Lone Parenthood and Employment Trajectories: A Longitudinal Mixed-Method Study

TitreLone Parenthood and Employment Trajectories: A Longitudinal Mixed-Method Study
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursStruffolino, E, Bernardi, L, Larenza, O
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume67
Pagination1-32
PublisherNCCR LIVES
Mots-clésemployment, lone parenthood, mixed-method, sequence analysis, Switzerland
Résumé

This study explores heterogeneity in employment trajectories occurring before, during, and after the transition to lone parenthood (LP) in a life-course perspective. Lone mothers are usually both primary caregivers and breadwinners: The transition into LP leads to an increase in economic and care needs that may compromise work-family balance and condition labor-market participation. Our mixed-method approach combines biographical calendars (SHP data, N=462) and semistructured interviews (N=38) of lone mothers residing in Switzerland. Using sequence and cluster analysis, we reconstruct employment trajectories around the transition to LP and estimate the probability of specific patterns by individual and household characteristics that help or hinder labor-market participation. We then contrast these results with findings from a content analysis of narrative interviews focusing on values and norms concerning work and care. We identify five employment patterns characterized by either an increase in labor supply (especially for those with more/older children) or by stability in or out of the labor market (for highly educated or younger mothers respectively). The analyses of the narratives provide insights on how employment opportunities and decisions differ by entry mode into LP, the postseparation relationship with the children’s father, and the ability to mobilize individual, social and institutional resources. Our findings suggest that effective policies encouraging lone mothers’ labor-market participation should consider their normative priorities when facing work and care trade-offs and the availability of informal and formal support, which ultimately shapes their work-related decisions.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2018.67

Lone Mothers’ Repartnering Trajectories and Health: Does the Welfare Context Matter?

TitreLone Mothers’ Repartnering Trajectories and Health: Does the Welfare Context Matter?
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursRecksiedler, C, Bernardi, L
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume66
Pagination1-23
PublisherNCCR LIVES
Mots-clésfamily policy, health disparities, lone mothers, repartnering, welfare states
Résumé

This paper examines the relationship between lone mothers’ repartnering trajectories and health in three distinct welfare contexts: the dual-earner, market-oriented, and general family policy model. Inspired by the resources and the crisis model, we apply mixture modelling for event-history analysis to the Harmonized Histories data. We uncover six distinct repartnering trajectories that vary with respect to the timing, type, and stability of higher-order unions for different cohorts of lone mothers. The few associations between repartnering trajectories and health differ systematically and significantly by welfare context. Lone mothers with some, yet unstable repartnering, reported better health in market-oriented contexts, compared to those living in general and dual-earner contexts. Market-oriented contexts were also those where unstable repartnering was more frequent. Overall, findings suggest that a less-generous welfare may encourage unstable, temporary repartnering out of economic need, while welfare contexts with more comprehensive family support allow for more stable repartnering choices.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2018.66

Is there public support for a longer and more gender equal leave scheme in Switzerland?

TitreIs there public support for a longer and more gender equal leave scheme in Switzerland?
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursValarino, I
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume65
Pagination1-29
PublisherNCCR LIVES
Mots-clésattitudes, gender equality, leave policies, policy preferences, Switzerland, welfare state
Résumé

Switzerland has a comparatively short and gendered leave scheme: paid maternity leave lasts 3,5 months and there are no statutory paternity or parental leaves. In the past decade this issue has received increased public and political attention and a popular initiative in favor of a 4-week paid paternity leave was successfully submitted and will be put to national vote. The present study addresses this highly topical issue by analyzing individuals’ attitudes toward three dimensions of leave policies (ideal leave length; gender division of leave; and leave financing system) and whether there is public support for a longer and more gender equal leave scheme in Switzerland. The study is based on 2013 MOSAiCH survey data, which is representative of the Swiss population aged 18 and over (N=1181).
Results show divided preferences regarding the ideal leave length, with about half of the sample wanting a leave that exceeds the current one (i.e., 5 months or more). This proportion rises to 68% among women under 50 years of age, suggesting that a gender and generational cleavage exists. Results show on the contrary a large consensus regarding gender division of leave preferences. About 80% of respondents consider that fathers should at least take part of the leave; and among them, about half consider they should share it equally. Logistic regression analyses show that institutional and cultural factors, as well as individuals’ life course stage and values are associated with wanting a longer and a more gender equal leave scheme. The article concludes on the implications of the results, in the wake of a national vote on paid paternity leave implementation.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2018.65

