Ambivalence in later-life family networks: Beyond intergenerational dyads

TitreAmbivalence in later-life family networks: Beyond intergenerational dyads
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursGirardin, M, Widmer, E, Connidis, IArnet, Castrén, A-M, Gouveia, R, Masotti, B
JournalJournal of Marriage and Family
Volume80
Nombre3
Pagination768–784
ISSN1741-3737
Mots-clésambivalence, conflict, Emotional support, family networks, inequalities, older adults
Résumé

In later life, changing conditions related to health, partnership, and economic status may trigger not only support but also conflict and ambivalence, with the consequent renegotiation of family ties. The aim of this study is to investigate both conflict and emotional support in the family networks of older adults, taking the research beyond the level of intergenerational dyads. We used a subsample of 563 elders (aged 65 years and older) from the Swiss Vivre/Leben/Vivere survey. Multiple correspondence analysis and in-depth case studies were used to identify the key social conditions that relate to the prevalence of conflicted and supportive dyads in family networks. Findings showed that the balance of conflict and emotional support in older adults' family networks varied according to the composition of their family network as well as their age, health, income, and gender.

URLhttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jomf.12469
DOI10.1111/jomf.12469

Social dynamics in Swiss society: empirical studies based on the Swiss household panel

TitreSocial dynamics in Swiss society: empirical studies based on the Swiss household panel
Type de publicationBook
Year of Publication2018
AuteursTillmann, R, Voorpostel, M, Farago, P
Volume9
PublisherSpringer Berlin Heidelberg
Place PublishedNew York, NY
ISBN Number978-3-319-89556-7
Résumé

Using longitudinal data from the Swiss Household Panel to zoom in on continuity and change in the life course, this open access book describes how the lives of the Swiss population have changed in terms of health, family circumstances, work, political participation, and migration over the last sixteen years. What are the different trajectories in terms of mobility, health, wealth, and family constellations? What are the drivers behind all these changes over time and in the life course? And what are the implications for inequality in society and for social policy? The Swiss Household Panel is a unique ongoing longitudinal survey that has followed a large sample of Swiss households since 1999. The data provide the rare opportunity to go beyond a snapshot of contemporary Swiss society and give insight into the processes in people’s lives and in society that lie behind recent developments.

URLhttps://www.springer.com/us/book/9783319895567
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-89557-4

Health disparities on the periphery of Ouagadougou

TitreHealth disparities on the periphery of Ouagadougou
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2016
AuteursRossier, C, Soura, ABassiahi, Lankoandé, B, Millogo, RModeste
ÉditeurFarinas, DRamiro, Oris, M
Book TitleNew Approaches to Death in Cities during the Health Transition
Series TitleInternational Studies in Population
Pagination217–241
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedCham, Switzerland
ISBN Number978-3-319-43001-0 978-3-319-43002-7
Résumé

Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso, is currently experiencing rapid population growth, mainly concentrated in the outskirts of the city. Since 2008, the Ouagadougou Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Ouaga HDSS) has followed 80,000 people living in five neighbourhoods on the periphery of the city, half of them living in poor, informal settlements. This urban population faces a complex burden of disease: children under five die mainly from infectious diseases, while the main causes of deaths among adults aged 15–59 are AIDS, cardiovascular diseases and accidents. In this analysis, we explore whether poverty is associated with greater mortality among small children and among adults and we examine how the risk factors associated with the main causes of death in these two age groups vary by socio-economic status. We find that children who are born to uneducated and poor parents are twice as likely to die as their counterparts likely because they have worse access to both preventive and curative health care. Young children living in informal areas are also twice as likely to die compared to others because, everything else being equal, they are more often ill, more often malnourished, and less likely to receive medical care; these outcomes can be related to the unsanitary environment. In contrast, adult mortality is higher in formal neighbourhoods. Since adult health behaviours are similar regardless of neighbourhood (everything else being constant), this excess mortality seems attributable to the relatively higher wealth of households in formal neighbourhoods: affluent adults are more often overweight and more likely to be HIV positive. Better educated adults have a lower risk of dying than others because, despite their higher rates of accidents and HIV infection, they are more likely to seek medical care.

URLhttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-43002-7_12
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-43002-7_12

Vulnerability in Health Trajectories: Life Course Perspectives

TitreVulnerability in Health Trajectories: Life Course Perspectives
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursCullati, S, Burton-Jeangros, C, Abel, T
JournalSwiss Journal of Sociology
Volume44
Nombre2
Pagination203–215
URLhttps://content.sciendo.com/abstract/journals/sjs/44/2/article-p203.xml
DOI10.1515/sjs-2018-0009

Mixed marriages in Switzerland: A test of the segmented assimilation hypothesis

TitreMixed marriages in Switzerland: A test of the segmented assimilation hypothesis
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursPotarca, G, Bernardi, L
JournalDemographic Research
Volume38
Pagination1457–1494
ISSN1435-9871
Résumé

Background: Switzerland hosts one of the largest and most diversified migrant populations in Europe, while currently reinforcing restrictive immigration policies. Knowledge on Swiss immigrant-native marriages, as ultimate signposts of integration, is limited. Objective: We explore the role of origin group and birth cohort in the emergence and dissolution of mixed marriages in Switzerland among both natives and immigrants. Methods: Based on a sample of 12,827 respondents from the 2013 Swiss Family and Generations
Survey, we fit competing-risks models for entry into first marriage, and Cox proportional hazards models for entry into (first) divorce. Results: We find evidence of a segmented marriage market, with migrants from neighbouring Western European countries having higher chances of getting and staying married to a
Swiss native. As opposed to natives, migrants from younger cohorts are progressively less likely to intermarry.
Conclusions: In line with segmented assimilation claims, results suggest differences in integration pathways between immigrant groups. Findings also point to the reactive ethnicity of marginalized groups (e.g., Turks and ex-Yugoslavs) in response to an increasingly hostile immigration climate. Decreasing (inter)marriage with natives among young immigrants reflects shifting marriage market conditions over the last decades.

URLhttps://www.demographic-research.org/volumes/vol38/48/
DOI10.4054/DemRes.2018.38.48
Short TitleMixed marriages in Switzerland

Recognition and Capability: A New Way to Understand How Children Can Achieve Their Rights?

TitreRecognition and Capability: A New Way to Understand How Children Can Achieve Their Rights?
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuteursThomas, N, Stoecklin, D
ÉditeurBaraldi, C, Cockburn, T
Book TitleTheorising Childhood
Series TitleStudies in Childhood and Youth
Pagination73–94
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan
Place PublishedCham, Switzerland
ISBN Number978-3-319-72672-4 978-3-319-72673-1
Résumé

This chapter explores how we can better understand children’s place in society using two theoretical models: recognition theory and the capability approach. It looks at the strengths and weaknesses of each theoretical approach, and how they can be used in combination. While recognition theory focuses on personal identity, the capability approach is primarily concerned with acts that people have the freedom to perform. The link between activities and identities is a central issue, mediated as it is by specific values. The chapter also considers the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child as an example of how children’s place in intergenerational relations is constructed. It concludes with a review of current attempts to use the two theories to inform and guide empirical research with children.

URLhttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-72673-1_4
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-72673-1_4

Children’s multidimensional agency: Insights into the structuration of choice

TitreChildren’s multidimensional agency: Insights into the structuration of choice
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursStoecklin, D, Fattore, T
JournalChildhood
Volume25
Nombre1
Pagination47–62
ISSN0907-5682
Mots-clésagency, capability, children, multidimensionality, structure
Résumé

The structuration of agency that lies behind children’s accounts of their well-being in Australia is highlighted. The three forms of agency that are evidenced from the data – agency as competence, agency as self-determination and agency as practical action in everyday contexts – provide insights regarding the characteristics of social structure. The multidimensionality of agency appears in practical achievements, individual choices and everyday action that are all constituted intersubjectively. Theories dealing with the complex links between choice and reflexive monitoring allow better understanding of agency.

