Snakes and Ladders: The combined effect of qualifications and marriage on the employment trajectories of Peruvian graduates in Switzerland

TitreSnakes and Ladders: The combined effect of qualifications and marriage on the employment trajectories of Peruvian graduates in Switzerland
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursSeminario, R, Le Feuvre, N
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume63
Pagination1–27
PublisherNCCR LIVES
Mots-clésbi-national marriages, employment transitions, highly skilled migration, international student migration, Switzerland
Résumé

Research on the risks of under- or unemployment faced by highly qualified non-EU immigrants to Switzerland has focused on the absence of recognition of their foreign qualifications as a major source of vulnerability in the host country. The aim of this paper is to study the employment trajectories of a specific group of migrants who have graduated from a Swiss higher education (HE) institution. Drawing on a life-course perspective, the paper is based on sixteen biographical interviews with a diverse group of highly skilled Peruvian men and women living in Switzerland, after having graduated from a Swiss HE institution. We identify three ideal-type trajectories of migrant graduates with a Swiss HE qualification, based on their field of study, their route of access to formal residential status (essential employment clause / bi-national marriage) and the domestic division of labor and care responsibilities within their households. We show that obtaining a Swiss HE qualification is rarely enough to guarantee non-European graduates access to a stable job that is commensurate to their qualifications. The ability of these Swiss-trained migrants to translate their educational credentials into favorable professional outcomes is highly dependent on family formation patterns and gender arrangements. Some routes to formal residential rights in Switzerland after graduation would seem to cancel out the advantages associated with having a Swiss qualification and lead to long-term precarious employment experiences, especially for female graduates from the humanities and social sciences who receive residential qualifications through marriage to a Swiss or EU national, rather than on the basis of their own contribution to the Swiss labor market.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2017.63

Arbeitsmarkt, Prekarisierung und Armut in Basel-Stadt. Entwicklungen und Herausforderungen

TitreArbeitsmarkt, Prekarisierung und Armut in Basel-Stadt. Entwicklungen und Herausforderungen
Type de publicationBook
Year of Publication2016
Series EditorDittmann, J, Müller-Herrmann, S, Knöpfel, C
PublisherSoziothek
Place PublishedBern, Switzerland
Mots-clésArbeitsmarkt, Armut
Résumé

Armut und Erwerbslosigkeit hängen eng miteinander zusammen. Dort, wo viele Menschen ohne Arbeit sind, ist auch die Armut meistens hoch. Eine hohe Arbeitsmarktintegration mindert dagegen das Armutsrisiko. Doch in den letzten Jahren sind in der Schweiz die Phänomene erwerbsbezogener Armut, d. h. Working Poor und prekäre Beschäftigung, stärker ins Blickfeld des öffentlichen Interesses gerückt. In der Schweiz und auch in Basel ist deutlich spürbar, wie sich der Arbeitsmarkt weiter verändert : Durch den anhaltenden technologischen Fortschritt entfallen besonders in produktionsstarken Branchen immer mehr Arbeiten. Die Anforderungen an die Qualifikation von Arbeitnehmer /- innen steigen und wandeln sich schneller als früher.

Refereed DesignationNon-Refereed

Approche séquentielle multidimensionnelle de l'activation du statut-maître sexué lors de la transition à la parentalité

TitreApproche séquentielle multidimensionnelle de l'activation du statut-maître sexué lors de la transition à la parentalité
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2016
AuteursGauthier, J-A, Valarino, I
Book TitleDevenir parent, devenir inégaux, transition à la parentalité et inégalités de genre
EditionFirst
Pagination48-73
PublisherSeismo
Place PublishedZurich, Switzerland
Mots-clésgender, master status, parenthoodd, sequence analysis
Résumé

La division du travail social représente un des éléments centraux du fonctionnement et de la transformation des sociétés humaines. Le corollaire direct de la spécialisation fonctionnelle est l'augmentation du nombre des rôles sociaux possibles et l'accroissement de leur complémentarité et de leur interdépendance (Durkheim, 1893). Pourtant, en dépit des déclarations d'intention, des lois et règlements de bon nombre d'institutions des sociétés post-industrielles en faveur de l’égalité entre les sexes, l'assimilation (plus ou moins rigide) des individus de sexe féminin avec les rôles familiaux et ceux de sexe masculin avec ceux liés au travail salarié reste la norme (Held & Levy, 1975; Kahn, 2010). Une partie de la variation du positionnement social des individus peut s'expliquer au moyen de la notion de statut maître, qui affirme que certains statuts sont prioritaires par rapport à d'autres (Hughes, 1945). Si on considère l'importance du principe de l'interdépendance des vies individuelles (Elder et al., 2003) et les apports des études genre à la sociologie des parcours de vie (Han & Moen, 1999 ; Moen & Han, 2001 ; Moen & Orrange, 2002), il faut envisager que la hiérarchisation de ces statuts est le produit d'un mécanisme plus général de domination (socialement construite) de certaines sphères d'activité sur d'autres qui a un effet structurant sur les profils de participation individuels (Krüger & Levy, 2001).