The role of leisure activities in mediating the relationship between physical health and well-being: differential patterns in old and very old age

TitreThe role of leisure activities in mediating the relationship between physical health and well-being: differential patterns in old and very old age
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursIhle, A, Gouveia, ÉR, Gouveia, BR, van der Linden, BWA, Sauter, J, Gabriel, R, Oris, M, Fagot, D, Kliegel, M
JournalGerontology
Volume63
Nombre6
Pagination560–571
ISSN0304-324X, 1423-0003
Résumé

\textbf{\textit{Background:}} Recently, Paggi et al. [Gerontology 2016;62:450-458] for the very first time showed in a cross-sectional sample of 259 adults aged 18-81 years that the relation of physical health to psychological well-being was mediated via frequency of leisure activity participation. \textbf{\textit{Objective:}} To extend this framework, we followed theories on successful aging and vulnerability to propose to add a differential perspective predicting that certain individuals may be more vulnerable than others and therefore may show differences in the mediation pattern. Specifically, we examined whether mediation patterns were differential in certain populations, such as in old-old (compared to young-old) adults and in individuals who carried out a low (compared to those with a high) number of activities. \textbf{\textit{Methods:}} We analyzed data from 3,080 individuals on physical health (number of chronic diseases, subjective health status, and subjective evaluation of change in health over the last 10 years), frequency of participation in 18 leisure activities, and physical and psychological well-being using moderated mediation models with a path model approach that allowed the simultaneous estimation of all model paths, including their significance. \textbf{\textit{Results:}} We found that the relation of physical health to physical and psychological well-being was mediated via frequency of activity participation. For physical (but not for psychological) well-being, this mediation was more pronounced in old-old (compared to young-old) adults and in individuals who carried out a low (compared to those with a high) number of activities. These moderated mediations were attributable to differential relations of physical health to frequency of activity participation and to differential relations of frequency of activity participation to physical well-being between the investigated moderator levels. \textbf{\textit{Conclusion:}} Present data suggest that participation in leisure activities may play a key role in mediating the relationship between physical health and well-being, particularly in very old age. Findings are discussed with respect to theories of successful aging and differences between physical and psychological well-being.

URLhttps://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/477628
DOI10.1159/000477628
Identifiant (ID) PubMed28675907

The relationship of physical activity to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in a sample of community-dwelling older adults from Amazonas, Brazil

TitreThe relationship of physical activity to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in a sample of community-dwelling older adults from Amazonas, Brazil
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursGouveia, ÉR, Ihle, A, Kliegel, M, Freitas, DL, Jurema, J, Tinôco, MA, Odim, A, Machado, FT, Muniz, BR, Antunes, AA, Ornelas, RT, Gouveia, BR
JournalArchives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Volume73
Pagination195–198
ISSN0167-4943
Mots-clésBody fat distribution, Dyslipidemia, liveswebsite, Modifiable behavior patterns, socioeconomic status
Résumé

Objectives (1) To study the relation of physical activity (PA) to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and (2) to investigate if the strength of these associations holds after adjustments for sex, age, and other key correlates. Methods This study included 550 older adults from Amazonas. HDL-C was derived from fasting blood samples. PA at sport and leisure, smoking, alcohol consumption, and socioeconomic status (SES) were interviewed. Waist circumference (WACI) was assessed. Results HDL-C was positively related to PA sport, PA leisure, and SES (0.22≤r≤0.34; p≤0.001) and negatively related to smoking and WACI (r≤−0.10; p{\textless}0.05). Controlling for sex and age did not affect these relationships. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that the relation of HDL-C to PA sport and leisure remained significant when controlling for all other investigated correlates (0.14≤β≤0.24; p≤0.001). Discussion In order to prevent low HDL-C in older adults, promoting PA seems to be an important additional component besides common recommendations concerning weight reduction.

URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167494317301875
DOI10.1016/j.archger.2017.08.004

The influence of emotional material on encoding and retrieving intentions: an ERP study in younger and older adults

TitreThe influence of emotional material on encoding and retrieving intentions: an ERP study in younger and older adults
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursHering, A, Kliegel, M, Bisiacchi, PS, Cona, G
JournalFrontiers in Psychology
Volume9
Nombre114
ISSN1664-1078
Mots-clésaging, EEG/ERP, emotions, partial least squares (PLS), prospective memory
Résumé

Prospective memory is a cognitive process that comprises the encoding and maintenance of an intention until the appropriate moment of its retrieval. It is of highly relevance for an independent everyday life, especially in older adults; however, there is ample evidence that prospective memory declines with increasing age. Because most studies have used neutral stimuli, it is still an open question how emotional factors influence age-related differences in prospective remembering. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of emotional material on prospective memory encoding, monitoring, maintaining, and retrieval in younger and older adults using behavioral and electrophysiological measures. We tested 24 younger adults (M = 26.4 years) and 20 older adults (M = 68.1 years) using a picture one-back task as ongoing activity with an embedded prospective memory instruction. The experimental task consisted of three sessions. In each session, participants had to encode series of images that represented the prospective memory cues for the consecutive block. The images were either of pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral valence. The pictures used in the ongoing task were likewise of pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral valence. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to assess the neural correlates of intention encoding, maintenance and self-initiated retrieval. We did not find age differences between younger and older adults on the behavioral level. However, the ERP results revealed an interesting pattern that suggested for both age groups elevated attentional processing of emotional cues during encoding indicated by an elevated LPP for the emotional cues. Additionally, younger adults showed increased activity for unpleasant cues. During the maintenance phase, both age groups engaged in strategic monitoring especially for pleasant cues, which led to enhanced sustained positivity. During retrieval, older adults showed increased activity of ERP components related to cue detection and retrieval mainly for pleasant cues indicating enhanced relevance for those cues. In conclusion, emotional material may influence prospective remembering in older adults differently than in younger adults by supporting a mixture of top-down and bottom-up controlled processing. The results demonstrated a negativity bias in younger adults and a positivity bias in older adults.

URLhttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00114/full
DOI10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00114

The impact of physical activity and sex differences on intraindividual variability in inhibitory performance in older adults

TitreThe impact of physical activity and sex differences on intraindividual variability in inhibitory performance in older adults
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursFagot, D, Chicherio, C, Albinet, CT, André, N, Audiffren, M
JournalAging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition
Pagination1–23
ISSN1382-5585
Mots-clésaging, inhibition, intraindividual variability, physical activity, sex differences
Résumé

It is well-known that processing speed and executive functions decline with advancing age. However, physical activity (PA) has a positive impact on cognitive performances in aging, specifically for inhibition. Less is known concerning intraindividual variability (iiV) in reaction times. This study aims to investigate the influence of PA and sex differences on iiV in inhibitory performance during aging. Healthy adults were divided into active and sedentary groups according to PA level. To analyse iiV in reaction times, individual mean, standard deviation and the ex-Gaussian parameters were considered. An interaction between activity level and sex was revealed, sedentary females being slower and more variable than sedentary men. No sex differences were found in the active groups. These results indicate that the negative impact of sedentariness on cognitive performance in older age is stronger for females. The present findings underline the need to consider sex differences in active aging approaches.

URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13825585.2017.1372357
DOI10.1080/13825585.2017.1372357
Identifiant (ID) PubMed28868969

Educational sorting in mixed marriages in Switzerland

TitreEducational sorting in mixed marriages in Switzerland
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursPotarca, G, Bernardi, L
JournalSwiss Journal of Sociology
Volume43
Nombre3
ISSN2297-8348
Mots-cléseducational hypogamy, intermarriage, status-caste exchange
Résumé

According to status-caste exchange theory, intermarriages involve transactions in which higher educated immigrants trade status for the ethnic advantage of the less-educated native partners. Looking at 2 836 currently married Swiss immigrants, we find that the highly skilled “exchange” their status only when pairing with a medium-educated native. Results also show that younger cohorts of immigrants are more likely to choose hypogamy when marrying a same-origin immigrant than when partnering a native.

