Children’s multidimensional agency: Insights into the structuration of choice

TitreChildren’s multidimensional agency: Insights into the structuration of choice
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursStoecklin, D, Fattore, T
JournalChildhood
Volume25
Nombre1
Pagination47–62
ISSN0907-5682
Mots-clésagency, capability, children, multidimensionality, structure
Résumé

The structuration of agency that lies behind children’s accounts of their well-being in Australia is highlighted. The three forms of agency that are evidenced from the data – agency as competence, agency as self-determination and agency as practical action in everyday contexts – provide insights regarding the characteristics of social structure. The multidimensionality of agency appears in practical achievements, individual choices and everyday action that are all constituted intersubjectively. Theories dealing with the complex links between choice and reflexive monitoring allow better understanding of agency.

URLhttps://doi.org/10.1177/0907568217743557
DOI10.1177/0907568217743557
Short TitleChildren’s multidimensional agency

Freely Expressed Views: Methodological Challenges for the Right of the Child to be Heard

TitreFreely Expressed Views: Methodological Challenges for the Right of the Child to be Heard
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursStoecklin, D
JournalChild Indicators Research
ISSN1874-897X, 1874-8988
Mots-cléscapabilities, child, Methodological challenges, participation, Right to be heard, subjective well-being
Résumé

The methodological challenges in the research on children’s subjective understandings of well-being are very close to the ones surrounding the implementation of the right of the child to be heard. Therefore, identification of the factors favouring or impeding children’s freely expressed views on the one hand, and preliminary results of research on children’s subjective well-being on the other hand, reciprocally inform each other. The right to be heard is approached from the perspective of capabilities (Stoecklin & Bonvin 2014) identifying factors that are converting this formal freedom into real freedom. They highlight preliminary results of a qualitative study conducted in Switzerland along the procotol of the Child’s Subjective Well-Being study (Hunner-Kreisel et al. 2016). The inclusion of a participative research tool, the “actor’s system” (Stoecklin 2013), has allowed to concentrate on children’s subjective understandings of their experience. The results are not analysed in terms of statistical representativeness, but rather in terms of « structural » features they allow to highlight. The endeavour is methodological. The analysis shows that language itself can be a conversion factor in the implementation of the right to be heard, and similarly a methodological trap inducing specific translations of children’s voices into the official “vocabulary” of well-being. Research protocols should therefore be adapted to the evolving capacities of children, considering that well-being is not given state but rather a subjective feeling stemming from processual social dynamics in which children play a part, even when they have little voice.

URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12187-018-9527-6
DOI10.1007/s12187-018-9527-6

Adult non-communicable disease mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites

TitreAdult non-communicable disease mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuteursP. Streatfield, K, Khan, WA, Bhuiya, A, Hanifi, SMA, Alam, N, Bagagnan, CH, Sié, A, Zabré, P, Lankoandé, B, Rossier, C, Soura, AB, Bonfoh, B, Kone, S, Ngoran, EK, Utzinger, J, Haile, F, Melaku, YA, Weldearegawi, B, Gomez, P, Jasseh, M, Ansah, P, Debpuur, C, Oduro, A, Wak, G, Adjei, A, Gyapong, M, Sarpong, D, Kant, S, Misra, P, Rai, SK, Juvekar, S, Lele, P, Bauni, E, Mochamah, G, Ndila, C, Williams, TN, Laserson, KF, Nyaguara, A, Odhiambo, FO, Phillips-Howard, P, Ezeh, A, Kyobutungi, C, Oti, S, Crampin, A, Nyirenda, M, Price, A, Delaunay, V, Diallo, A, Douillot, L, Sokhna, C, F. Gómez-Olivé, X, Kahn, K, Tollman, SM, Herbst, K, Mossong, J, Chuc, NTK, Bangha, M, Sankoh, OA, Byass, P
JournalGlobal Health Action
Volume7
Nombre1
ISSN1654-9716
Mots-clésadults, Africa, Asia, INDEPTH Network, InterVA, mortality, non-communicable disease, verbal autopsy
Résumé