Refereed DesignationRefereed

The impact of co-residence trajectories on personal networks in the transition to adulthood: A comparative perspective

TitreThe impact of co-residence trajectories on personal networks in the transition to adulthood: A comparative perspective
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2017
AuteursAeby, G, Gauthier, J-A, Gouveia, R, Ramos, V, Wall, K
ÉditeurCesnuityté, V, Lück, D, Widmer, E
Book TitleFamily continuity and change: Contemporary European perspectives
Series Title10.1057/978-1-137-59028-2_10
EditionFirst
Pagination211-242
PublisherPalgrave
Place PublishedBasingstoke, United Kingdom
Mots-clésinternational comparison, life course, personal network, sequence analysis
Résumé

Over the life course, individuals develop personal networks which provide essential resources - sporadically or on a daily basis - such as instrumental, emotional, and informational support. Those personal networks are composed of family (primary and extended kin) and non-family ties (friends, colleagues, acquaintances) (Pahl & Spencer, 2004). The prominence of specific ties varies across the life course depending on life stages, transitions and events. Following the linked lives principles (Elder, Kirkpatrick Johnson, & Crosnoe, 2003), these transitions trigger changes in household composition, promoting different types of relational interdependency. The level of interdependency with some household members may have a cumulative effect by strengthening these bonds, whereas with others the effect may be more ephemeral and lead to the exclusion of these ties in current personal networks. Thus co-residence trajectories, such as the experience of growing up in a two or one-parent family, leaving the parental home early or late, moving in with a partner or living alone, becoming a parent, divorcing, etc., will differentially influence the composition of personal networks.

Refereed DesignationRefereed

L'intersectionnalité: Pour une pensée contre-hégémonique

TitreL'intersectionnalité: Pour une pensée contre-hégémonique
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2016
AuteursFassa Recrosio, F, Lépinard, E, Escoda, MRoca i
ÉditeurFassa Recrosio, F, Lépinard, E, Escoda, MRoca i
Book TitleL'intersectionnalité: Enjeux théoriques et politiques
EditionFirst
Pagination7-26
PublisherLa Dispute (le genre du monde)
Place PublishedParis, France
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Organisational culture and everyday working life

TitreOrganisational culture and everyday working life
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2016
AuteursFassa Recrosio, F, Carral, MDel Rio, Bataille, P
ÉditeurCukut Krilić, S, Petrović, T, Hočevar, DKnežević, Istenič, MČernič
Book TitleOrganisational culture and everyday working life: Quantitative and qualitative analysis in six European Countries
Series TitleGarcia Woriking Papers
EditionFirst
Nombre15
Pagination145-192
PublisherGarcia
Place PublishedTrento, Italy
Refereed DesignationNon-Refereed

The geography of social links among a young cohort in Switzerland

TitreThe geography of social links among a young cohort in Switzerland
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursBrändle, K
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume58
Pagination1-31
PublisherNCCR LIVES
Place PublishedLausanne, Switzerland
ISSN2296-1658
Mots-clésFrequent contact networks, Geographical distance, Network spatial dispersion, social networks
Résumé

Small world theories and modern communication facilities convey the impression of a connected world where geographical boundaries have lost their importance and where everyone can reach everyone else in just a few steps, overcoming large geographical distances apparently with ease. Most studies on network processes, like, for instance, the accumulation of (dis)advantage in network clusters, focus on topological factors only, ignoring geography, while work on network geography often does not attempt to explain the large variance in link distance. This article analyses the geography of everyday links of a young cohort in Switzerland, integrating several levels of analysis: individual characteristics (micro-level), extended ego networks (intermediate level), and functional regions (aggregate or macro level). Our results show that everyday links are very close, and, for our young sample, get larger with age. Residential mobility shows an effect limited in time. However, distance of links is not only a personal, but also a network characteristic; some individual characteristics only have an effect when cumulated at the network level. An analysis of cross-regional links showed that social links among young people in Switzerland are heavily segregated by language and structured along canton borders, but also determined by the type of region of residence. Thus, while it is crucial to take geography into account when analyzing real-world social networks, link distance alone is not sufficient to render the complexity of social ties.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2017.58
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Families and personal networks: An international comparative perspective

