DAISIE - OECD Policy Recommendations on Extending Working Lives

TitreDAISIE - OECD Policy Recommendations on Extending Working Lives
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuteursLéime, ÁNí
JournalLIVES Working paper
Volume77.5
Pagination1-15
Date Published05/2019
ISSN2296-1658
Mots-clésExtended working life, gender, OECD, Pensions
Résumé

This Working Paper presents an overview of the OECD’s approach to extended working life, in relation to pensions and employment policy. It briefly outlines the role of the OECD and traces the evolution of OECD policy recommendations on extended working life from 2005 onwards to 2018. It discusses how the OECD recommends policies targeted at governments in terms of pension reforms including raising state pension age and linking pension amounts more closely to earnings, and anti-discrimination legislation; at employers and at improving the employability of older workers. The series of publications Pensions at a Glance, published biennially from 2005 to 2017 contains very little explicit reference to gender inequalities in pensions or indeed to
women, apart from some references to family responsibilities. The 2015 report included a chapter on how incomplete careers affect pension entitlements. The critique of the OECD’s approach from a gender perspective in the academic literature is discussed. It is recommended that the OECD conduct gender-proofing to assess the implications of extended working life policy (OECD, 2017b).

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2019.77.5

DAISIE - Country report: Czech Republic

TitreDAISIE - Country report: Czech Republic
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuteursKřížková, A, Dudová, R
Secondary AuthorsRašticová, M, Bédiová, M
JournalLIVES Working paper
Volume77.4
Pagination1-23
Date Published05/2019
ISSN2296-1658
Mots-clésageing, Czech Republic, employment, Extending working life, gender, Pensions, retirement
Résumé

Policies aimed at extending working lives (EWL) have only been introduced in the Czech Republic over the last 15 years. This report first describes the situation of the 50+ age group in the Czech labour market. In the second part, it maps retirement, employment, pension and other relevant policies in the Czech Republic as well as policy documents supporting active ageing. In
conclusion, the authors suggest that the real or potential impact of EWL policies on the situation of women and men aged 50+ should be approached from an intersectional gender and age
perspective.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2019.77.4

DAISIE - Country report: United Kingdom

TitreDAISIE - Country report: United Kingdom
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuteursJandrić, J, Airey, L, Loretto, W
Secondary AuthorsVickerstaff, S
JournalLIVES Working paper
Volume77.3
Pagination1-32
Date Published05/2019
ISSN2296-1658
Mots-clésEmployment policy, Extended working life, gender, Pensions, retirement, State pension age, UK
Résumé

In recent decades, the extension of working life has become a priority for policy makers in the UK. An ageing population, combined with steady increases in life expectancy, have led to a dramatic growth in the proportion of adults above State Pension age, alongside a shrinkage in the number of working-age adults. This has led to government concerns regarding not only the cost of funding State Pensions, but also the skills shortages that have resulted from the loss of older adults from the labour market via retirement. Successive UK governments have implemented a range of measures designed to encourage individuals to continue in paid work for longer. The tone of policy discourse has shifted towards the individual, with a growing emphasis on the need for individual workers to take responsibility for financial planning for their own retirement.

In this report, we consider and discuss extended working life (EWL) policies in light of current academic research. We start by presenting statistical data on UK employment rates, in order to outline the trends in age, gender and employment in recent decades. We then discuss six policy areas related to extending working life. First, we compare women and men’s participation in the labour market over the life-course. Second, policy changes related to age are discussed, including age discrimination legislation and changes to State Pension age. Third, we consider changes to social security benefits. Fourth, we provide an overview of the UK pensions system, including recent changes to the system, the introduction of occupational pensions and autoenrolment, and opportunities for combining pensions and working. Fifth, we discuss policies related to family and caring (including grandparents’ leave). Sixth, we consider flexible work policies in the context of later-life working. The report concludes with a discussion on the potential gaps in research on extending working lives in the UK national context.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2019.77.3