Background: Mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is a major global issue, as other categories of mortality have diminished and life expectancy has increased. The World Health Organization's Member States have called for a 25% reduction in premature NCD mortality by 2025, which can only be achieved by substantial reductions in risk factors and improvements in the management of chronic conditions. A high burden of NCD mortality among much older people, who have survived other hazards, is inevitable. The INDEPTH Network collects detailed individual data within defined Health and Demographic Surveillance sites. By registering deaths and carrying out verbal autopsies to determine cause of death across many such sites, using standardised methods, the Network seeks to generate population-based mortality statistics that are not otherwise available. Objective: To describe patterns of adult NCD mortality from INDEPTH Network sites across Africa and Asia, according to the WHO 2012 verbal autopsy (VA) cause categories, with separate consideration of premature (15–64 years) and older (65+ years) NCD mortality. Design: All adult deaths at INDEPTH sites are routinely registered and followed up with VA interviews. For this study, VA archives were transformed into the WHO 2012 VA standard format and processed using the InterVA-4 model to assign cause of death. Routine surveillance data also provide person-time denominators for mortality rates. Results: A total of 80,726 adult (over 15 years) deaths were documented over 7,423,497 person-years of observation. NCDs were attributed as the cause for 35.6% of these deaths. Slightly less than half of adult NCD deaths occurred in the 15–64 age group. Detailed results are presented by age and sex for leading causes of NCD mortality. Per-site rates of NCD mortality were significantly correlated with rates of HIV/AIDS-related mortality. Conclusions: These findings present important evidence on the distribution of NCD mortality across a wide range of African and Asian settings. This comes against a background of global concern about the burden of NCD mortality, especially among adults aged under 70, and provides an important baseline for future work.

URLhttps://doi.org/10.3402/gha.v7.25365
DOI10.3402/gha.v7.25365
Short TitleAdult non-communicable disease mortality in Africa and Asia
Identifiant (ID) PubMed25377326

HIV/AIDS-related mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance system sites

TitreHIV/AIDS-related mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance system sites
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuteursP. Streatfield, K, Khan, WA, Bhuiya, A, Hanifi, SMA, Alam, N, Millogo, O, Sié, A, Zabré, P, Rossier, C, Soura, AB, Bonfoh, B, Kone, S, Ngoran, EK, Utzinger, J, Abera, SF, Melaku, YA, Weldearegawi, B, Gomez, P, Jasseh, M, Ansah, P, Azongo, D, Kondayire, F, Oduro, A, Amu, A, Gyapong, M, Kwarteng, O, Kant, S, Pandav, CS, Rai, SK, Juvekar, S, Muralidharan, V, Wahab, A, Wilopo, S, Bauni, E, Mochamah, G, Ndila, C, Williams, TN, Khagayi, S, Laserson, KF, Nyaguara, A, Van Eijk, AM, Ezeh, A, Kyobutungi, C, Wamukoya, M, Chihana, M, Crampin, A, Price, A, Delaunay, V, Diallo, A, Douillot, L, Sokhna, C, F. Gómez-Olivé, X, Mee, P, Tollman, SM, Herbst, K, Mossong, J, Chuc, NTK, Arthur, SS, Sankoh, OA, Byass, P
JournalGlobal Health Action
Volume7
ISSN1654-9716
Mots-clésAfrica, Asia, HIV/AIDS, INDEPTH Network, InterVA, mortality, tuberculosis, verbal autopsy
Résumé

Background: As the HIV/AIDS pandemic has evolved over recent decades, Africa has been the most affected region, even though a large proportion of HIV/AIDS deaths have not been documented at the individual level. Systematic application of verbal autopsy (VA) methods in defined populations provides an opportunity to assess the mortality burden of the pandemic from individual data. Objective: To present standardised comparisons of HIV/AIDS-related mortality at sites across Africa and Asia, including closely related causes of death such as pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and pneumonia. Design Deaths related to HIV/AIDS were extracted from individual demographic and VA data from 22 INDEPTH sites across Africa and Asia. VA data were standardised to WHO 2012 standard causes of death assigned using the InterVA-4 model. Between-site comparisons of mortality rates were standardised using the INDEPTH 2013 standard population. Results: The dataset covered a total of 10,773 deaths attributed to HIV/AIDS, observed over 12,204,043 person-years. HIV/AIDS-related mortality fractions and mortality rates varied widely across Africa and Asia, with highest burdens in eastern and southern Africa, and lowest burdens in Asia. There was evidence of rapidly declining rates at the sites with the heaviest burdens. HIV/AIDS mortality was also strongly related to PTB mortality. On a country basis, there were strong similarities between HIV/AIDS mortality rates at INDEPTH sites and those derived from modelled estimates. Conclusions: Measuring HIV/AIDS-related mortality continues to be a challenging issue, all the more so as anti-retroviral treatment programmes alleviate mortality risks. The congruence between these results and other estimates adds plausibility to both approaches. These data, covering some of the highest mortality observed during the pandemic, will be an important baseline for understanding the future decline of HIV/AIDS.

URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4220131/
DOI10.3402/gha.v7.25370
Short TitleHIV/AIDS-related mortality in Africa and Asia
Identifiant (ID) PubMed25377330

Are the urban poor really worse off? Socieconomic differentials in adult cause specific mortality at the periphery of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

TitreAre the urban poor really worse off? Socieconomic differentials in adult cause specific mortality at the periphery of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuteursRossier, C, Soura, A, Duthé, G, Lankoandé, B, Millogo, R
JournalQuetelet
Volume2
Nombre2
Pagination61–80
ISSN2034-9378
Mots-clésadultes, Afrique au sud du Sahara, migrants, Mortalité, villes
Résumé

Dans les pays les moins développés, tandis que les citadins les plus pauvres sont plus susceptibles de mourir de maladies transmissibles et de blessures, les plus ri­ches pourraient souffrir d’un plus grand fardeau de maladies non transmissibles. Il n’est donc pas évident de savoir si dans les villes africaines les adultes les plus pau­vres sont en moins bonne santé que leurs homologues plus aisés. Dans cet article, nous décrivons les inégalités sociales qui caractérisent la mortalité des adultes (per­sonnes de 15 à 59 ans) à la périphérie de Ouagadougou, capitale du Burkina Faso. En utilisant les données du Système de Surveillance Démographique et Sanitaire de Ouagadougou, de 2009 à 2011, nous vérifions si des facteurs tels que le niveau d’éducation, la pauvreté et la résidence en quartier informel sont liés au risque de décès prématuré chez les adultes. Nous menons cette analyse de la mortalité tou­tes causes confondues, et aussi en considérant trois grandes catégories de causes de décès : les maladies transmissibles, les maladies non transmissibles et les causes externes. En limitant l’analyse aux adultes nés à Ouagadougou, nous avons constaté que le citadin pauvre fait face à une pénalité sanitaire considérable comparative­ment au moins pauvre, ce qui est conforme aux attentes basées sur la littérature existante. Les non-migrants riches font face à des risques plus faibles de décès pré­maturé dû aussi bien aux maladies transmissibles qu’aux maladies non transmissi­bles. Les adultes migrants quant à eux présentent des tendances très différentes qui faussent l’image globale des inégalités de santé dans la ville. Les migrants riches et les migrants vivant dans les quartiers formels courent un plus grand risque de décès de maladies non transmissibles. Ces résultats particuliers sont probablement dus à des effets de sélection liés à la migration, et peut-être aussi à des niveaux plus élevés d’exposition à des maladies non transmissibles par les migrants. Ils ap­pellent à une plus grande attention portée sur les effets de la migration lors d’étu­des sur les différences rurales-urbaines ou les inégalités sociales de santé en Afri­que sub-saharienne.
In the cities of less developed countries, while poorer residents are likely to be at greater risk of dying from communicable diseases and injuries, wealthier residents may suffer from a greater burden of non-communicable diseases. It remains thus unclear whether poorer African adult city dwellers are in worse health than their better-off counterparts. In this paper, we describe the social inequalities that characterize adult mortality (individuals aged 15 to 59) at the periphery of Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. Using data from the Ouagadougou Health and Demographic Surveillance System from 2009 to 2011, we test whether factors such as levels of education, poverty and informal settlement are related to risks of pre­mature deaths among adults. We conduct this analysis for all-cause mortality, and also considered three main categories of causes of death: communicable diseases, non-communicable diseases and external causes. Restricting the analysis to adults born in Ouagadougou, we found that the urban poor face a considerable health penalty compared to the less poor, which is consistent with expectation based on existing literature. Wealthier non-migrants face relatively lower risks of premature death, from both communicable and non-communicable diseases. Adult migrants exhibit very different patterns of mortality, which distort the overall picture of health inequalities in the city. Wealthier adult migrants and migrants living in formal settlements face a greater risk of dying from non-communicable diseases. These particular patterns are probably due to selective in and/or out-migration, and maybe to greater levels of exposure to non-communicable diseases by migrants. These results call for more attention to the effects of migration when studying rural-urban and social differentials of health in Sub-Saharan Africa.