URLhttps://doi.org/10.1177/0907568217743557
DOI10.1177/0907568217743557
Short TitleChildren’s multidimensional agency

Freely Expressed Views: Methodological Challenges for the Right of the Child to be Heard

TitreFreely Expressed Views: Methodological Challenges for the Right of the Child to be Heard
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursStoecklin, D
JournalChild Indicators Research
ISSN1874-897X, 1874-8988
Mots-cléscapabilities, child, Methodological challenges, participation, Right to be heard, subjective well-being
Résumé

The methodological challenges in the research on children’s subjective understandings of well-being are very close to the ones surrounding the implementation of the right of the child to be heard. Therefore, identification of the factors favouring or impeding children’s freely expressed views on the one hand, and preliminary results of research on children’s subjective well-being on the other hand, reciprocally inform each other. The right to be heard is approached from the perspective of capabilities (Stoecklin & Bonvin 2014) identifying factors that are converting this formal freedom into real freedom. They highlight preliminary results of a qualitative study conducted in Switzerland along the procotol of the Child’s Subjective Well-Being study (Hunner-Kreisel et al. 2016). The inclusion of a participative research tool, the “actor’s system” (Stoecklin 2013), has allowed to concentrate on children’s subjective understandings of their experience. The results are not analysed in terms of statistical representativeness, but rather in terms of « structural » features they allow to highlight. The endeavour is methodological. The analysis shows that language itself can be a conversion factor in the implementation of the right to be heard, and similarly a methodological trap inducing specific translations of children’s voices into the official “vocabulary” of well-being. Research protocols should therefore be adapted to the evolving capacities of children, considering that well-being is not given state but rather a subjective feeling stemming from processual social dynamics in which children play a part, even when they have little voice.

URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12187-018-9527-6
DOI10.1007/s12187-018-9527-6

Adult non-communicable disease mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites

TitreAdult non-communicable disease mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuteursP. Streatfield, K, Khan, WA, Bhuiya, A, Hanifi, SMA, Alam, N, Bagagnan, CH, Sié, A, Zabré, P, Lankoandé, B, Rossier, C, Soura, AB, Bonfoh, B, Kone, S, Ngoran, EK, Utzinger, J, Haile, F, Melaku, YA, Weldearegawi, B, Gomez, P, Jasseh, M, Ansah, P, Debpuur, C, Oduro, A, Wak, G, Adjei, A, Gyapong, M, Sarpong, D, Kant, S, Misra, P, Rai, SK, Juvekar, S, Lele, P, Bauni, E, Mochamah, G, Ndila, C, Williams, TN, Laserson, KF, Nyaguara, A, Odhiambo, FO, Phillips-Howard, P, Ezeh, A, Kyobutungi, C, Oti, S, Crampin, A, Nyirenda, M, Price, A, Delaunay, V, Diallo, A, Douillot, L, Sokhna, C, F. Gómez-Olivé, X, Kahn, K, Tollman, SM, Herbst, K, Mossong, J, Chuc, NTK, Bangha, M, Sankoh, OA, Byass, P
JournalGlobal Health Action
Volume7
Nombre1
ISSN1654-9716
Mots-clésadults, Africa, Asia, INDEPTH Network, InterVA, mortality, non-communicable disease, verbal autopsy
Résumé

Background: Mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is a major global issue, as other categories of mortality have diminished and life expectancy has increased. The World Health Organization's Member States have called for a 25% reduction in premature NCD mortality by 2025, which can only be achieved by substantial reductions in risk factors and improvements in the management of chronic conditions. A high burden of NCD mortality among much older people, who have survived other hazards, is inevitable. The INDEPTH Network collects detailed individual data within defined Health and Demographic Surveillance sites. By registering deaths and carrying out verbal autopsies to determine cause of death across many such sites, using standardised methods, the Network seeks to generate population-based mortality statistics that are not otherwise available. Objective: To describe patterns of adult NCD mortality from INDEPTH Network sites across Africa and Asia, according to the WHO 2012 verbal autopsy (VA) cause categories, with separate consideration of premature (15–64 years) and older (65+ years) NCD mortality. Design: All adult deaths at INDEPTH sites are routinely registered and followed up with VA interviews. For this study, VA archives were transformed into the WHO 2012 VA standard format and processed using the InterVA-4 model to assign cause of death. Routine surveillance data also provide person-time denominators for mortality rates. Results: A total of 80,726 adult (over 15 years) deaths were documented over 7,423,497 person-years of observation. NCDs were attributed as the cause for 35.6% of these deaths. Slightly less than half of adult NCD deaths occurred in the 15–64 age group. Detailed results are presented by age and sex for leading causes of NCD mortality. Per-site rates of NCD mortality were significantly correlated with rates of HIV/AIDS-related mortality. Conclusions: These findings present important evidence on the distribution of NCD mortality across a wide range of African and Asian settings. This comes against a background of global concern about the burden of NCD mortality, especially among adults aged under 70, and provides an important baseline for future work.

