Feeling interpersonally controlled while pursuing materialistic goals: A problematic combination for moral behavior

TitreFeeling interpersonally controlled while pursuing materialistic goals: A problematic combination for moral behavior
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursSheldon, KM, Sommet, N, Corcoran, M, Elliot, AJ
JournalPersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin
Volume44
Nombre9
Pagination1330–1349
ISSN0146-1672, 1552-7433
Mots-cléswww
Résumé

We created a life-goal assessment drawing from self-determination theory and achievement goal literature, examining its predictive power regarding immoral behavior and subjective well-being. Our source items assessed direction and energization of motivation, via the distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic aims and between intrinsic and extrinsic reasons for acting, respectively. Fused source items assessed four goal complexes representing a combination of direction and energization. Across three studies (Ns = 109, 121, and 398), the extrinsic aim/extrinsic reason complex was consistently associated with immoral and/or unethical behavior beyond four source and three other goal complex variables. This was consistent with the triangle model of responsibility’s claim that immoral behaviors may result when individuals disengage the self from moral prescriptions. The extrinsic/extrinsic complex also predicted lower subjective well-being, albeit less consistently. Our goal complex approach sheds light on how self-determination theory’s goal contents and organismic integration mini-theories
interact, particularly with respect to unethical behavior.

URLhttp://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0146167218766863
DOI10.1177/0146167218766863

20 years in the world of work: A study of (nonstandard) occupational trajectories and health

Titre20 years in the world of work: A study of (nonstandard) occupational trajectories and health
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuteursGiudici, F, Morselli, D
JournalSocial Science & Medicine
Volume224
Pagination138–148
Date Publishedmar
ISSN02779536
Mots-cléswww
Résumé

In this study, we analyze the Swiss Household Panel data, which used a life history calendar to collect occupational trajectories across the lifespan. The data included the trajectories of 5690 initially healthy Swiss residents and were used to reconstruct the occupational trajectories during the first 20 years in the world of work. A sequence analysis revealed eight distinct types of occupational careers based on three dimensions: type of contract, labor market status and number of simultaneous jobs. The results show that discontinuous occupational trajectories (characterized by continuous jumps between temporary work, long periods of unemployment, social help, inactivity or part-time work) are associated with higher depressive symptoms, lower life course mental health and lower self-reported health during an individual's first 20 years in the world of work.

URLhttps://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0277953619300619
DOI10.1016/j.socscimed.2019.02.002

Developing attitude measures based on respondents’ representations of unfamiliar objects: An application to attitudes toward biodiversity

TitreDeveloping attitude measures based on respondents’ representations of unfamiliar objects: An application to attitudes toward biodiversity
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuteursEisner, L, Clémence, A, Roberts, C, Joost, S, Theler, J-M
JournalField Methods
Volume31
Nombre1
Pagination56–75
ISSN1525-822X, 1552-3969
Mots-cléswww
Résumé

A key challenge in the design of effective survey questionnaires is to write questions that respondents can understand consistently. Recommendations in the questionnaire design literature propose the use of respondents’ own terminology to facilitate comprehension and the response process. In this paper, we propose an innovative questionnaire development method to construct items using respondents’ own terminology. On the basis of statistical analyses of answers to an open-ended question asked in a survey measuring attitudes to biodiversity (N = 351), we first identified the words that respondents associate most frequently with the concept of ‘biodiversity’. We then designed new attitude measures composed of the words identified as being central to representations about biodiversity. These items were tested in another survey using a different sample (N = 467). The results show that the attitude items designed on the basis of a social representation method satisfied validity and reliability quality criteria.

URLhttp://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1525822X18797280
DOI10.1177/1525822X18797280

Income inequality affects the psychological health of only the people facing scarcity

TitreIncome inequality affects the psychological health of only the people facing scarcity
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursSommet, N, Morselli, D, Spini, D
JournalPsychological Science
Volume29
Nombre12
Pagination1911–1921
ISSN0956-7976, 1467-9280
Mots-cléswww
Résumé

Following the status-anxiety hypothesis, the psychological consequences of income inequality should be particularly severe for economically vulnerable individuals. Oddly, however, income inequality is often found to affect vulnerable low-income and advantaged high-income groups equally. We argue that economic vulnerability is better captured by a financial-scarcity measure and hypothesize that income inequality primarily impairs the psychological health of people facing scarcity. First, repeated cross-sectional international data (from the World Values Survey: 146,034 participants; 105 country waves) revealed that the within-country effect of national income inequality on feelings of unhappiness was limited to individuals facing scarcity (≈25% of the World Values Survey population). Second, longitudinal national data (Swiss Household Panel: 14,790 participants; 15,595 municipality years) revealed that the within-life-course effect of local income inequality on psychological health problems was also limited to these individuals (

URLhttp://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0956797618798620
DOI10.1177/0956797618798620

Income inequality, perceived competitiveness, and approach-avoidance motivation

TitreIncome inequality, perceived competitiveness, and approach-avoidance motivation
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuteursSommet, N, Elliot, AJ, Jamieson, JP, Butera, F
JournalJournal of Personality
Volume87
Nombre4
Pagination767–784
ISSN00223506
Mots-cléswww2
Résumé