URLhttp://www.degruyter.com/view/j/sjs.2017.43.issue-3/sjs-2017-0026/sjs-2017-0026.xml
DOI10.1515/sjs-2017-0026

Delay of Gratification, Delay Discounting and their Associations with Age, Episodic Future Thinking, and Future Time Perspective

TitreDelay of Gratification, Delay Discounting and their Associations with Age, Episodic Future Thinking, and Future Time Perspective
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursGöllner, LM, Ballhausen, N, Kliegel, M, Forstmeier, S
JournalFrontiers in Psychology
Volume8
ISSN1664-1078
Mots-clésdelay discounting, delay of gratification, episodic future thinking, future time perspective, life span, self-regulation
Résumé

While the delay of gratification (DoG) in children is widely investigated with an experimental procedure originally called the “marshmallow test”, studies on self-regulation (SR) in adolescents and adults usually use self-report questionnaires. Delay discounting (DD) measures simplify the DoG procedure and focus on monetary rewards. The aim of this study was to investigate age differences in DoG and DD from childhood to old age, using a test that is suitable for both children and adults. Furthermore, investigations were conducted on the association between DoG/DD and two future orientation constructs (future time perspective, FTP, and episodic future thinking, EFT) as well as age differences in these constructs. Participants from five age groups (9-14, 18-25, 35-55, 65-80, 80+) participated in the study (N = 96). While we found no age difference for DoG, DD was lowest (i.e., self-control (SC) was highest) in young/middle adults, but was highest (i.e., SC lowest) in children and old/oldest adults. Furthermore, we found significant age differences for DD and FTP. As predicted, there were strong correlations between DoG and FTP and between DD and FTP, but not between DoG/DD and EFT. These results indicate that age differences in SR vary across the measures used. Individuals who generally think and act in a future-oriented manner have a stronger ability to delay gratification.

URLhttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02304/full
DOI10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02304

The Mediating Impact of Parental Support on the Relationship Between Personality and Career Indecision in Adolescents

TitreThe Mediating Impact of Parental Support on the Relationship Between Personality and Career Indecision in Adolescents
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursMarcionetti, J, Rossier, J
JournalJournal of Career Assessment
Volume25
Nombre4
Pagination601–615
ISSN1069-0727
Résumé

In the Swiss education system, approximately 55% of adolescents are required to make their first vocational choice at the end of mandatory school. This can induce transitory or long-lasting career indecision that is recognized as being influenced by personal and contextual factors. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationships between career decision-making difficulties and the five-factor model of personality traits, parental support, and self-esteem in 448 Grade 9 Swiss adolescents. We then proceeded to test if these relationships vary according to the adolescent’s educational choice (i.e., whether they attend high school or if they choose an apprenticeship or vocational training). Results have highlighted the importance of neuroticism, conscientiousness, and parental support to predict career decision-making difficulties. Moreover, parental support mediated the relationships between extraversion and agreeableness (fully) and between conscientiousness (partially) and career decision-making difficulties. Finally, the educational choice had no impact on the overall pattern of relationships. Implications for career counselor practices were further discussed.

URLhttps://doi.org/10.1177/1069072716652890
DOI10.1177/1069072716652890

How Would Pyrrho have been Socially Valued? Social Desirability and Social Utility of Conflict Regulation

TitreHow Would Pyrrho have been Socially Valued? Social Desirability and Social Utility of Conflict Regulation
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursSommet, N, Quiamzade, A, Butera, F
JournalInternational Review of Social Psychology
Volume30
Nombre1
ISSN2397-8570
Mots-clésConflict regulation, Judge paradigm, Social desirability, Social utility, Socio-cognitive conflict
Résumé

Mugny and his colleagues have shown that conflict is sometimes detrimental for learning, but other times beneficial, depending on how it is regulated. Yet, it is assumed that laypeople perceive conflict as uniformly negative. We argue that the valence of these lay perceptions depends on the mode of conflict regulation. Epistemic and relational protective conflict regulation behaviors (integrative and submissive response, respectively) can be described as more focused on the other than relational competitive conflict regulation (self-confirmatory response); thus, they should be perceived as more socially desirable. Moreover, epistemic and competitive regulations can be described as more focused on the self than protective regulation; thus, they should be perceived as more socially useful. First-year psychology students (N = 119) participants evaluated three bogus respondents allegedly regulating conflict in an epistemic, competitive, or protective manner. Results supported both hypotheses, suggesting that conflict is not to be avoided per se and can be positively valued as a function of its regulation.