URLhttps://doi.org/10.3402/gha.v7.25365
DOI10.3402/gha.v7.25365
Short TitleAdult non-communicable disease mortality in Africa and Asia
Identifiant (ID) PubMed25377326

HIV/AIDS-related mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance system sites

TitreHIV/AIDS-related mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance system sites
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuteursP. Streatfield, K, Khan, WA, Bhuiya, A, Hanifi, SMA, Alam, N, Millogo, O, Sié, A, Zabré, P, Rossier, C, Soura, AB, Bonfoh, B, Kone, S, Ngoran, EK, Utzinger, J, Abera, SF, Melaku, YA, Weldearegawi, B, Gomez, P, Jasseh, M, Ansah, P, Azongo, D, Kondayire, F, Oduro, A, Amu, A, Gyapong, M, Kwarteng, O, Kant, S, Pandav, CS, Rai, SK, Juvekar, S, Muralidharan, V, Wahab, A, Wilopo, S, Bauni, E, Mochamah, G, Ndila, C, Williams, TN, Khagayi, S, Laserson, KF, Nyaguara, A, Van Eijk, AM, Ezeh, A, Kyobutungi, C, Wamukoya, M, Chihana, M, Crampin, A, Price, A, Delaunay, V, Diallo, A, Douillot, L, Sokhna, C, F. Gómez-Olivé, X, Mee, P, Tollman, SM, Herbst, K, Mossong, J, Chuc, NTK, Arthur, SS, Sankoh, OA, Byass, P
JournalGlobal Health Action
Volume7
ISSN1654-9716
Mots-clésAfrica, Asia, HIV/AIDS, INDEPTH Network, InterVA, mortality, tuberculosis, verbal autopsy
Résumé

Background: As the HIV/AIDS pandemic has evolved over recent decades, Africa has been the most affected region, even though a large proportion of HIV/AIDS deaths have not been documented at the individual level. Systematic application of verbal autopsy (VA) methods in defined populations provides an opportunity to assess the mortality burden of the pandemic from individual data. Objective: To present standardised comparisons of HIV/AIDS-related mortality at sites across Africa and Asia, including closely related causes of death such as pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and pneumonia. Design Deaths related to HIV/AIDS were extracted from individual demographic and VA data from 22 INDEPTH sites across Africa and Asia. VA data were standardised to WHO 2012 standard causes of death assigned using the InterVA-4 model. Between-site comparisons of mortality rates were standardised using the INDEPTH 2013 standard population. Results: The dataset covered a total of 10,773 deaths attributed to HIV/AIDS, observed over 12,204,043 person-years. HIV/AIDS-related mortality fractions and mortality rates varied widely across Africa and Asia, with highest burdens in eastern and southern Africa, and lowest burdens in Asia. There was evidence of rapidly declining rates at the sites with the heaviest burdens. HIV/AIDS mortality was also strongly related to PTB mortality. On a country basis, there were strong similarities between HIV/AIDS mortality rates at INDEPTH sites and those derived from modelled estimates. Conclusions: Measuring HIV/AIDS-related mortality continues to be a challenging issue, all the more so as anti-retroviral treatment programmes alleviate mortality risks. The congruence between these results and other estimates adds plausibility to both approaches. These data, covering some of the highest mortality observed during the pandemic, will be an important baseline for understanding the future decline of HIV/AIDS.

URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4220131/
DOI10.3402/gha.v7.25370
Short TitleHIV/AIDS-related mortality in Africa and Asia
Identifiant (ID) PubMed25377330

Are the urban poor really worse off? Socieconomic differentials in adult cause specific mortality at the periphery of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

TitreAre the urban poor really worse off? Socieconomic differentials in adult cause specific mortality at the periphery of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuteursRossier, C, Soura, A, Duthé, G, Lankoandé, B, Millogo, R
JournalQuetelet
Volume2
Nombre2
Pagination61–80
ISSN2034-9378
Mots-clésadultes, Afrique au sud du Sahara, migrants, Mortalité, villes
Résumé

Dans les pays les moins développés, tandis que les citadins les plus pauvres sont plus susceptibles de mourir de maladies transmissibles et de blessures, les plus ri­ches pourraient souffrir d’un plus grand fardeau de maladies non transmissibles. Il n’est donc pas évident de savoir si dans les villes africaines les adultes les plus pau­vres sont en moins bonne santé que leurs homologues plus aisés. Dans cet article, nous décrivons les inégalités sociales qui caractérisent la mortalité des adultes (per­sonnes de 15 à 59 ans) à la périphérie de Ouagadougou, capitale du Burkina Faso. En utilisant les données du Système de Surveillance Démographique et Sanitaire de Ouagadougou, de 2009 à 2011, nous vérifions si des facteurs tels que le niveau d’éducation, la pauvreté et la résidence en quartier informel sont liés au risque de décès prématuré chez les adultes. Nous menons cette analyse de la mortalité tou­tes causes confondues, et aussi en considérant trois grandes catégories de causes de décès : les maladies transmissibles, les maladies non transmissibles et les causes externes. En limitant l’analyse aux adultes nés à Ouagadougou, nous avons constaté que le citadin pauvre fait face à une pénalité sanitaire considérable comparative­ment au moins pauvre, ce qui est conforme aux attentes basées sur la littérature existante. Les non-migrants riches font face à des risques plus faibles de décès pré­maturé dû aussi bien aux maladies transmissibles qu’aux maladies non transmissi­bles. Les adultes migrants quant à eux présentent des tendances très différentes qui faussent l’image globale des inégalités de santé dans la ville. Les migrants riches et les migrants vivant dans les quartiers formels courent un plus grand risque de décès de maladies non transmissibles. Ces résultats particuliers sont probablement dus à des effets de sélection liés à la migration, et peut-être aussi à des niveaux plus élevés d’exposition à des maladies non transmissibles par les migrants. Ils ap­pellent à une plus grande attention portée sur les effets de la migration lors d’étu­des sur les différences rurales-urbaines ou les inégalités sociales de santé en Afri­que sub-saharienne.
In the cities of less developed countries, while poorer residents are likely to be at greater risk of dying from communicable diseases and injuries, wealthier residents may suffer from a greater burden of non-communicable diseases. It remains thus unclear whether poorer African adult city dwellers are in worse health than their better-off counterparts. In this paper, we describe the social inequalities that characterize adult mortality (individuals aged 15 to 59) at the periphery of Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. Using data from the Ouagadougou Health and Demographic Surveillance System from 2009 to 2011, we test whether factors such as levels of education, poverty and informal settlement are related to risks of pre­mature deaths among adults. We conduct this analysis for all-cause mortality, and also considered three main categories of causes of death: communicable diseases, non-communicable diseases and external causes. Restricting the analysis to adults born in Ouagadougou, we found that the urban poor face a considerable health penalty compared to the less poor, which is consistent with expectation based on existing literature. Wealthier non-migrants face relatively lower risks of premature death, from both communicable and non-communicable diseases. Adult migrants exhibit very different patterns of mortality, which distort the overall picture of health inequalities in the city. Wealthier adult migrants and migrants living in formal settlements face a greater risk of dying from non-communicable diseases. These particular patterns are probably due to selective in and/or out-migration, and maybe to greater levels of exposure to non-communicable diseases by migrants. These results call for more attention to the effects of migration when studying rural-urban and social differentials of health in Sub-Saharan Africa.

URLhttps://ojs.uclouvain.be/index.php/Quetelet/article/view/2563
DOI10.14428/rqj2014.02.02.03

Non-communicable disease mortality and risk factors in formal and informal neighborhoods, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso: Evidence from a health and demographic surveillance system

TitreNon-communicable disease mortality and risk factors in formal and informal neighborhoods, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso: Evidence from a health and demographic surveillance system
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuteursRossier, C, Soura, ABassiahi, Duthé, G, Findley, S
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume9
Nombre12
ISSN1932-6203
Résumé