Objective: Scholars disagree on whether income inequality has incentive or disincentive effects. In the present research, we move beyond such debate and focus on the motivational processes that income inequality predicts. First, income inequality makes economic stratification salient; therefore, it should promote perceived competitiveness. Second, competitiveness can be appraised as both a challenge and a threat; therefore, it should promote both approach and avoidance motivation.
Method: In three studies (N = 2,543), U.S. residents from various ZIP codes reported the extent to which they perceived competitiveness in their town/city (Studies 1–3), as well as their economic achievement goals, achievement motives, and self-regulatory foci (Studies 2–3).
Results: Level of local income inequality was found to be a positive predictor—via increased perceived competitiveness—of other‐approach economic goals, need for achievement, and promotion focus, as well as other‐avoidance economic goals, fear of failure (specifically, the shame/embarrassment component), and prevention focus. Furthermore, actual and perceived income inequality were positively correlated.
Conclusions: The conceptual and empirical work herein is the first to show how the economic environment predicts individuals’ perceptions of competitiveness, influencing personal goals, motives, and orientations. It provides a more nuanced perspective on the implications of income inequality than perspectives currently available.

URLhttp://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/jopy.12432
DOI10.1111/jopy.12432
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War experiences and emerging rights claims in postwar former yugoslavia: The role of generalized conflict exposure and collective anomie

TitreWar experiences and emerging rights claims in postwar former yugoslavia: The role of generalized conflict exposure and collective anomie
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursSpini, D, Morselli, D, Elcheroth, G
JournalEuropean Journal of Social Psychology
Date Publishednov
ISSN00462772
Mots-cléswww
Résumé

Violent conflicts have often been observed to generate social environments in which human rights violations are more easily tolerated and legitimized. However, recent research has documented cases in which communities exposed to violence react with increased condemnations of human rights violations. In this article, we focus on the distinction between generalized and particularized violence. Our findings show that, in the postwar ex-Yugoslavia context, when local communities have been exposed to violence that was generalized across different ethno-national groups, they strongly condemn human rights violations. Multilevel structural equation models show that the relationship between generalized victimization and the condemnation of human rights violations is mediated by a collective sense of anomie. The processes that move from collective exposure to violence to the collective reaffirmation of human rights are more likely to unfold in communities where violence transcended group boundaries than in communities where particular groups were disproportionately affected by the violence.

URLhttp://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ejsp.2549
DOI10.1002/ejsp.2549
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The ‘compliant’, the ‘pacified’ and the ‘rebel’: Experiences with swiss disability insurance

TitreThe ‘compliant’, the ‘pacified’ and the ‘rebel’: Experiences with swiss disability insurance
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuteursPiecek, M, Tabin, J-P, Perrin, C, Probst, I
JournalDisability & Society
Date Publishedjan
ISSN0968-7599, 1360-0508
Mots-cléswww
Résumé

Switzerland’s social policies in the field of disability have been significantly reshaped over the last two decades by reducing the number of allowances awarded and by increasing the recourse to vocational rehabilitation measures. What stances do individuals who experience the implementation of these policies adopt? What kind of tests are they subjected to? How can we explain the posture they adopt – be it ‘compliant’, ‘pacified’ or ‘rebellious’ – when facing the (re)assignations of their identity and professional status? Drawing on interviews conducted with individuals who have recently been involved in programmes set up by Swiss disability insurance, we highlight their uncertainties and concerns relating to their place in society, as well as their reactions to disability insurance’s interventions.

URLhttps://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09687599.2018.1545115
DOI10.1080/09687599.2018.1545115
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DAISIE - OECD Policy Recommendations on Extending Working Lives

TitreDAISIE - OECD Policy Recommendations on Extending Working Lives
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuteursLéime, ÁNí
JournalLIVES Working paper
Volume77.5
Pagination1-15
Date Published05/2019
ISSN2296-1658
Mots-clésExtended working life, gender, OECD, Pensions
Résumé

This Working Paper presents an overview of the OECD’s approach to extended working life, in relation to pensions and employment policy. It briefly outlines the role of the OECD and traces the evolution of OECD policy recommendations on extended working life from 2005 onwards to 2018. It discusses how the OECD recommends policies targeted at governments in terms of pension reforms including raising state pension age and linking pension amounts more closely to earnings, and anti-discrimination legislation; at employers and at improving the employability of older workers. The series of publications Pensions at a Glance, published biennially from 2005 to 2017 contains very little explicit reference to gender inequalities in pensions or indeed to
women, apart from some references to family responsibilities. The 2015 report included a chapter on how incomplete careers affect pension entitlements. The critique of the OECD’s approach from a gender perspective in the academic literature is discussed. It is recommended that the OECD conduct gender-proofing to assess the implications of extended working life policy (OECD, 2017b).