TitreFamilies and personal networks: An international comparative perspective
Type de publicationBook
Year of Publication2018
Series EditorWall, K, Widmer, E, Gauthier, J-A, Cesnuityté, V, Gouveia, R
PublisherPalgrave McMillan
Place PublishedLondon, United Kingdom
Mots-clésbiographical and social constraints, individualization, kinship decline, late modernity, national context., personal and family networks
Résumé

This book critically assesses the main features of the modernization of family life and personal relationships by examining and comparing three European countries with different social and political pathways: Portugal, Switzerland and Lithuania. Drawing on national surveys of family trajectories and social networks, the contributors highlight personal and family relationships through the lens of network and life course perspectives as well as gender and generational perspectives. Providing innovative, comparative findings on families and personal networks through the use of diverse methodologies, this edited collection will be of interest to scholars, students and policymakers across a range of social science disciplines.

URLhttps://www.palgrave.com/us/book/9781349952625
DOI10.1057/978-1-349-95263-2
Refereed DesignationNon-Refereed

A cause-of-death decomposition of the young adult mortality hump

TitreA cause-of-death decomposition of the young adult mortality hump
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursRemund, A, Riffe, T, Camarda, CGiovanni
JournalMPIDR Working Papers
Ticket7
Date Publishedmar
PublisherMax Planck Institute for Demographic Research
Place PublishedRostock, Germany
Résumé

We propose a method to decompose the young adult mortality hump by cause of death. This method is based on a flexible shape-decomposition of mortality rates that separates cause-of-death contributions to the hump from senescent mortality. We apply the method to US males and females from 1959 to 2010. Results show divergences between time trends of hump and observed deaths, both for all-cause and cause-specific mortality. The study of the hump shape reveals age, period and cohort effects, suggesting that it is formed by a complex combination of different forces of biological and socioeconomic nature. Male and female humps share some traits in all-cause shape and trend, but also differ by their overall magnitude and cause-specific contributions. Notably, among males the contributions of traffic and other accidents were progressively replaced by those of suicides, homicides and poisonings, whereas among females traffic accidents remained the major contributor to the hump.

URLhttp://www.demogr.mpg.de/En/projects_publications/publications_1904/mpidr_working_papers/a_cause_of_
Refereed DesignationNon-Refereed

Stärkt die aktivierende Sozialpolitik das Recht auf menschenwürdige Arbeit?

TitreStärkt die aktivierende Sozialpolitik das Recht auf menschenwürdige Arbeit?
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2017
AuteursBonvin, J-M
Éditeur,
Book TitleSozialalmanach: Recht auf Arbeit
Pagination111-123
PublisherCaritas
Place PublishedLuzern, Switzerland
Refereed DesignationNon-Refereed

Protezione sociale, invecchiamento della popolazione e migrazioni

TitreProtezione sociale, invecchiamento della popolazione e migrazioni
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2017
AuteursBonvin, J-M, Martinelli, A
ÉditeurRossi, S
Book TitleL’economia elvetica nella globalizzazione
Pagination105-126
PublisherArmando Dadò
Place PublishedLocarno, Switzerland
Refereed DesignationNon-Refereed

Reformieren durch investieren, Chancen und Grenzen der Sozialinvestitionsstaat in der Schweiz – Investir dans la protection sociale, atouts et limites pour la Suisse

TitreReformieren durch investieren, Chancen und Grenzen der Sozialinvestitionsstaat in der Schweiz – Investir dans la protection sociale, atouts et limites pour la Suisse
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2017
AuteursTabin, J-P
ÉditeurBonvin, J-M, Dahmen, S
Book TitleUne nouvelle doxa: l'investissement social
EditionFirst
Pagination93-107
PublisherSeismo
Place PublishedZürich, Switzerland
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Keep Calm and Learn Multilevel Logistic Modeling: A Simplified Three-Step Procedure Using Stata, R, and Mplus and SPSS

TitreKeep Calm and Learn Multilevel Logistic Modeling: A Simplified Three-Step Procedure Using Stata, R, and Mplus and SPSS
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursSommet, N, Morselli, D
JournalInternational Review of Social Psychology
Volume30
Ticket1
Pagination203-218
Date Published09/2017
Mots-clésgrand-mean centering and cluster-mean centering, intraclass correlation coefficient, Justin Bieber, likelihood ratio test and random random slope variance, Logistic regression, multilevel logistic modeling, three-step simplified procedure
Résumé