The expected growth in NCDs in cities is one of the most important health challenges of the coming decades in Sub-Saharan countries. This paper aims to fill the gap in our understanding of socio-economic differentials in NCD mortality and risk in low and middle income neighborhoods in urban Africa. We use data collected in the Ouagadougou Health and Demographic Surveillance System. 409 deaths were recorded between 2009–2011 among 20,836 individuals aged 35 years and older; verbal autopsies and the InterVA program were used to determine the probable cause of death. A random survey asked in 2011 1,039 adults aged 35 and over about tobacco use, heavy alcohol consumption, lack of physical activity and measured their weight, height, and blood pressure. These data reveal a high level of premature mortality due to NCDs in all neighborhoods: NCD mortality increases substantially by age 50. NCD mortality is greater in formal neighborhoods, while adult communicable disease mortality remains high, especially in informal neighborhoods. There is a high prevalence of risk factors for NCDs in the studied neighborhoods, with over one-fourth of the adults being overweight and over one-fourth having hypertension. Better-off residents are more prone to physical inactivity and excessive weight, while vulnerable populations such as widows/divorced individuals and migrants suffer more from higher blood pressure. Females have a significantly lower risk of being smokers or heavy drinkers, while they are more likely to be physically inactive or overweight, especially when married. Muslim individuals are less likely to be smokers or heavy drinkers, but have a higher blood pressure. Everything else being constant, individuals living in formal neighborhoods are more often overweight. The data presented make clear the pressing need to develop effective programs to reduce NCD risk across all types of neighborhoods in African cities, and suggest several entry points for community-based prevention programs.

URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4262303/
DOI10.1371/journal.pone.0113780
Short TitleNon-communicable disease mortality and risk factors in formal and informal neighborhoods, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Identifiant (ID) PubMed25493649

Surmortalité des enfants dans les quartiers informels de Ouagadougou: effet de composition ou effet de contexte ?

TitreSurmortalité des enfants dans les quartiers informels de Ouagadougou: effet de composition ou effet de contexte ?
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuteursLankoandé, B, Soura, A, Millogo, R, Compaoré, Y, Rossier, C
JournalAfrican Population Studies
Volume30
Nombre1
Pagination2192–2202
ISSN2308-7854
Mots-clésAfrique sub-saharienne, Mortalité des enfants, Observatoire, Ouagadougou, Quartiers informels
Résumé

En Afrique sub-saharienne, les auteurs cherchant à expliquer la surmortalité des enfants des quartiers informels ont rarement essayé de dissocier les caractéristiques sociodémographiques des parents, d’une part, et les effets de contexte, d’autre part, en utilisant une définition « locale » de ces quartiers. Le différentiel de mortalité entre les quartiers formels et informels de la capitale du Burkina Faso est analysé ici à l’aide des données de l’Observatoire de Population de Ouagadougou. Les analyses reposent sur le calcul des taux de mortalité, et sur le modèle de régression de Cox. Au-delà des effets de l’instruction de la mère, de l’âge de la mère, et du niveau de vie du ménage, la résidence dans les quartiers informels est positivement associée à la mortalité des enfants. L’amélioration des conditions sanitaires dans ces quartiers, et un meilleur accès aux services de santé sont deux préalables à la baisse de la mortalité des enfants.

URLhttp://aps.journals.ac.za/pub/article/view/800
DOI10.11564/30-1-800
Short TitleSurmortalité des enfants dans les quartiers informels de Ouagadougou

Abortion incidence between 1990 and 2014: global, regional, and subregional levels and trends

TitreAbortion incidence between 1990 and 2014: global, regional, and subregional levels and trends
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuteursSedgh, G, Bearak, J, Singh, S, Bankole, A, Popinchalk, A, Ganatra, B, Rossier, C, Gerdts, C, Tunçalp, Ö, Johnson, BRonald, Johnston, HBart, Alkema, L
JournalThe Lancet
Volume388
Nombre10041
Pagination258–267
ISSN0140-6736, 1474-547X
Résumé