DAISIE - Country report: Ireland

TitreDAISIE - Country report: Ireland
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuteursLéime, ÁNí, Duvvury, N
JournalLIVES Working paper
Volume77.2
Pagination1-28
Date Published05/2019
ISSN2296-1658
Mots-clésEmployment policy, Extended working life, gender, health, Pensions, precarity
Résumé

This paper presents a discussion of the gender and health impacts of extended working life policies in Ireland. It gives an overview of gendered working patterns in Ireland, focusing particularly on older workers and giving an outline of some of the historical policies that affected women earlier in their working lives, adopting a lifecourse approach in order to account for gender pension and unemployment inequalities. This is followed by an overview of the pension system in Ireland and of gendered patterns and level of coverage. This is followed by a discussion of the policies that have been introduced to extend working life and related pension reforms including health related employment measures and family friendly policies and the gendered division of care labour. There is a brief synopsis of the media debate in Ireland on extended working life policies and pension reforms particularly those related to gender. There is a discussion of the policy and academic literature in gender and extended working life including that on health and precarious employment.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2019.77.2

DAISIE - Country report: Switzerland

TitreDAISIE - Country report: Switzerland
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuteursLe Feuvre, N
JournalLIVES Working paper
Volume77.1
Pagination1-45
Date Published05/2019
ISSN2296-1658
Mots-clésageing, discrimination, employment, Extending working life, gender, Pensions, retirement, Switzerland, working conditions
Résumé

The DAISIE project explores the gendered impacts of policies and practices aimed at extending working life (EWL) in five contrasting national settings (the Czech Republic, Ireland, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK), using a mixed methods research design inspired by insights from lifecourse
and gender studies. The project addresses two significant and timely issues: labour market participation in later life and the influence of labour market and family trajectories on the experiences of older workers in different national and occupational contexts.

This report explores the issue of extending working life in the Swiss context. It begins be mapping the employment patterns of older workers (50+), insisting on the differences in employment histories, working conditions and the transition to employment that are associated with the normative expectations of the dominant “modified male breadwinner” Swiss gender model. The report then goes on to present the three-tier Swiss pension regime and to analyse the consequences of recent – or proposed - policy reforms to this system. It insists on the huge pension gender gap in the Swiss context and analyses the consequences of this gap for the experiences of older workers from different social backgrounds.

The report concludes by summing up the important features of the EWL debate in Switzerland from a gender perspective and identifying gaps in the current state of research on this topic.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2019.77.1

Obdachlosigkeit, Wohnungslosigkeit und Prekäres wohnen. Ausmass, Profil und Bedarf in der Region Basel

TitreObdachlosigkeit, Wohnungslosigkeit und Prekäres wohnen. Ausmass, Profil und Bedarf in der Region Basel
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuteursDrilling, M
Secondary AuthorsDittmann, J, Bischoff, T
Tertiary AuthorsTemesvary, Z
JournalLIVES Working paper
Volume76
Pagination1-65
Date Published04/2019
ISSN2296-1658
Mots-clésArmut, Obdachlosigkeit, Wohnungslosigkeit
Résumé