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2019.77.5

DAISIE - Country report: Czech Republic

TitreDAISIE - Country report: Czech Republic
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuteursKřížková, A, Dudová, R
Secondary AuthorsRašticová, M, Bédiová, M
JournalLIVES Working paper
Volume77.4
Pagination1-23
Date Published05/2019
ISSN2296-1658
Mots-clésageing, Czech Republic, employment, Extending working life, gender, Pensions, retirement
Résumé

Policies aimed at extending working lives (EWL) have only been introduced in the Czech Republic over the last 15 years. This report first describes the situation of the 50+ age group in the Czech labour market. In the second part, it maps retirement, employment, pension and other relevant policies in the Czech Republic as well as policy documents supporting active ageing. In
conclusion, the authors suggest that the real or potential impact of EWL policies on the situation of women and men aged 50+ should be approached from an intersectional gender and age
perspective.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2019.77.4

DAISIE - Country report: United Kingdom

TitreDAISIE - Country report: United Kingdom
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuteursJandrić, J, Airey, L, Loretto, W
Secondary AuthorsVickerstaff, S
JournalLIVES Working paper
Volume77.3
Pagination1-32
Date Published05/2019
ISSN2296-1658
Mots-clésEmployment policy, Extended working life, gender, Pensions, retirement, State pension age, UK
Résumé

In recent decades, the extension of working life has become a priority for policy makers in the UK. An ageing population, combined with steady increases in life expectancy, have led to a dramatic growth in the proportion of adults above State Pension age, alongside a shrinkage in the number of working-age adults. This has led to government concerns regarding not only the cost of funding State Pensions, but also the skills shortages that have resulted from the loss of older adults from the labour market via retirement. Successive UK governments have implemented a range of measures designed to encourage individuals to continue in paid work for longer. The tone of policy discourse has shifted towards the individual, with a growing emphasis on the need for individual workers to take responsibility for financial planning for their own retirement.

In this report, we consider and discuss extended working life (EWL) policies in light of current academic research. We start by presenting statistical data on UK employment rates, in order to outline the trends in age, gender and employment in recent decades. We then discuss six policy areas related to extending working life. First, we compare women and men’s participation in the labour market over the life-course. Second, policy changes related to age are discussed, including age discrimination legislation and changes to State Pension age. Third, we consider changes to social security benefits. Fourth, we provide an overview of the UK pensions system, including recent changes to the system, the introduction of occupational pensions and autoenrolment, and opportunities for combining pensions and working. Fifth, we discuss policies related to family and caring (including grandparents’ leave). Sixth, we consider flexible work policies in the context of later-life working. The report concludes with a discussion on the potential gaps in research on extending working lives in the UK national context.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2019.77.3

DAISIE - Country report: Ireland

TitreDAISIE - Country report: Ireland
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuteursLéime, ÁNí, Duvvury, N
JournalLIVES Working paper
Volume77.2
Pagination1-28
Date Published05/2019
ISSN2296-1658
Mots-clésEmployment policy, Extended working life, gender, health, Pensions, precarity
Résumé

This paper presents a discussion of the gender and health impacts of extended working life policies in Ireland. It gives an overview of gendered working patterns in Ireland, focusing particularly on older workers and giving an outline of some of the historical policies that affected women earlier in their working lives, adopting a lifecourse approach in order to account for gender pension and unemployment inequalities. This is followed by an overview of the pension system in Ireland and of gendered patterns and level of coverage. This is followed by a discussion of the policies that have been introduced to extend working life and related pension reforms including health related employment measures and family friendly policies and the gendered division of care labour. There is a brief synopsis of the media debate in Ireland on extended working life policies and pension reforms particularly those related to gender. There is a discussion of the policy and academic literature in gender and extended working life including that on health and precarious employment.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2019.77.2

DAISIE - Country report: Switzerland

TitreDAISIE - Country report: Switzerland
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuteursLe Feuvre, N
JournalLIVES Working paper
Volume77.1
Pagination1-45
Date Published05/2019
ISSN2296-1658
Mots-clésageing, discrimination, employment, Extending working life, gender, Pensions, retirement, Switzerland, working conditions
Résumé

The DAISIE project explores the gendered impacts of policies and practices aimed at extending working life (EWL) in five contrasting national settings (the Czech Republic, Ireland, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK), using a mixed methods research design inspired by insights from lifecourse
and gender studies. The project addresses two significant and timely issues: labour market participation in later life and the influence of labour market and family trajectories on the experiences of older workers in different national and occupational contexts.

This report explores the issue of extending working life in the Swiss context. It begins be mapping the employment patterns of older workers (50+), insisting on the differences in employment histories, working conditions and the transition to employment that are associated with the normative expectations of the dominant “modified male breadwinner” Swiss gender model. The report then goes on to present the three-tier Swiss pension regime and to analyse the consequences of recent – or proposed - policy reforms to this system. It insists on the huge pension gender gap in the Swiss context and analyses the consequences of this gap for the experiences of older workers from different social backgrounds.

The report concludes by summing up the important features of the EWL debate in Switzerland from a gender perspective and identifying gaps in the current state of research on this topic.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2019.77.1

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