Background: Information about the incidence of induced abortion is needed to motivate and inform efforts to help women avoid unintended pregnancies and to monitor progress toward that end. We estimate subregional, regional, and global levels and trends in abortion incidence for 1990 to 2014, and abortion rates in subgroups of women. We use the results to estimate the proportion of pregnancies that end in abortion and examine whether abortion rates vary in countries grouped by the legal status of abortion. Methods: We requested abortion data from government agencies and compiled data from international sources and nationally representative studies. With data for 1069 country-years, we estimated incidence using a Bayesian hierarchical time series model whereby the overall abortion rate is a function of the modelled rates in subgroups of women of reproductive age defined by their marital status and contraceptive need and use, and the sizes of these subgroups. Findings: We estimated that 35 abortions (90% uncertainty interval [UI] 33 to 44) occurred annually per 1000 women aged 15–44 years worldwide in 2010–14, which was 5 points less than 40 (39–48) in 1990–94 (90% UI for decline –11 to 0). Because of population growth, the annual number of abortions worldwide increased by 5·9 million (90% UI –1·3 to 15·4), from 50·4 million in 1990–94 (48·6 to 59·9) to 56·3 million (52·4 to 70·0) in 2010–14. In the developed world, the abortion rate declined 19 points (–26 to –14), from 46 (41 to 59) to 27 (24 to 37). In the developing world, we found a non-significant 2 point decline (90% UI –9 to 4) in the rate from 39 (37 to 47) to 37 (34 to 46). Some 25% (90% UI 23 to 29) of pregnancies ended in abortion in 2010–14. Globally, 73% (90% UI 59 to 82) of abortions were obtained by married women in 2010–14 compared with 27% (18 to 41) obtained by unmarried women. We did not observe an association between the abortion rates for 2010–14 and the grounds under which abortion is legally allowed. Interpretation: Abortion rates have declined significantly since 1990 in the developed world but not in the developing world. Ensuring access to sexual and reproductive health care could help millions of women avoid unintended
pregnancies and ensure access to safe abortion.

URLhttps://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(16)30380-4/abstract
DOI10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30380-4
Short TitleAbortion incidence between 1990 and 2014

Mental health and urban living in sub-Saharan Africa: major depressive episodes among the urban poor in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

TitreMental health and urban living in sub-Saharan Africa: major depressive episodes among the urban poor in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuteursDuthé, G, Rossier, C, Bonnet, D, Soura, ABassiahi, Corker, J
JournalPopulation Health Metrics
Volume14
Nombre18
ISSN1478-7954
Mots-clésHealth and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), Major depressive disorder, mental health, Sub-Saharan Africa, Urban health
Résumé

In sub-Saharan African cities, the epidemiological transition has shifted a greater proportion of the burden of non-communicable diseases, including mental and behavioral disorder, to the adult population. The burden of major depressive disorder and its social risk factors in the urban sub-Saharan African population are not well understood and estimates vary widely. We conducted a study in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, in order to estimate the prevalence of major depressive episodes among adults in this urban setting.

URLhttps://doi.org/10.1186/s12963-016-0084-2
DOI10.1186/s12963-016-0084-2
Short TitleMental health and urban living in sub-Saharan Africa

Contemporary use of traditional contraception in sub-Saharan Africa

TitreContemporary use of traditional contraception in sub-Saharan Africa
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursRossier, C, Corker, J
JournalPopulation and Development Review
Volume43
NombreS1
Pagination192–215
ISSN1728-4457
URLhttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/padr.12008
DOI10.1111/padr.12008

Introduction

TitreIntroduction
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuteursTillman, R, Voorpostel, M, Farago, P
ÉditeurTillman, R, Voorpostel, M, Farago, P
Book TitleSocial dynamics in Swiss society: Empirical studies based on the Swiss Household Panel
Volume9
Paginationix–xiii
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedCham, Switzerland
ISBN Number978-3-319-89556-7
URLhttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-319-89557-4

The (un)healthy migrant effect. The role of legal status and naturalization timing

TitreThe (un)healthy migrant effect. The role of legal status and naturalization timing
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuteursPotarca, G, Bernardi, L
ÉditeurTillman, R, Voorpostel, M, Farago, P
Book TitleSocial Dynamics in Swiss Society
Series TitleLife Course Research and Social Policies
Chapter6
Pagination79–93
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedCham, Switzerland
ISBN Number978-3-319-89556-7 978-3-319-89557-4
Résumé