Über Ausmass und Struktur von Obdachlosigkeit in der Schweiz gibt es aktuell wenig empirische Erkenntnisse. Mit der vorliegenden Studie wurde am Beispiel der Region Basel erstmals für die Schweiz die europäische Typologie für Obdachlosigkeit, Wohnungslosigkeit und prekäre Wohnversorgung (ETHOS) angewendet und die Quantität, Qualität und Dynamik der Thematik erforscht. Methodisch baut die Studie auf einem Methodenmix auf: (1) stichtagsbezogene Nutzendenbefragung in 12 Einrichtungen der Obdachlosenhilfe (2) ethnographische Ansätze in vier dieser Einrichtungen während mehrerer Monate, (3) teilstrukturierte Interviews mit ExpertInnen, (4) Auswertung von Statistiken der Einrichtungen.
Auf Basis der stichtagsbezogenen Nutzendenbefragung und unter Hinzuziehung der Ergebnisse einer Nachtzählung sowie der Statistik der Notschlafstelle ermittelt die Studie zum Zeitpunkt der Befragung rund 100 obdachlose Menschen in Basel. Von den 469 Befragten fallen insgesamt 206 unter die Kategorien Obdachlosigkeit, Wohnungslosigkeit, ungesichertes Wohnen oder unzureichendes Wohnen. Aus der dynamischen Analyse resultiert, dass mit 362 Befragten rund 77% aller 469 Personen mindestens einmal in ihrem Leben obdachlos, wohnungslos oder in einer unzureichenden oder ungesicherten Wohnsituation waren oder es noch sind. Zudem zeigt sich eine hohe Zahl von Nutzenden aus den zentral- und osteuropäischen Ländern und eine eher geringe Zahl von Personen, die im Asylwesen betreut werden. Entsprechende an den Auftraggeber der Studie gerichtete Empfehlungen schlagen Veränderungen in der Vergabepraxis von Notschlafplätzen vor, diskutieren eine Housing-First Strategie und weisen auf den engen Zusammenhang von Obdachlosigkeit mit dem städtischen Wohnbestand hin.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2019.76

The male marriage premium: selection, productivity, or employer preferences? Evidence from panel data and a survey experiment

TitreThe male marriage premium: selection, productivity, or employer preferences? Evidence from panel data and a survey experiment
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuteursMcDonald, P
JournalLIVES Working paper
Volume75
Pagination1-38
Date Published03/2019
PublisherNCCR LIVES
ISSN2296-1658
Mots-clésemployer preferences, labour market, Male marriage premium, productivity, selection, survey experiment data
Résumé

Survey evidence finds a wage premium for married men over single in most of the western world. Three key theories are put forward as an explanation: 1) marriage makes men more productive and therefore increases their wages; 2) men with higher labour-market productivity, and therefore higher wages, are more likely to be married; 3) employers simply favour married men over unmarried. We use a two-step analysis to test these three theories. In the first step, we analyse national panel data from Switzerland to pinpoint the part of the penalty due to either productivity or selection. We use entropy balancing to match never-married men to married on a set of pre-labour market covariates, thus isolating the selection effect, before we perform fixed effects regressions for productivity effects and to uncover any unexplained residual. We find a premium for married men of 5%, much of which is explained by selection. Next, we seek to uncover employer preferences by using a factorial survey experiment among HR managers (N = 714) in Switzerland. We ask the managers to assign wages to the CVs of fictional job candidates, who vary randomly on their civil status, amongst other characteristics. We can therefore identify employers’ preferences concerning married and unmarried men. We find that recruiters assign a small premium to married men, contingent on the job applied for. Overall, the premiums we find are lower than those previously reported in the literature.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2019.75

Effect of childhood socioeconomic conditions on cancer onset in later life: an ambidirectional cohort study

TitreEffect of childhood socioeconomic conditions on cancer onset in later life: an ambidirectional cohort study
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
Auteursvan der Linden, BWA, Courvoisier, DS, Cheval, B, Sieber, S, Bracke, P, Guessous, I, Burton-Jeangros, C, Kliegel, M, Cullati, S
JournalInternational Journal of Public Health
Pagination1–12
Date Publishedmay
ISSN1661-8556, 1661-8564
Mots-clésageing, Cancer, life course, old age, Socioeconomic conditions
Résumé

Objectives: Living in low socioeconomic conditions during childhood is associated with poor health outcomes in later life. Whether this link also applies to cancer is unclear. We examined whether childhood socioeconomic conditions (CSCs) are associated with cancer risk in later life and whether this effect remained after adjusting for adulthood socioeconomic conditions (ASCs).Methods: Data for 26,431 individuals ≥ 50 years old included in SHARE were analysed. CSCs were constructed by using indicators of living conditions at age 10. ASC indicators were education, main occupation, and household income. Gender-stratified associations of CSCs with cancer onset (overall and by site) were assessed by Cox regression.Results: In total, 2852 individuals were diagnosed with cancer. For both men and women, risk of overall cancer was increased for advantaged CSCs and remained so after adjusting for ASCs (hazard ratio = 1.36, 95% CI 1.10, 1.63, and 1.70, 95% CI 1.41, 2.07).Conclusions: Advantaged CSCs are associated with an increased risk of overall cancer at older age, but results vary by cancer sites and sex. Participation in cancer screening or exposure to risk factors may differ by social conditions.

URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00038-018-1111-9
DOI10.1007/s00038-018-1111-9

Social and productive activities and health among partnered older adults: A couple-level analysis

TitreSocial and productive activities and health among partnered older adults: A couple-level analysis
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursLam, J, Bolano, D
JournalSocial Science & Medicine
Mots-clésactive ageing, Asia Pacific, health, Latent class models, Older couples
Résumé

Objectives: We theorize and test the health of older adults as a result of their activity engagement, as well as a product of their spouse's engagement. Method: We draw on 15 waves of couple-level data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey. Using responses of time engaged in nine different activities, we estimate Latent Class Models to describe activity profiles of partnered older adults. Given potential health selections into activity engagement, we lag older adults' activity engagement by one wave to examine its association with subsequent health. We then investigate associations between the lag of the spouse's activities with respondents' health, controlling for their own activity engagement at the previous wave. Result: We find four activity profiles for men, and three for women. Respondents who were predominantly engaged in community activities generally report better subsequent health. Beyond their own activity engagement, for both older men and women, having a partner who was also community engaged associate with better subsequent health, though for older women, there were little differences between having a husband who was community engaged or inactive. Discussion: Our findings highlight the value of considering activities of partnered older adults at the couple level.

URLhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277953618301837
DOI10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.04.016
Custom 1

{:status: Advance online publication}

The heterogeneity of disability trajectories in later life: Dynamics of activities of daily living performance among nursing home residents

TitreThe heterogeneity of disability trajectories in later life: Dynamics of activities of daily living performance among nursing home residents
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursBolano, D, Berchtold, A, Burge, E
JournalJournal of Aging & Health
Mots-clésADL trajectories, longitudinal analysis, multi-state model, nursing home resident, variability disability trajectories
Résumé

Objective: This study investigated the variability in activities of daily living (ADL) trajectories among 6,155 nursing home residents using unique and rich observational data. Method: The impairment in ADL performance was considered as a dynamic process in a multi-state framework. Using an innovative mixture model, such states were not defined a priori but inferred from the data. Results: The process of change in functional health differed among residents. We identified four latent regimes: stability or slight deterioration, relevant change, variability, and recovery. Impaired body functions and poor physical performance were main risk factors associated with degradation in functional health. Discussion: The evolution of disability in later life is not completely gradual or homogeneous. Steep deterioration in functional health can be followed by periods of stability or even recovery. The current condition can be used to successfully predict the evolution of ADL allowing to set and target different care priorities and practices.

URLhttp://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0898264318776071
DOI10.1177/0898264318776071
Short TitleThe heterogeneity of disability trajectories in later life

Sequence analysis: Where are we, where wre we going?

TitreSequence analysis: Where are we, where wre we going?
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuteursRitschard, G, Studer, M
ÉditeurRitschard, G, Studer, M
Book TitleSequence analysis and related approaches : Innovative methods and applications.
Volume10
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedCham, Switzerland
Notes

\{:status: Advance online publication\}

URLhttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-319-95420-2_1
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-95420-2_1

Does vocational education give a labour market advantage over the whole career? A comparison of the United Kingdom and Switzerland

TitreDoes vocational education give a labour market advantage over the whole career? A comparison of the United Kingdom and Switzerland
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursKORBER, MAILYS
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume74
Pagination1-40
Date Published11/2018
PublisherNCCR LIVES
ISSN2296-1658
Mots-clésapprenticeship, earnings, employment, life course, Switzerland, United Kingdom, vocational education and training
Résumé