URLhttp://www.rips-irsp.com/article/10.5334/irsp.88/
DOI10.5334/irsp.88

Understanding trends in family formation trajectories: An application of Competing Trajectories Analysis (CTA)

TitreUnderstanding trends in family formation trajectories: An application of Competing Trajectories Analysis (CTA)
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursStuder, M, Liefbroer, AC, Mooyaart, JE
JournalAdvances in Life Course Research
Volume36
Pagination1-12
Date Published06/2018
ISSN1040-2608
Mots-clésevent history analysis, Family formation, Secularization, sequence analysis, Youth unemployment
Résumé

Over the past 50 years, family formation trajectories have undergone major changes in the events that occur as well as in the timing and order of these events. Whereas previous studies showed when and how these shifts occur, not much research has been conducted to test why these changes have taken place. This paper tests two possible explanations, namely cultural (secularization) and economic (youth unemployment) change using the Fertility and Family survey of the Netherlands conducted in 2008. We also employed a new method, Competing Trajectories Analysis (CTA), which combines features of sequence analysis and event history analysis, to examine the relationship between secularization and youth unemployment and pathways into adulthood. Our results show that the start of family formation is postponed in times of high secularization and youth unemployment, when pathways including early marriage and parenthood become less popular, and cohabiting without having children becomes more popular.

URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1040260818300285
DOI10.1016/j.alcr.2018.02.003

Daily internet time: towards an evidence-based recommendation?

TitreDaily internet time: towards an evidence-based recommendation?
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursBerchtold, A, Akre, C, Barrense-Dias, Y, Zimmermann, G, Suris, J-C
JournalEuropean Journal of Public Health
Pagination1–5
Mots-clésadolescent, child, evidence-based practice, health outcomes, internet, screen time
Résumé

Background: Since 2001, a recommendation of no more than 2 h per day of screen time for children 2 years of age or older was adopted in many countries. However, this recommendation was rarely examined empirically. The goal of the present study was to question this recommendation in today’s connected world. Methods: We used data from the ado@internet.ch survey (spring 2012), a representative sample of 8th graders in the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland (n = 2942, 50.6% female). Internet use, health outcomes, substance use, well-being and socio-demographic characteristics were considered. Bi-variate statistical analyses were performed. Results: All outcomes were significantly associated with the time spent on internet, more time being associated with a higher prevalence of adverse consequences. Youth spending on average one more hour on Internet per day than the reference category (1.5–2.5 h) did not differ in terms of adverse health outcomes. Differences began to appear on sleeping problems, tobacco use, alcohol misuse, cannabis use and sport inactivity with youth spending between 3.5 h and 4.5 h per day on internet. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the absence of justification for setting a limit to only 2 h of screen time per day. Significant effects on health seem to appear only beyond 4 h per day and there may be benefits for those who spend less than an hour and a half on internet.

URLhttps://academic.oup.com/eurpub/advance-article/doi/10.1093/eurpub/cky054/4973864
DOI10.1093/eurpub/cky054
Short TitleDaily internet time

Intraindividual variability in inhibition and prospective memory in healthy older adults: Insights from response regularity and rapidity

TitreIntraindividual variability in inhibition and prospective memory in healthy older adults: Insights from response regularity and rapidity
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursJoly-Burra, E, Van der Linden, M, Ghisletta, P
JournalJournal of Intelligence
Volume6
Ticket13
Pagination1–27
Date Publishedmar
Mots-clésamplitude of fluctuations, autoregressive parameter, functional adaptability, functional diversity, Go/NoGo SART task, intraindividual variability, prepotent response inhibition, prospective memory, random process fluctuation
Résumé