URLhttps://ojs.uclouvain.be/index.php/Quetelet/article/view/2563
DOI10.14428/rqj2014.02.02.03

Non-communicable disease mortality and risk factors in formal and informal neighborhoods, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso: Evidence from a health and demographic surveillance system

TitreNon-communicable disease mortality and risk factors in formal and informal neighborhoods, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso: Evidence from a health and demographic surveillance system
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuteursRossier, C, Soura, ABassiahi, Duthé, G, Findley, S
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume9
Nombre12
ISSN1932-6203
Résumé

The expected growth in NCDs in cities is one of the most important health challenges of the coming decades in Sub-Saharan countries. This paper aims to fill the gap in our understanding of socio-economic differentials in NCD mortality and risk in low and middle income neighborhoods in urban Africa. We use data collected in the Ouagadougou Health and Demographic Surveillance System. 409 deaths were recorded between 2009–2011 among 20,836 individuals aged 35 years and older; verbal autopsies and the InterVA program were used to determine the probable cause of death. A random survey asked in 2011 1,039 adults aged 35 and over about tobacco use, heavy alcohol consumption, lack of physical activity and measured their weight, height, and blood pressure. These data reveal a high level of premature mortality due to NCDs in all neighborhoods: NCD mortality increases substantially by age 50. NCD mortality is greater in formal neighborhoods, while adult communicable disease mortality remains high, especially in informal neighborhoods. There is a high prevalence of risk factors for NCDs in the studied neighborhoods, with over one-fourth of the adults being overweight and over one-fourth having hypertension. Better-off residents are more prone to physical inactivity and excessive weight, while vulnerable populations such as widows/divorced individuals and migrants suffer more from higher blood pressure. Females have a significantly lower risk of being smokers or heavy drinkers, while they are more likely to be physically inactive or overweight, especially when married. Muslim individuals are less likely to be smokers or heavy drinkers, but have a higher blood pressure. Everything else being constant, individuals living in formal neighborhoods are more often overweight. The data presented make clear the pressing need to develop effective programs to reduce NCD risk across all types of neighborhoods in African cities, and suggest several entry points for community-based prevention programs.

URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4262303/
DOI10.1371/journal.pone.0113780
Short TitleNon-communicable disease mortality and risk factors in formal and informal neighborhoods, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Identifiant (ID) PubMed25493649

Surmortalité des enfants dans les quartiers informels de Ouagadougou: effet de composition ou effet de contexte ?

TitreSurmortalité des enfants dans les quartiers informels de Ouagadougou: effet de composition ou effet de contexte ?
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuteursLankoandé, B, Soura, A, Millogo, R, Compaoré, Y, Rossier, C
JournalAfrican Population Studies
Volume30
Nombre1
Pagination2192–2202
ISSN2308-7854
Mots-clésAfrique sub-saharienne, Mortalité des enfants, Observatoire, Ouagadougou, Quartiers informels
Résumé

En Afrique sub-saharienne, les auteurs cherchant à expliquer la surmortalité des enfants des quartiers informels ont rarement essayé de dissocier les caractéristiques sociodémographiques des parents, d’une part, et les effets de contexte, d’autre part, en utilisant une définition « locale » de ces quartiers. Le différentiel de mortalité entre les quartiers formels et informels de la capitale du Burkina Faso est analysé ici à l’aide des données de l’Observatoire de Population de Ouagadougou. Les analyses reposent sur le calcul des taux de mortalité, et sur le modèle de régression de Cox. Au-delà des effets de l’instruction de la mère, de l’âge de la mère, et du niveau de vie du ménage, la résidence dans les quartiers informels est positivement associée à la mortalité des enfants. L’amélioration des conditions sanitaires dans ces quartiers, et un meilleur accès aux services de santé sont deux préalables à la baisse de la mortalité des enfants.

URLhttp://aps.journals.ac.za/pub/article/view/800
DOI10.11564/30-1-800
Short TitleSurmortalité des enfants dans les quartiers informels de Ouagadougou

Abortion incidence between 1990 and 2014: global, regional, and subregional levels and trends

TitreAbortion incidence between 1990 and 2014: global, regional, and subregional levels and trends
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuteursSedgh, G, Bearak, J, Singh, S, Bankole, A, Popinchalk, A, Ganatra, B, Rossier, C, Gerdts, C, Tunçalp, Ö, Johnson, BRonald, Johnston, HBart, Alkema, L
JournalThe Lancet
Volume388
Nombre10041
Pagination258–267
ISSN0140-6736, 1474-547X
Résumé