Research suggests that vocational education and training (VET) tends to reduce youth unemployment by providing specific skills, thus smoothing the transition from education to work. However, we still know relatively little about whether vocational education provides higher employment rate and wages over the entire working trajectory than holders of lower education: after several years of experience, both groups may indeed have similar skills and thus similar situations on the labour market. We compare the situation in the United Kingdom and Switzerland, two countries sharing a tradition of vocational education but which differ in the specificity and standardisation of their VET system.
Creating a pseudo-cohort with repeated rounds of the UK and Swiss labour force surveys, we use regression models and compare the employment rate and hourly wage of our two groups of interest: individuals with vocational education at the upper secondary level and individuals with no more than compulsory education. We find that VET graduates fare better in terms of both employment and wages over the whole career. This advantage is larger for women than men and, contrary to our hypothesis, larger in the UK than in Switzerland with respect to employment prospects.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2018.74

Une Vie Florissante Sans Enfant ? Le Cas de la Suisse

TitreUne Vie Florissante Sans Enfant ? Le Cas de la Suisse
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursSauvain-Dugerdil, C
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume72
Pagination1-35
Date Published10/2018
ISSN2296-1658
Mots-clésfamille en Suisse, infécondité, qualité de vie, réserve sociale, vie sans enfant, vieillir sans enfant
Résumé

Nous examinons ici si, en Suisse, vivre sans enfant représente une vie florissante, dans le sens de la liberté de «vivre la vie que l’on a raison de valoriser» (Sen, 1999). En utilisant les données de l’enquête suisse sur la famille et les générations (EFG 2013), nous posons trois questions. Nous commençons par examiner si l’existence sans enfant correspond à un mode de vie spécifique qui se répand. Dans un second temps, nous analysons le lien entre l’absence d’enfant et la qualité de vie à travers une série d’indicateurs relatifs au bien-être économique, à la santé, à la gestion du quotidien, aux relations de couple et à la vie sociale. Le bien-être des personnes sans enfants est étudié à deux moments du parcours de vie : durant la période de la parentalité, en comparant les personnes ayant ou non des enfants dans leur ménage, mais aussi pour la vie ultérieure des personnes ayant eu ou non des enfants.

En Suisse, l’infécondité est certes parmi les plus élevées au monde, mais elle ne s’accroît pas et n’apparaît pas comme un projet de vie. D’autre part, les personnes sans enfant n’ont pas une vision plus négative des implications de la parentalité. Nos résultats confirment que dans le contexte suisse les jeunes parents rencontrent des difficultés économiques, vivent au quotidien la pression des tâches familiales et ont une vie de couple de moindre qualité, mais la présence d’enfant au quotidien n’affecte pas la santé de leurs parents. Surtout, nos résultats montrent que vieillir sans enfant est associé à une moins bonne insertion sociale. Les enfants joueraient donc un rôle important dans la construction de liens sociaux forts, «réserves» utiles au grand âge.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2018.72

Le Travail Rémunéré à Temps Plein des Mères : Malédiction ou Bénédiction? - Le Cas Singulier de la Suisse Comparé à la Belgique, la France, l’Allemagne et la Suède

TitreLe Travail Rémunéré à Temps Plein des Mères : Malédiction ou Bénédiction? - Le Cas Singulier de la Suisse Comparé à la Belgique, la France, l’Allemagne et la Suède
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursFioretta, J, Rossier, C
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume69
Pagination1-30
PublisherNCCR LIVES
ISSNISSN 2296-1658
Mots-cléscomparaison internationale, Conflit-travail famille, politiques familiales, santé, sélection sociale, Suisse, travail à temps plein des mères
Résumé