Successful prospective memory (PM) performance relies on executive functions, including inhibition. However, PM and inhibition are usually assessed in separate tasks, and analytically the focus is either on group differences or at most on interindividual differences. Conjoint measures of PM and inhibition performance that take into account intraindividual variability (IIV) are thus missing. In the present study, we assessed healthy older adults’ level of performance and IIV in both inhibition and PM using a classical Go/NoGo task. We also created a prospective Go/NoGo version that embeds a PM component into the task. Using dynamic structural equation modeling, we assessed the joint effects of mean level (μ), an indicator of amplitude of fluctuations in IIV (or net IIV; intraindividual standard deviation, iSD), and an indicator of time dependency in IIV (the autoregressive parameter ϕ) in reaction times (RTs) on inhibition and PM performance. Results indicate that higher inhibition failure, but not IIV, predicted PM errors, corroborating the current literature on the involvement of prepotent response inhibition in PM processes. In turn, fastest RT latency (μ) and increased net IIV (iSD) were consistently associated with prepotent response inhibition failure, while coherence in RT pattern (ϕ) was beneficial to inhibition performance when the task was novel. Time-dependent IIV (ϕ) appears to reflect an adaptive exploration of strategies to attain optimal performance, whereas increased net IIV (iSD) may indicate inefficient sustained cognitive processes when performance is high. We discuss trade-off processes between competing tasks.

URLhttp://www.mdpi.com/2079-3200/6/1/13
DOI10.3390/jintelligence6010013

Memory deficits precede increases in depressive symptoms in later adulthood

TitreMemory deficits precede increases in depressive symptoms in later adulthood
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursAichele, S, Ghisletta, P
JournalThe Journals of Gerontology: Series B
Date Published01/2018
Mots-clésBi-directional, depression, Longitudinal Change, memory
Résumé

Objectives: We examined bidirectional, time-ordered associations between age-related changes in depressive symptoms and memory. Method: Data came from 107,599 community-dwelling adults, aged 49–90 years, who participated in the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Depressive symptoms were measured with the EURO-D inventory, and memory was evaluated as delayed recall of a 10-word list. Participants were assessed up to five times at 2-year intervals. Dynamic structural equation models were used to estimate longitudinal and time-ordered (lead-lag) relations between depressive symptoms and memory performance. Results: Depressive symptoms increased and memory scores decreased across the observed age range, with worsening mostly evident after age 62 years. These long-term changes were moderately negatively correlated (r = −.53, p

URLhttps://academic.oup.com/psychsocgerontology/advance-article/doi/10.1093/geronb/gbx183/4827964
DOI10.1093/geronb/gbx183

Illness and intelligence are comparatively strong predictors of individual differences in depressive symptoms following middle age

TitreIllness and intelligence are comparatively strong predictors of individual differences in depressive symptoms following middle age
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursAichele, S, Rabbitt, P, Ghisletta, P
JournalAging & mental health
Date Published10/2017
ISSN1360-7863 (Print) 1364-6915 (Online)
Mots-clésaging, cognition, depression, fluid intelligence, machine learning
Résumé

Objective: We compared the importance of socio-demographic, lifestyle, health, and multiple cognitive measures for predicting individual differences in depressive symptoms in later adulthood. Method: Data came from 6203 community-dwelling older adults (age 41–93 years at study entry) from the United Kingdom. Predictors (36 in total) were assessed up to four times across a period of approximately 12 years. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Geriatric Depression Scale. Statistical methods included multiple imputation (for missing data), random forest analysis (a machine learning approach), and multivariate regression. Results: On average, depressive symptoms increased gradually following middle age and appeared to accelerate in later life. Individual differences in depressive symptoms were most strongly associated with differences in combined symptoms of physical illness (positive relation) and fluid intelligence (negative relation). The strength of association between depressive symptoms and fluid intelligence was unaffected by differences in health status within a subsample of chronically depressed individuals. Conclusion: Joint consideration of general health status and fluid intelligence may facilitate prediction of depressive symptoms severity during later life and may also serve to identify sub-populations of community-dwelling elders at risk for chronic depression.