Background: Information about the incidence of induced abortion is needed to motivate and inform efforts to help women avoid unintended pregnancies and to monitor progress toward that end. We estimate subregional, regional, and global levels and trends in abortion incidence for 1990 to 2014, and abortion rates in subgroups of women. We use the results to estimate the proportion of pregnancies that end in abortion and examine whether abortion rates vary in countries grouped by the legal status of abortion. Methods: We requested abortion data from government agencies and compiled data from international sources and nationally representative studies. With data for 1069 country-years, we estimated incidence using a Bayesian hierarchical time series model whereby the overall abortion rate is a function of the modelled rates in subgroups of women of reproductive age defined by their marital status and contraceptive need and use, and the sizes of these subgroups. Findings: We estimated that 35 abortions (90% uncertainty interval [UI] 33 to 44) occurred annually per 1000 women aged 15–44 years worldwide in 2010–14, which was 5 points less than 40 (39–48) in 1990–94 (90% UI for decline –11 to 0). Because of population growth, the annual number of abortions worldwide increased by 5·9 million (90% UI –1·3 to 15·4), from 50·4 million in 1990–94 (48·6 to 59·9) to 56·3 million (52·4 to 70·0) in 2010–14. In the developed world, the abortion rate declined 19 points (–26 to –14), from 46 (41 to 59) to 27 (24 to 37). In the developing world, we found a non-significant 2 point decline (90% UI –9 to 4) in the rate from 39 (37 to 47) to 37 (34 to 46). Some 25% (90% UI 23 to 29) of pregnancies ended in abortion in 2010–14. Globally, 73% (90% UI 59 to 82) of abortions were obtained by married women in 2010–14 compared with 27% (18 to 41) obtained by unmarried women. We did not observe an association between the abortion rates for 2010–14 and the grounds under which abortion is legally allowed. Interpretation: Abortion rates have declined significantly since 1990 in the developed world but not in the developing world. Ensuring access to sexual and reproductive health care could help millions of women avoid unintended
pregnancies and ensure access to safe abortion.

URLhttps://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(16)30380-4/abstract
DOI10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30380-4
Short TitleAbortion incidence between 1990 and 2014

Mental health and urban living in sub-Saharan Africa: major depressive episodes among the urban poor in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

TitreMental health and urban living in sub-Saharan Africa: major depressive episodes among the urban poor in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuteursDuthé, G, Rossier, C, Bonnet, D, Soura, ABassiahi, Corker, J
JournalPopulation Health Metrics
Volume14
Nombre18
ISSN1478-7954
Mots-clésHealth and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), Major depressive disorder, mental health, Sub-Saharan Africa, Urban health
Résumé

In sub-Saharan African cities, the epidemiological transition has shifted a greater proportion of the burden of non-communicable diseases, including mental and behavioral disorder, to the adult population. The burden of major depressive disorder and its social risk factors in the urban sub-Saharan African population are not well understood and estimates vary widely. We conducted a study in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, in order to estimate the prevalence of major depressive episodes among adults in this urban setting.

URLhttps://doi.org/10.1186/s12963-016-0084-2
DOI10.1186/s12963-016-0084-2
Short TitleMental health and urban living in sub-Saharan Africa

Contemporary use of traditional contraception in sub-Saharan Africa

TitreContemporary use of traditional contraception in sub-Saharan Africa
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursRossier, C, Corker, J
JournalPopulation and Development Review
Volume43
NombreS1
Pagination192–215
ISSN1728-4457
URLhttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/padr.12008
DOI10.1111/padr.12008

Introduction

TitreIntroduction
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuteursTillman, R, Voorpostel, M, Farago, P
ÉditeurTillman, R, Voorpostel, M, Farago, P
Book TitleSocial dynamics in Swiss society: Empirical studies based on the Swiss Household Panel
Volume9
Paginationix–xiii
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedCham, Switzerland
ISBN Number978-3-319-89556-7
URLhttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-319-89557-4

The (un)healthy migrant effect. The role of legal status and naturalization timing

TitreThe (un)healthy migrant effect. The role of legal status and naturalization timing
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuteursPotarca, G, Bernardi, L
ÉditeurTillman, R, Voorpostel, M, Farago, P
Book TitleSocial Dynamics in Swiss Society
Series TitleLife Course Research and Social Policies
Chapter6
Pagination79–93
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedCham, Switzerland
ISBN Number978-3-319-89556-7 978-3-319-89557-4
Résumé