Les travaux sur le conflit travail-famille montrent que les difficultés de conciliation sont plus fréquentes aux âges de la parentalité et chez les femmes, et qu'elles sont associées négativement à la santé. Les désavantages de la conciliation des rôles professionnel et familial pour les mères, souvent pointés du doigt, doivent toutefois être mis en perspective avec les gains économiques et de santé habituellement liés à une insertion professionnelle durable des femmes. Dans cette étude, nous comparons la Suisse – un pays largement dépourvu de dispositif soutenant la conciliation travail-famille - avec des pays de niveau socioéconomique comparable - la Belgique, la France, l'Allemagne et la Suède, dotés d'une diversité de politiques de conciliation. Grâce aux données de l'Enquête sur les Familles et les Générations 2013 pour la Suisse et des Enquêtes Genre et Générations pour les autres pays, nous montrons qu'en Suisse les parents d'enfants de moins de 13 ans à deux temps pleins ("dual earners") déclarent plus de difficultés à concilier le travail et la famille, ont une moins bonne santé auto-déclarée et éprouvent plus de difficultés financières que les couples où seul l’homme travaille à plein temps. A l'inverse, dans les autres pays, les "dual earners" ont des indicateurs de conflit travail-famille, de santé et de bien-être économique meilleurs que les autres couples. Ces résultats soulignent que les dispositifs de conciliation travail- famille (quelle qu'en soit la nature) permettent d'abord aux mères qui ont plus de ressources de s'investir substantiellement dans la sphère professionnelle, un mécanisme de sélection qui au final compense largement –sur l'ensemble des mères qui travaillent à temps plein- les désavantages liés aux conflits travail-famille.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2018.69

Who Has More Children in Switzerland: Swiss Or Foreign Women? - Why The TFR is a Misleading Measure

TitreWho Has More Children in Switzerland: Swiss Or Foreign Women? - Why The TFR is a Misleading Measure
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursBurkimsher, M, Rossier, C, Wanner, P
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume73
Pagination1-41
PublisherNCCR LIVES
Mots-cléscohort fertility, Comprehensive Fertility Profile, foreigner fertility, immigrant fertility, naturalisation, TFR
Résumé

The Swiss Federal Statistical Office publishes data showing that the TFR of foreign women is much higher than for Swiss women. However, statistics from household registration (STATPOP) and from the Family and Generations Survey (FGS) indicate that foreigners have slightly smaller families than Swiss women. How can we reconcile this apparent contradiction? To do this we follow the fertility of cohorts of Swiss and foreign women through their reproductive life. In addition to birth registrations and population totals by age (the input data for calculating the TFR) we also include data on how many children women have at the time of their immigration, emigration and naturalisation.
Using these input data, we compiled the fertility profiles of Swiss and foreign women aged 15-49 (cohorts 1965-2001); these correspond well with the FGS and household register data. Most immigrants arrive childless and start childbearing in the years following arrival; hence, younger foreign women in Switzerland have higher fertility than Swiss women. However, the ongoing inflow of low fertility women ‘dilutes’ the average fertility of older foreign women. Naturalisation–which is more frequent for women with children–significantly impacts the fertility profile of ‘Swiss’ and ‘foreign’ women. We confirmed that the TFR gives an inflated impression of the ultimate fertility of foreign women, and under-estimates that of Swiss women, because foreign women are only in the receiving country (Switzerland) for the most fertile portion of their reproductive career. Our comprehensive fertility model covering the entire reproductive life course better describes fertility differentials by age and nationality.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2018.73

An index of precarity for measuring early employment insecurity

TitreAn index of precarity for measuring early employment insecurity
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuteursRitschard, G, Bussi, M, O’Reilly, J
ÉditeurRitschard, G, Studer, M
Book TitleSequence analysis and related approaches : Innovative methods and applications
Pagination289–308
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedCham, Switzerland
Résumé

A vast body of research examined changing employment relations and the ensued employment precarity. However there is a lack of quantitative tools able to assess the extent and impact of precarity overtime and at the individual level. Using the index of complexity as a starting point, we aim to create an index of precarity accounting for the benefit or loss entailed by each transition. Including the nature of each transition and the unpredictability of the whole employment trajectory in the index allows researchers to grasp both the complexity and the quality of young people’s employment trajectories. Our contribution shows how the proposed index provides a synthetic measure for comparing the degree of precarity. Results from a school-to-work transition dataset confirm the usefulness of the index as a predictor of future negative labour market trajectories.

