Illustrating instrumental variable regressions using the career adaptability – job satisfaction relationship

TitreIllustrating instrumental variable regressions using the career adaptability – job satisfaction relationship
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuteursBollmann, G, Rouzinov, S, Berchtold, A, Rossier, J
JournalFrontiers in Psychology
Volume10
ISSN1664-1078
Mots-clésAffect (emotion, career adaptability, causal inference, instrumental variable (IV), job satisfaction, mood, personality, personality), www
Résumé

This article illustrates instrumental variable (IV) estimation by examining an unexpected finding of the research on career adaptability and job satisfaction. Theoretical and empirical arguments suggest that in the general population, people’s abilities to adapt their careers are beneficial to their job satisfaction. However, a recent meta-analysis unexpectedly found no effect when personality traits are controlled for. We argue that a reverse effect of job satisfaction on career adaptability, originating from affective tendencies tied to personality, might explain this null effect. Our argument implies that the estimates obtained with traditional ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions are biased by endogeneity, a correlation between an explanatory variable and the error term in a regression model. When experimental manipulations are impossible, IV estimations, such as two-stage least squares (2SLS) regressions, are one possible solution to the endogeneity problem. Analyzing three waves of data from a sample of 836 adults, the concurrent and time-lagged effect of job satisfaction on career adaptability was revealed to be more consistent than the reverse. Our results provide an explanation, rooted in affective dispositions, as to why recent meta-analytical estimates unexpectedly found that career adaptability does not predict job satisfaction at the interindividual level. We also discuss IV estimation in terms of its limits, weight the interpretation of its estimates against the temporality criterion for causal inference, and consider its possible extension to analyses of change.

URLhttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01481/full
DOI10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01481

On the use of growth models to study normal cognitive aging

TitreOn the use of growth models to study normal cognitive aging
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuteursGhisletta, P, Mason, F, von Oertzen, T, Hertzog, C, Nilsson, L-G, Lindenberger, U
JournalInternational Journal of Behavioral Development
ISSN0165-0254
Mots-cléswww
Résumé

Growth models (GM) of the mixed-effects and latent curve varieties have become popular methodological tools in lifespan research. One of the major advantages of GM is their flexibility in studying individual differences in change. We scrutinized the change functions of GM used in five years of publications on cognitive aging. Of the 162 publications that we identified, 88% test linear or quadratic polynomials, and fewer than 5% apply functions that are nonlinear in their parameters, such as exponential decline. This apparent bias in favor of polynomial decomposition calls for exploring what conclusions about individual differences in change are likely to be drawn if one applies linear or quadratic GMs to data simulated under a conceptually and empirically plausible model of exponential cognitive decline from adulthood to old age. Hence, we set up a simulation that manipulated the rate of exponential decline, measurement reliability, number of occasions, interval width, and sample size. True rate of decline and interval width influenced results strongly, number of occasions and measurement reliability exerted a moderate effect, and the effects of sample size appeared relatively minor. Critically, our results show that fit statistics generally do not differentiate misspecified linear or quadratic models from the true exponential model. Moreover, power to detect variance in change for the linear and quadratic GMs is low, and estimates of individual differences in level and change can be highly biased by model misspecification. We encourage researchers to also consider plausible nonlinear change functions when studying behavioral development across the lifespan.

URLhttps://doi.org/10.1177/0165025419851576
DOI10.1177/0165025419851576
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Age differences in day-to-day speed-accuracy tradeoffs: Results from the COGITO study

TitreAge differences in day-to-day speed-accuracy tradeoffs: Results from the COGITO study
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursGhisletta, P, Joly-Burra, E, Aichele, S, Lindenberger, U, Schmiedek, F
JournalMultivariate Behavioral Research
Volume53
Nombre6
Pagination842–852
ISSN0027-3171
Mots-clésCOGITO, multilevel vector autoregressive model, reaction time, speed-accuracy tradeoff, www
Résumé

We examined adult age differences in day-to-day adjustments in speed-accuracy tradeoffs (SAT) on a figural comparison task. Data came from the COGITO study, with over 100 younger and 100 older adults, assessed for over 100 days. Participants were given explicit feedback about their completion time and accuracy each day after task completion. We applied a multivariate vector auto-regressive model of order 1 to the daily mean reaction time (RT) and daily accuracy scores together, within each age group. We expected that participants adjusted their SAT if the two cross-regressive parameters from RT (or accuracy) on day t-1 of accuracy (or RT) on day t were sizable and negative. We found that: (a) the temporal dependencies of both accuracy and RT were quite strong in both age groups; (b) younger adults showed an effect of their accuracy on day t-1 on their RT on day t, a pattern that was in accordance with adjustments of their SAT; (c) older adults did not appear to adjust their SAT; (d) these effects were partly associated with reliable individual differences within each age group. We discuss possible explanations for older adults’ reluctance to recalibrate speed and accuracy on a day-to-day basis.