The current evidence on immigrant health in Europe is mixed, with some studies indicating a healthy migrant effect, and others pointing out that immigrants experience worse health outcomes compared to natives. Very few studies however have investigated the potential existence of a migrant health paradox in Switzerland, a country with one of the highest shares of both foreign- and native-born immigrants in Europe, as well as a restrictive and increasingly negative immigration context. Research is also yet to assess the role played by legal status, particularly the acquisition of Swiss citizenship and the life course stage at which it occurs, in moderating the health gradient between natives and immigrants. In this chapter, we use data from the Swiss Household Panel (1999–2014) and a sample of 10,010 respondents between 18 and 60 years old at the time of entry into the panel, to perform multilevel logistic models of self-rated health. Results do not show a migrant health paradox. Migrants display worse health than natives, even after adjusting for differences in socio-economic status. Furthermore, legal status has a significant influence on the health disparities between Swiss natives and immigrants. Whereas immigrants that hold Swiss nationality since birth or those who were naturalized early in life are not significantly different in health compared to natives, immigrants who are not naturalized or were naturalised later in life display worse health than natives.

URLhttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-89557-4_6
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-89557-4_6

Global, regional, and subregional classification of abortions by safety, 2010–14: estimates from a Bayesian hierarchical model

TitreGlobal, regional, and subregional classification of abortions by safety, 2010–14: estimates from a Bayesian hierarchical model
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursGanatra, B, Gerdts, C, Rossier, C, Johnson, BRonald, Tunçalp, Ö, Assifi, A, Sedgh, G, Singh, S, Bankole, A, Popinchalk, A, Bearak, J, Kang, Z, Alkema, L
JournalThe Lancet
Volume390
Nombre10110
Pagination2372–2381
ISSN0140-6736, 1474-547X
Résumé

Background: Global estimates of unsafe abortions have been produced for 1995, 2003, and 2008. However, reconceptualisation of the framework and methods for estimating abortion safety is needed owing to the increased availability of simple methods for safe abortion (eg, medical abortion), the increasingly widespread use of misoprostol outside formal health systems in contexts where abortion is legally restricted, and the need to account for the multiple factors that affect abortion safety. Methods: We used all available empirical data on abortion methods, providers, and settings, and factors affecting safety as covariates within a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate the global, regional, and subregional distributions of abortion by safety categories. We used a three-tiered categorisation based on the WHO definition of unsafe abortion and WHO guidelines on safe abortion to categorise abortions as safe or unsafe and to further divide unsafe abortions into two categories of less safe and least safe. Findings: Of the 55.7 million abortions that occurred worldwide each year between 2010–14, we estimated that 30.6 million (54.9%, 90% uncertainty interval 49.9–59.4) were safe, 17.1 million (30.7%, 25.5–35.6) were less safe, and 8.0 million (14.4%, 11.5–18.1) were least safe. Thus, 25.1 million (45.1%, 40.6–50.1) abortions each year between 2010 and 2014 were unsafe, with 24.3 million (97%) of these in developing countries. The proportion of unsafe abortions was significantly higher in developing countries than developed countries (49.5% vs 12.5%). When grouped by the legal status of abortion, the proportion of unsafe abortions was significantly higher in countries with highly restrictive abortion laws than in those with less restrictive laws. Interpretation: Increased efforts are needed, especially in developing countries, to ensure access to safe abortion. The paucity of empirical data is a limitation of these findings. Improved in-country data for health services and innovative research to address these gaps are needed to improve future estimates.

URLhttps://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(17)31794-4/abstract
DOI10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31794-4
Short TitleGlobal, regional, and subregional classification of abortions by safety, 2010–14
Identifiant (ID) PubMed28964589

Developing a forward-looking agenda and methodologies for research of self-use of medical abortion

TitreDeveloping a forward-looking agenda and methodologies for research of self-use of medical abortion
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursKapp, N, Blanchard, K, Coast, E, Ganatra, B, Harries, J, Footman, K, Moore, A, Owolabi, O, Rossier, C, Shellenberg, K, Wahlin, B, Woodsong, C
JournalContraception
Volume97
Nombre2
Pagination184–188
ISSN00107824
Mots-clésearly medical abortion, Medical abortion self-use, non-prescription medical abortion, research gaps
URLhttp://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0010782417304390
DOI10.1016/j.contraception.2017.09.007

Involving male partners in maternity care in Burkina Faso: a randomized controlled trial