The current evidence on immigrant health in Europe is mixed, with some studies indicating a healthy migrant effect, and others pointing out that immigrants experience worse health outcomes compared to natives. Very few studies however have investigated the potential existence of a migrant health paradox in Switzerland, a country with one of the highest shares of both foreign- and native-born immigrants in Europe, as well as a restrictive and increasingly negative immigration context. Research is also yet to assess the role played by legal status, particularly the acquisition of Swiss citizenship and the life course stage at which it occurs, in moderating the health gradient between natives and immigrants. In this chapter, we use data from the Swiss Household Panel (1999–2014) and a sample of 10,010 respondents between 18 and 60 years old at the time of entry into the panel, to perform multilevel logistic models of self-rated health. Results do not show a migrant health paradox. Migrants display worse health than natives, even after adjusting for differences in socio-economic status. Furthermore, legal status has a significant influence on the health disparities between Swiss natives and immigrants. Whereas immigrants that hold Swiss nationality since birth or those who were naturalized early in life are not significantly different in health compared to natives, immigrants who are not naturalized or were naturalised later in life display worse health than natives.

URLhttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-89557-4_6
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-89557-4_6

Global, regional, and subregional classification of abortions by safety, 2010–14: estimates from a Bayesian hierarchical model

TitreGlobal, regional, and subregional classification of abortions by safety, 2010–14: estimates from a Bayesian hierarchical model
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursGanatra, B, Gerdts, C, Rossier, C, Johnson, BRonald, Tunçalp, Ö, Assifi, A, Sedgh, G, Singh, S, Bankole, A, Popinchalk, A, Bearak, J, Kang, Z, Alkema, L
JournalThe Lancet
Volume390
Nombre10110
Pagination2372–2381
ISSN0140-6736, 1474-547X
Résumé

Background: Global estimates of unsafe abortions have been produced for 1995, 2003, and 2008. However, reconceptualisation of the framework and methods for estimating abortion safety is needed owing to the increased availability of simple methods for safe abortion (eg, medical abortion), the increasingly widespread use of misoprostol outside formal health systems in contexts where abortion is legally restricted, and the need to account for the multiple factors that affect abortion safety. Methods: We used all available empirical data on abortion methods, providers, and settings, and factors affecting safety as covariates within a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate the global, regional, and subregional distributions of abortion by safety categories. We used a three-tiered categorisation based on the WHO definition of unsafe abortion and WHO guidelines on safe abortion to categorise abortions as safe or unsafe and to further divide unsafe abortions into two categories of less safe and least safe. Findings: Of the 55.7 million abortions that occurred worldwide each year between 2010–14, we estimated that 30.6 million (54.9%, 90% uncertainty interval 49.9–59.4) were safe, 17.1 million (30.7%, 25.5–35.6) were less safe, and 8.0 million (14.4%, 11.5–18.1) were least safe. Thus, 25.1 million (45.1%, 40.6–50.1) abortions each year between 2010 and 2014 were unsafe, with 24.3 million (97%) of these in developing countries. The proportion of unsafe abortions was significantly higher in developing countries than developed countries (49.5% vs 12.5%). When grouped by the legal status of abortion, the proportion of unsafe abortions was significantly higher in countries with highly restrictive abortion laws than in those with less restrictive laws. Interpretation: Increased efforts are needed, especially in developing countries, to ensure access to safe abortion. The paucity of empirical data is a limitation of these findings. Improved in-country data for health services and innovative research to address these gaps are needed to improve future estimates.

URLhttps://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(17)31794-4/abstract
DOI10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31794-4
Short TitleGlobal, regional, and subregional classification of abortions by safety, 2010–14
Identifiant (ID) PubMed28964589

Developing a forward-looking agenda and methodologies for research of self-use of medical abortion

TitreDeveloping a forward-looking agenda and methodologies for research of self-use of medical abortion
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursKapp, N, Blanchard, K, Coast, E, Ganatra, B, Harries, J, Footman, K, Moore, A, Owolabi, O, Rossier, C, Shellenberg, K, Wahlin, B, Woodsong, C
JournalContraception
Volume97
Nombre2
Pagination184–188
ISSN00107824
Mots-clésearly medical abortion, Medical abortion self-use, non-prescription medical abortion, research gaps
URLhttp://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0010782417304390
DOI10.1016/j.contraception.2017.09.007

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