URLhttps://doi.org/10.1080/00273171.2018.1463194
DOI10.1080/00273171.2018.1463194
Identifiant (ID) PubMed29683724

Holistic analysis of the life course: Methodological challenges and new perspectives

TitreHolistic analysis of the life course: Methodological challenges and new perspectives
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursPiccarreta, R, Studer, M
JournalAdvances in Life Course Research
ISSN1040-2608
Mots-clésCluster analysis, Mixed latent Markov models, multistate models, sequence analysis, trajectories, www
Résumé

We survey state-of-the-art approaches to study trajectories in their entirety, adopting a holistic perspective, and discuss their strengths and weaknesses. We begin by considering sequence analysis (SA), one of the most established holistic approaches. We discuss the inherent problems arising in SA, particularly in the study of the relationship between trajectories and covariates. We describe some recent developments combining SA and Event History Analysis, and illustrate how weakening the holistic perspective—focusing on sub-trajectories—might result in a more flexible analysis of life courses. We then move to some model-based approaches (included in the broad classes of multistate and of mixture latent Markov models) that further weaken the holistic perspective, assuming that the difficult task of predicting and explaining trajectories can be simplified by focusing on the collection of observed transitions. Our goal is twofold. On one hand, we aim to provide social scientists with indications for informed methodological choices and to emphasize issues that require consideration for proper application of the described approaches. On the other hand, by identifying relevant and open methodological challenges, we highlight and encourage promising directions for future research.

URLhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1040260818301849
DOI10.1016/j.alcr.2018.10.004
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Development of reserves over the life course and onset of vulnerability in later life

TitreDevelopment of reserves over the life course and onset of vulnerability in later life
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursCullati, S, Kliegel, M, Widmer, E
JournalNature Human Behaviour
Volume2
Nombre8
Pagination551
ISSN2397-3374
Mots-cléswww
Résumé

Cullati and colleagues propose a framework to understand vulnerability in later life as a product of biological, psychological, cognitive, emotional, economical and relational ‘reserves’ built up over a lifetime, which can be called on to buffer against or recover from adversity.

URLhttps://www.nature.com/articles/s41562-018-0395-3
DOI10.1038/s41562-018-0395-3

Cardiovascular symptoms and longitudinal declines in processing speed differentially predict cerebral white matter lesions in older adults

TitreCardiovascular symptoms and longitudinal declines in processing speed differentially predict cerebral white matter lesions in older adults
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursAichele, S, Rabbitt, P, Ghisletta, P
JournalArchives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Volume78
Pagination139–149
ISSN0167-4943
Mots-clésaging, cognitive decline, machine learning, Processing speed, Random forest analysis, White matter lesions, www
Résumé

It is well established that cerebral white matter lesions (WML), present in the majority of older adults, are associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and also with cognitive decline. However, much less is known about how WML are related to other important individual characteristics and about the generality vs. brain region-specificity of WML. In a longitudinal study of 112 community-dwelling adults (age 50–71 years at study entry), we used a machine learning approach to evaluate the relative strength of 52 variables in association with WML burden. Variables included socio-demographic, lifestyle, and health indices—as well as multiple cognitive abilities (modeled as latent constructs using factor analysis)—repeatedly measured at three- to six-year intervals. Greater chronological age, symptoms of cardiovascular disease, and processing speed declines were most strongly linked to elevated WML burden (accounting for ∼49% of variability in WML). Whereas frontal lobe WML burden was associated both with elevated cardiovascular symptoms and declines in processing speed, temporal lobe WML burden was only significantly associated with declines in processing speed. These latter outcomes suggest that age-related WML-cognition associations may be etiologically heterogeneous across fronto-temporal cerebral regions.

URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29960180
DOI10.1016/j.archger.2018.06.010

Fluid intelligence predicts change in depressive symptoms in later life: The lothian birth cohort 1936

TitreFluid intelligence predicts change in depressive symptoms in later life: The lothian birth cohort 1936
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursAichele, S, Ghisletta, P, Corley, J, Pattie, A, Taylor, AM, Starr, JM, Deary, IJ
JournalPsychological Science
Volume29
Nombre12
Pagination1984–1995
ISSN0956-7976
Mots-cléswww
Résumé

We examined reciprocal, time-ordered associations between age-related changes in fluid intelligence and depressive symptoms. Participants were 1,091 community-dwelling older adults from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 study who were assessed repeatedly at 3-year intervals between the ages of 70 and 79 years. On average, fluid intelligence and depressive symptoms worsened with age. There was also a dynamic-coupling effect, in which low fluid intelligence at a given age predicted increasing depressive symptoms across the following 3-year interval, whereas the converse did not hold. Model comparisons showed that this coupling parameter significantly improved overall fit and had a correspondingly moderately strong effect size, accounting on average for an accumulated 0.9 standard-deviation increase in depressive symptoms, following lower cognitive performance, across the observed age range. Adjustment for sociodemographic and health-related covariates did not significantly attenuate this association. This implies that monitoring for cognitive decrements in later life may expedite interventions to reduce related increases in depression risk.

URLhttps://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0956797618804501
DOI10.1177/0956797618804501

Social resources as compensatory cognitive reserve? Interactions of social resources with education in predicting late-life cognition

TitreSocial resources as compensatory cognitive reserve? Interactions of social resources with education in predicting late-life cognition
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursWindsor, TD, Ghisletta, P, Gerstorf, D
JournalThe Journals of Gerontology: Series B
Mots-cléswww
Résumé

AbstractObjective. Access to social relationships has been linked with better cognitive performance. We examined whether social resources interact with educati

URLhttps://academic.oup.com/psychsocgerontology/advance-article/doi/10.1093/geronb/gby143/5237787
DOI10.1093/geronb/gby143

Bootstrap validation of the estimated parameters in mixture models used for clustering

TitreBootstrap validation of the estimated parameters in mixture models used for clustering
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuteursTaushanov, Z, Berchtold, A
JournalJournal de la Société Française de Statistique
Volume160
Nombre1
Pagination114 – 129
ISSN2102-6238
Mots-cléswww
Résumé

When a mixture model is used to perform clustering, the uncertainty is related both to the choice of an optimal model (including the number of clusters) and to the estimation of the parameters. We discuss here the computation of confidence intervals using different bootstrap approaches, which either mix or separate the two kinds of uncertainty. In particular, we suggest two new approaches that rely to some degree on the model specification considered as optimal by the researcher, and that address specifically the uncertainty related to parameter estimation. These methods are especially useful for poorly separated data or complex models, where the selected solution is difficult to recreate in each bootstrap sample, and they present the advantage of reducing the well-known label-switching issue. Two simulation experiments based on the Hidden Mixture Transition Distribution model for the clustering of longitudinal data illustrate our proposed bootstrap approaches.

URLhttp://journal-sfds.fr/article/view/730

Crystallized and fluid intelligence

TitreCrystallized and fluid intelligence
Type de publicationBook
Year of Publication2018
Series EditorGhisletta, P, Lecerf, T
EditionOxford bibliographies in psychology
PublisherOxford University Press
Place PublishedNew York, USA
Mots-cléswww
Résumé

The psychologist Raymond B. Cattell formulated the “hypothesis of fluid and crystallized abilities” in the 1940s, when standardized intelligence tests started being used frequently for selection and management purposes. While fluid intelligence reflects basic cognitive abilities, such as reasoning, which are independent of learning and experience, crystallized intelligence reflects the abilities to use cultural, educational, and vocational knowledge and experience to learn, partially by relying on one's fluid abilities, and subsequently solve problems. Two distinctive features of this account of intelligence are its explicit developmental predictions and its reliance on factor‐analytic techniques for empirical testing of its structure. Evidence stemming from neuropsychology and neurology also partially supports the distinction between fluid and crystallized abilities. Several tasks have been proposed to assess an individuals' crystallized intelligence (e.g., language development, lexical knowledge, general information). However, those most frequently used rely highly on verbal surface knowledge, rather than reflecting broader knowledge.

URLhttp://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199828340/obo-9780199828340-0207.xml

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