psychological well-being was mediated via frequency of activity participation. For physical (but not for psychological) well-being, this mediation was more pronounced in old-old (compared to young-old) adults and in individuals who carried out a low (compared to those with a high) number of activities. These moderated mediations were attributable to differential relations of physical health to frequency of activity participation and to differential relations of frequency of activity participation to physical well-being between the investigated moderator levels. \textbf{\textit{Conclusion:}} Present data suggest that participation in leisure activities may play a key role in mediating the relationship between physical health and well-being, particularly in very old age. Findings are discussed with respect to theories of successful aging and differences between physical and psychological well-being.

URLhttps://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/477628
DOI10.1159/000477628
Identifiant (ID) PubMed28675907

Educational sorting in mixed marriages in Switzerland

TitreEducational sorting in mixed marriages in Switzerland
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursPotarca, G, Bernardi, L
JournalSwiss Journal of Sociology
Volume43
Nombre3
ISSN2297-8348
Mots-cléseducational hypogamy, intermarriage, status-caste exchange
Résumé

According to status-caste exchange theory, intermarriages involve transactions in which higher educated immigrants trade status for the ethnic advantage of the less-educated native partners. Looking at 2 836 currently married Swiss immigrants, we find that the highly skilled “exchange” their status only when pairing with a medium-educated native. Results also show that younger cohorts of immigrants are more likely to choose hypogamy when marrying a same-origin immigrant than when partnering a native.

URLhttp://www.degruyter.com/view/j/sjs.2017.43.issue-3/sjs-2017-0026/sjs-2017-0026.xml
DOI10.1515/sjs-2017-0026

Delay of Gratification, Delay Discounting and their Associations with Age, Episodic Future Thinking, and Future Time Perspective

TitreDelay of Gratification, Delay Discounting and their Associations with Age, Episodic Future Thinking, and Future Time Perspective
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursGöllner, LM, Ballhausen, N, Kliegel, M, Forstmeier, S
JournalFrontiers in Psychology
Volume8
ISSN1664-1078
Mots-clésdelay discounting, delay of gratification, episodic future thinking, future time perspective, life span, self-regulation
Résumé

While the delay of gratification (DoG) in children is widely investigated with an experimental procedure originally called the “marshmallow test”, studies on self-regulation (SR) in adolescents and adults usually use self-report questionnaires. Delay discounting (DD) measures simplify the DoG procedure and focus on monetary rewards. The aim of this study was to investigate age differences in DoG and DD from childhood to old age, using a test that is suitable for both children and adults. Furthermore, investigations were conducted on the association between DoG/DD and two future orientation constructs (future time perspective, FTP, and episodic future thinking, EFT) as well as age differences in these constructs. Participants from five age groups (9-14, 18-25, 35-55, 65-80, 80+) participated in the study (N = 96). While we found no age difference for DoG, DD was lowest (i.e., self-control (SC) was highest) in young/middle adults, but was highest (i.e., SC lowest) in children and old/oldest adults. Furthermore, we found significant age differences for DD and FTP. As predicted, there were strong correlations between DoG and FTP and between DD and FTP, but not between DoG/DD and EFT. These results indicate that age differences in SR vary across the measures used. Individuals who generally think and act in a future-oriented manner have a stronger ability to delay gratification.

URLhttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02304/full
DOI10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02304

The Mediating Impact of Parental Support on the Relationship Between Personality and Career Indecision in Adolescents

TitreThe Mediating Impact of Parental Support on the Relationship Between Personality and Career Indecision in Adolescents
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursMarcionetti, J, Rossier, J
JournalJournal of Career Assessment
Volume25
Nombre4
Pagination601–615
ISSN1069-0727
Résumé

In the Swiss education system, approximately 55% of adolescents are required to make their first vocational choice at the end of mandatory school. This can induce transitory or long-lasting career indecision that is recognized as being influenced by personal and contextual factors. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationships between career decision-making difficulties and the five-factor model of personality traits, parental support, and self-esteem in 448 Grade 9 Swiss adolescents. We then proceeded to test if these relationships vary according to the adolescent’s educational choice (i.e., whether they attend high school or if they choose an apprenticeship or vocational training). Results have highlighted the importance of neuroticism, conscientiousness, and parental support to predict career decision-making difficulties. Moreover, parental support mediated the relationships between extraversion and agreeableness (fully) and between conscientiousness (partially) and career decision-making difficulties. Finally, the educational choice had no impact on the overall pattern of relationships. Implications for career counselor practices were further discussed.

URLhttps://doi.org/10.1177/1069072716652890
DOI10.1177/1069072716652890

How Would Pyrrho have been Socially Valued? Social Desirability and Social Utility of Conflict Regulation

TitreHow Would Pyrrho have been Socially Valued? Social Desirability and Social Utility of Conflict Regulation
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursSommet, N, Quiamzade, A, Butera, F
JournalInternational Review of Social Psychology
Volume30
Nombre1
ISSN2397-8570
Mots-clésConflict regulation, Judge paradigm, Social desirability, Social utility, Socio-cognitive conflict
Résumé

Mugny and his colleagues have shown that conflict is sometimes detrimental for learning, but other times beneficial, depending on how it is regulated. Yet, it is assumed that laypeople perceive conflict as uniformly negative. We argue that the valence of these lay perceptions depends on the mode of conflict regulation. Epistemic and relational protective conflict regulation behaviors (integrative and submissive response, respectively) can be described as more focused on the other than relational competitive conflict regulation (self-confirmatory response); thus, they should be perceived as more socially desirable. Moreover, epistemic and competitive regulations can be described as more focused on the self than protective regulation; thus, they should be perceived as more socially useful. First-year psychology students (N = 119) participants evaluated three bogus respondents allegedly regulating conflict in an epistemic, competitive, or protective manner. Results supported both hypotheses, suggesting that conflict is not to be avoided per se and can be positively valued as a function of its regulation.

URLhttp://www.rips-irsp.com/article/10.5334/irsp.88/
DOI10.5334/irsp.88

Coefficient-wise tree-based varying coefficient regression with vcrpart

TitreCoefficient-wise tree-based varying coefficient regression with vcrpart
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursBuergin, RArthur, Ritschard, G
JournalJournal of Statistical Software
Volume80
Ticket6
Pagination1–33
Date Published08/2017
Mots-clésCART, generalized linear models, R package, regression trees, statistical learning, varying coefficient models
Résumé

The tree-based TVCM algorithm and its implementation in the R package vcrpart are introduced for generalized linear models. The purpose of TVCM is to learn whether and how the coefficients of a regression model vary by moderating variables. A separate partition is built for each potentially varying coefficient, allowing the user to specify coefficient-specific sets of potential moderators, and allowing the algorithm to select moderators individually by coefficient. In addition to describing the algorithm, the TVCM is evaluated using a benchmark comparison and a simulation study and the R commands are demonstrated by means of empirical applications.

URLhttps://www.jstatsoft.org/article/view/v080i06
DOI10.18637/jss.v080.i06

Pages