TitreInvolving male partners in maternity care in Burkina Faso: a randomized controlled trial
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursDaniele, M, Ganaba, R, Sarrassat, S, Cousens, S, Rossier, C, Drabo, S, Ouedraogo, D, Filippi, V
JournalBulletin of the World Health Organization
Volume96
Nombre7
Pagination450–461
ISSN0042-9686
Résumé

Objective: To determine whether an intervention to involve the male partners of pregnant women in maternity care influenced care-seeking, healthy breastfeeding and contraceptive practices after childbirth in urban Burkina Faso. Methods: In a non-blinded, multicentre, parallel-group, superiority trial, 1144 women were assigned by simple randomization to two study arms: 583 entered the intervention arm and 561 entered the control arm. All women were cohabiting with a male partner and had a low-risk pregnancy. Recruitment took place at 20 to 36 weeks’ gestation at five primary health centres in Bobo-Dioulasso. The intervention comprised three educational sessions: (i) an interactive group session during pregnancy with male partners only, to discuss their role; (ii) a counselling session during pregnancy for individual couples; and (iii) a postnatal couple counselling session. The control group received routine care only. We followed up participants at 3 and 8 months postpartum. Findings: The follow-up rate was over 96% at both times. In the intervention arm, 74% (432/583) of couples or men attended at least two study sessions. Attendance at two or more outpatient postnatal care consultations was more frequent in the intervention than the control group (risk difference, RD: 11.7%; 95% confidence interval, CI: 6.0 to 17.5), as was exclusive breastfeeding 3 months postpartum (RD: 11.4%; 95% CI: 5.8 to 17.2) and effective modern contraception use 8 months postpartum (RD: 6.4%; 95% CI: 0.5 to 12.3). Conclusion: Involving men as supportive partners in maternity care was associated with better adherence to recommended healthy practices after childbirth.

URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6022615/
DOI10.2471/BLT.17.206466
Short TitleInvolving male partners in maternity care in Burkina Faso
Identifiant (ID) PubMed29962548

Relationship between perceived organizational support, proactive personality, and perceived employability in workers over 50

TitreRelationship between perceived organizational support, proactive personality, and perceived employability in workers over 50
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursGuilbert, L, Carrein, C, Guénolé, N, Monfray, L, Rossier, J, Priolo, D
JournalJournal of Employment Counseling
Volume55
Nombre2
Pagination58–71
ISSN2161-1920
Mots-clésperceived employability, perceived organizational support, proactive personality, workers over 50
Résumé

This article examines the relationship between perceived organizational support, proactive personality, and perceived employability in a sample of workers over 50. An online questionnaire assessing these variables were filled by 213 employees. Results confirmed that individual dispositions have a significant impact on perceived employability but also indicated that organizational context may have a greater impact on employability. The implications of the findings are discussed, and suggestions are offered for future research on employability.

URLhttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/joec.12075
DOI10.1002/joec.12075

Investigating the link between trait emotional intelligence, career indecision, and self-perceived employability: The role of career adaptability

TitreInvestigating the link between trait emotional intelligence, career indecision, and self-perceived employability: The role of career adaptability
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursUdayar, S, Fiori, M, Thalmayer, AGayle, Rossier, J
JournalPersonality and Individual Differences
Volume135
Pagination7–12
ISSN0191-8869
Mots-cléscareer adaptability, Career decision-making, mediation, Self-perceived employability, Trait emotional intelligence
Résumé

Trait emotional intelligence (TEI) is emerging as a useful and promising individual difference in predicting vocational behavior (e.g., Di Fabio & Saklofske, 2014). Little is yet known about the underlying processes that may lead TEI to associate with career related outcomes. This study investigates the role of career adaptability in mediating the association between TEI and career decision-making difficulties and self-perceived employability, in a sample of Swiss university students (N = 400). The results of a series of path analysis in which we controlled for intelligence, sex and personality showed that career adaptability fully mediated the effect of TEI on self-perceived employability and career decision-making difficulties, in particular the subscales of lack of information and inconsistent information. Our findings shed light on the role of regulatory processes in shaping the effects of TEI on career-related outcomes.

URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886918303787
DOI10.1016/j.paid.2018.06.046
Short TitleInvestigating the link between trait emotional intelligence, career indecision, and self-perceived employability

Exploring differences in well-being across occupation type and skill

TitreExploring differences in well-being across occupation type and skill
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursHofmann, J, Gander, F, Ruch, W
JournalTranslational Issues in Psychological Science
Volume4
Nombre3
Pagination290-303
ISSN2332-2179
Mots-clésengagement, life satisfaction, meaning, occupation, orientations to happiness
Résumé

This study examines three orientations to happiness (OTH) – pleasure, engagement, and
meaning—and their associations to life satisfaction across different occupations and skill
levels associated with certain occupations in a representative sample of the Swiss workforce (N 1140). Utilizing a broad classification of occupational groups, mean level differences in the OTH within and across occupational groups and skill levels were investigated. Results showed that people in higher skill occupations report a higher life satisfaction and a lower orientation to pleasure than those in lower skill occupations. Also, the orientation to meaning was more closely related to life satisfaction in higher skill than in lower skill occupations. With regard to occupational groups, we found a higher life satisfaction in managers and professionals, and further differences among other occupational groups (e.g., higher levels of pleasure in service and sales workers; or higher levels of engagement in craft and related trade workers). Overall, the effects across occupations were relatively small—which is largely consistent with previous findings in Swiss samples. Nonetheless, the differences across skill levels and occupational groups in the OTH could provide additional information in occupational counseling settings. Also, the current study covered all types of jobs (vs. investigating selected occupation groups), thus allowing first insights into the generalizability of results across studies (and cultures).

URLhttps://psycnet.apa.org/fulltext/2018-43625-007.pdf
DOI10.1037/tps0000167

Precariousness profile and career adaptability as determinants of job insecurity: A three-wave study

TitrePrecariousness profile and career adaptability as determinants of job insecurity: A three-wave study
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursUrbanaviciute, I, Udayar, S, Maggiori, C, Rossier, J
JournalJournal of Career Development
Mots-cléscareer adaptability, employability, job insecurity, labor market precariousness
Résumé

The present study compares the mean levels and growth in job insecurity across employees’ precariousness profiles as defined by a combination of perceived employability and financial difficulties. Drawing on the labor market precariousness and workplace stress literature, we hypothesized that employees with the most precarious profile would report elevated levels of job insecurity followed by a growth trend. Moreover, career adaptability was expected to act as a resource for counteracting job insecurity. The study was based on three waves of a longitudinal “Professional Paths” survey (National Centre of Competence in Research LIVES) conducted in Switzerland. The data of 799 professionally active adults were analyzed using latent growth modeling. In line with our hypothesis, the findings showed the highest levels of job insecurity and the most pronounced growth trend among employees with the precarious profile. Interestingly, different career adaptability facets played differing roles in predicting job insecurity, potentially revealing some of its under-researched aspects.

URLhttp://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0894845318791777
DOI10.1177/0894845318791777
Custom 1

{:status: Advance online publication}

Short TitlePrecariousness profile and career adaptability as determinants of job insecurity

European research agenda for career guidance and counselling

TitreEuropean research agenda for career guidance and counselling
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuteursWeber, PC, Katsarov, J, Cohen-Scali, V, Mulvey, R, Nota, L, Rossier, J, Thomsen, R
ÉditeurCohen-Scali, V, Rossier, J, Nota, L
Book TitleNew perspectives on career counseling and guidance in Europe
Pagination219–250
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Place PublishedCham, Switzerland
ISBN Number978-3-319-61475-5 978-3-319-61476-2
Mots-clésCareer Counselling, Career Guidance, Career Practice, Career Profession, literature review, Research Agenda
Résumé

In a changing world, there is a need to reflect about the research basis of career guidance and counselling (CGC) as a professional practice, considering the contributions of various disciplines and research traditions. This paper outlines a possible European research agenda (ERA) to further enhance the knowledge foundation of the CGC practice. The proposed lines of research, which are pronounced in the ERA, are based on a literature review involving 45 researchers concerned with the CGC practice. At three events, approximately 150 researchers from across Europe were engaged in the discussion, what kind of research is needed to enhance the knowledge foundation of the CGC practice. The paper provides a systematic overview of the relevant research fields, and links key research questions to current research endeavours. Due to the necessary
involvement of diverse types of practitioners, policy makers, and researchers from different disciplines to share the CGC practice and contribute to the development of its knowledge basis, the paper calls for open, cooperative and integrative research approaches, including the combination of different research paradigms and methods. The development of the European Research Agenda was co-funded by the European Union through the Lifelong Learning Programme.

URLhttp://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-319-61476-2_14
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-61476-2_14

Pages