The present paper aims to introduce multilevel logistic regression analysis in a simple and practical way. First, we introduce the basic principles of logistic regression analysis (conditional probability, logit transformation, odds ratio). Second, we discuss the two fundamental implications of running this kind of analysis with a nested data structure: In multilevel logistic regression, the odds that the outcome variable equals one (rather than zero) may vary from one cluster to another (i.e., the intercept may vary) and the effect of a lower-level variable may also vary from one cluster to another (i.e., the slope may vary). Third and finally, we provide a simplified three-step “turnkey” procedure for multilevel logistic regression modeling: PRELIMINARY PHASE: Cluster- or grand-mean centering variables; STEP #1: Running an empty model and calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC); STEP #2 Running a constrained and an augmented intermediate model and performing a likelihood ratio test to determine whether considering the cluster-based variation of the effect of the lower-level variable improves the model fit; STEP #3 Running a final model and interpreting the odds ratio and confidence intervals to determine whether data support your hypothesis. Command syntax for Stata, R, Mplus, and SPSS are included. These steps will be applied to a study on Justin Bieber, because everybody like Justin Bieber.

DOI10.5334/irsp.90
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Corps Légitime

TitreCorps Légitime
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2016
AuteursLe Goff, IBoni-
Book TitleEncyclopédie critique du genre
EditionFirst
Pagination159-169
PublisherLa Découverte
Place PublishedParis, France
Mots-clésbody, gender, hegemonic masculinity, intersectionality
Résumé

How are gender, « race » and class constantly involving and producing a social hierarchy of bodies, that contributes to differentiate individuals and social groups through their body attributes, their sanity practices, their beauty norms ? By studying « legitimate bodies », this paper deals with the socio historical processes involved in the making and the naturalization of differences between bodies, especially between masculine and feminine bodies, but also between « white » and racialized bodies. It studies how the invention and the celebration of a « genuine masculinity » and the control and medicalization of women’s bodies have interacted and have nurtured one another up to the contemporary period. It also emphasizes how – in very different contexts of socialization such as children’s education and labor markets - norms and images related to legitimate and dominating bodies are constantly produced and how these norms and images circulate and « do » gender, « race » and class.

Refereed DesignationRefereed

L'invisible "sale boulot" du conseil en management

TitreL'invisible "sale boulot" du conseil en management
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2016
AuteursLe Goff, IBoni-
ÉditeurCalderon, J-A, Demailly, L, Muller, S
Book TitleAux marges du travail
Series TitleLE travail en débats
Pagination35-49
PublisherOctarès Editions
Place PublishedToulouse, France
Mots-clésconsultant.e.s, réel du travail, Sale boulot, savoir faire discret, travail invisible
Résumé

En s’appuyant sur une recherche doctorale (encadré), ce chapitre souhaite explorer certains aspects du travail réalisé par des salarié-e-s qui appartiennent aux fractions les plus riches du salariat (Godechot 2007) : Comment travaille-t-on à la mise en ordre des activités économiques ? Comment faire le travail qui consiste notamment à supprimer celui des autres ? On reviendra tout d’abord le « réel » du travail de conseil en gestion, pour interroger le statut et la perception de certaines activités, relevant, aux yeux des consultants, du « sale boulot » et en particulier les interventions liées directement à la suppression du « boulot des autres ». Il s'agit ensuite de comprendre comment est construite l’invisibilité de ce sale boulot et ce qui aide à sa mise à distance.

Refereed DesignationRefereed

Les façades symboliques du conseil en gestion

TitreLes façades symboliques du conseil en gestion
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuteursLe Goff, IBoni-
JournalImages du travail Travail des images
PaginationAdvance online publication
Date Publishedfeb
Mots-clésinstitutional façades, management, visual studies
Résumé

This article deals with the importance of iconography, in the institutional and personal communication of management consultants. Based on two groups of iconographic resources (one of a French pioneer firm of the 50’s and one of a contemporary firm), the study analyzes the importance and the narrative functions of images, beginning with the early stages of the development of the sector. In this professional area, images turn out to be helpful resources to build legitimate “institutional façades” as well as to produce specific professional norms regarding body and appearance. Imposing specific social constraints for both male and female consultants, these norms are not gender neutral and participate to the resistance of gender barriers and inequality.

Refereed DesignationRefereed