Notes

\{:status: Advance online publication\}

URLhttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-319-95420-2_16
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-95420-2_16

Divisive property-based and fuzzy clustering for sequence analysis

TitreDivisive property-based and fuzzy clustering for sequence analysis
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuteursStuder, M
ÉditeurRitschard, G, Studer, M
Book TitleSequence analysis and related approaches : Innovative methods and applications
Pagination233–239
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedCham, Switzerland
Résumé

This paper discusses the usefulness of divisive property-based and fuzzy clustering for sequence analysis. Divisive property-based clustering provides well-defined clustering membership rules. Aside from significantly simplifying interpretations of clustering, it is also useful when one plans to use the same typology in other samples or studies. We further enrich the methods by proposing new sets of sequence features that can be automatically extracted and used in the procedure. We then discuss the use of fuzzy clustering, where sequences belong to each cluster with an estimated membership strength. This approach is particularly useful when some sequences are thought to lie between two (or more) sequence types (i.e., hybrid-type sequences) or when only a weak structure is found in the data. This paper also discusses several methods by which to visualize a fuzzy clustering solution, and analyzes them with regression-like approaches. It also introduces R code to run all the discussed analyses; all the proposed developments are made available in the WeightedCluster R package.

URLhttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-95420-2_13
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-95420-2_13

Markovian-based clustering of internet addiction trajectories

TitreMarkovian-based clustering of internet addiction trajectories
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuteursTaushanov, Z, Berchtold, A
ÉditeurRitschard, G, Studer, M
Book TitleSequence analysis and related approaches : Innovative methods and applications.
Pagination203-222
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedCham, Switzerland
URLhttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-95420-2_12
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-95420-2_12

Sequence history analysis (SHA): Estimating the effect of past trajectories on an upcoming event

TitreSequence history analysis (SHA): Estimating the effect of past trajectories on an upcoming event
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuteursRossignon, F, Studer, M, Gauthier, J-A, Le Goff, J-M
ÉditeurRitschard, G, Studer, M
Book TitleSequence analysis and related approaches : Innovative methods and applications.
Pagination83–100
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedCham, Switzerland
Résumé

In this article, we propose an innovative method which is a combination of Sequences Analysis and Event History Analysis. We called this method Sequence History Analysis (SHA). We start by identifying typical past trajectories of individuals over time by using Sequence Analysis. We then estimate the effect of these typical past trajectories on the event under study using discrete-time models. The aim of this approach is to estimate the effect of past trajectories on the chances of experiencing an event. We apply the proposed methodological approach to an original study of the effect of past childhood co-residence structures on the chances of leaving the parental home in Switzerland. The empirical research was based on the LIVES Cohort study, a panel survey that started in autumn 2013 in Switzerland. Analyses show that it is not only the occurrence of an event that increases the risk of experiencing another event, but also the order in which various states occurred. What is more, it seems that two features have a significant influence on departure from the parental home: the co-residence structures and the arrival or departure of siblings from the parental home.

URLhttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-95420-2_6
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-95420-2_6
Short TitleSequence history analysis (SHA)

Parental Leave Take-Up of Fathers in Luxembourg

TitreParental Leave Take-Up of Fathers in Luxembourg
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursZhelyazkova, N, Ritschard, G
JournalPopulation Research and Policy Review
Volume37
Pagination769-793
ISSN0167-5923, 1573-7829
Mots-clésFather and parental leave, parental leave, Work–family reconciliation
Résumé

The study uses administrative data from Luxembourg to investigate fathers’ decisions to use parental leave. We focus on two measures of opportunity cost: the difference between the parental leave benefit and the salary of the father and the mean salary growth for a period of 6 months for each father. The first measure captures the direct opportunity cost, while the second is a proxy for foregone promotion opportunities. We use Cox proportional hazards model for the analysis. The results suggest a negative relationship between foregone income and taking parental leave. Surprisingly, salary growth appears to be positively related to the hazard of taking parental leave. Coefficients of control variables are in line with previous findings: fathers are more likely to use parental leave if they work in larger organization and for the first child.

URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11113-018-9470-8
DOI10.1007/s11113-018-9470-8

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