URLhttps://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13607863.2017.1394440
DOI10.1080/13607863.2017.1394440

Precision, reliability, and effect size of slope variance in latent growth curve models: Implications for statistical power analysis

TitrePrecision, reliability, and effect size of slope variance in latent growth curve models: Implications for statistical power analysis
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursBrandmaier, AM, von Oertzen, T, Ghisletta, P, Lindenberger, U, Hertzog, C
JournalFrontiers in Psychology
Volume9
Date Published02/2018
Résumé

Latent Growth Curve Models (LGCM) have become a standard technique to model change over time. Prediction and explanation of inter-individual differences in change are major goals in lifespan research. The major determinants of statistical power to detect individual differences in change are the magnitude of true inter-individual differences in linear change (LGCM slope variance), design precision, alpha level, and sample size. Here, we show that design precision can be expressed as the inverse of effective error. Effective error is determined by instrument reliability and the temporal arrangement of measurement occasions. However, it also depends on another central LGCM component, the variance of the latent intercept and its covariance with the latent slope. We derive a new reliability index for LGCM slope variance—effective curve reliability (ECR)—by scaling slope variance against effective error. ECR is interpretable as a standardized effect size index. We demonstrate how effective error, ECR, and statistical power for a likelihood ratio test of zero slope variance formally relate to each other and how they function as indices of statistical power. We also provide a computational approach to derive ECR for arbitrary intercept-slope covariance. With practical use cases, we argue for the complementary utility of the proposed indices of a study's sensitivity to detect slope variance when making a priori longitudinal design decisions or communicating study designs.

URLhttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00294/full
DOI10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00294
Short TitlePrecision, Reliability, and Effect Size

Parental leave within the broader employment trajectory: What can we learn from administrative records?

TitreParental leave within the broader employment trajectory: What can we learn from administrative records?
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursZhelyazkova, N, Ritschard, G
JournalEquality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal
Volume36
Ticket7
Pagination607–627
Date Published08/2017
Mots-clésEmployment trajectory, parental leave, sequence analysis, Work-family reconciliation
Résumé

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an analysis of parental leave use and long-term employment trajectories of parents in Luxembourg based on anonymous administrative records. This is the first systematic analysis of parental leave take-up rates and return rates for Luxembourg using a large and reliable data set. Design/methodology/approach: The authors use highly detailed administrative data to calculate take-up and return rates for parental leave for both men and women working in Luxembourg. To gain deeper insights into the employment trajectories of parents, the authors deploy the visualisation tools of the TraMineR package, which allow the authors to trace developments over time. Findings: The authors estimate take-up rates for parental leave at 72 per cent for mothers and 13 per cent for fathers. The return rates for mothers are 88.4, 99.4 and 70.8 per cent depending on whether they took full-time, part-time or no parental leave. In contrast, over 95 per cent of fathers remain employed following parental leave. The trajectory analysis reveals that the event of birth is a clear turning point for the majority of the female trajectories, but not for the male ones. Originality/value: The paper contributes to the literature in at least several ways. First, this is the first available paper presenting the situation in Luxembourg using a large and reliable data set. Second, by including fathers in the analysis, the authors contribute to the available knowledge of male use of parental leave, which has been the subject of continued policy efforts in the past decades. Finally, the authors show how parental leave can be analysed using sequence analysis tools and how this method offers additional, holistic insights into work-family patterns over time.

URLhttps://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/EDI-05-2017-0109
DOI10.1108/EDI-05-2017-0109
Short TitleParental leave within the broader employment trajectory

Coefficient-wise tree-based varying coefficient regression with vcrpart

TitreCoefficient-wise tree-based varying coefficient regression with vcrpart
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursBuergin, RArthur, Ritschard, G
JournalJournal of Statistical Software
Volume80
Ticket6
Pagination1–33
Date Published08/2017
Mots-clésCART, generalized linear models, R package, regression trees, statistical learning, varying coefficient models
Résumé

The tree-based TVCM algorithm and its implementation in the R package vcrpart are introduced for generalized linear models. The purpose of TVCM is to learn whether and how the coefficients of a regression model vary by moderating variables. A separate partition is built for each potentially varying coefficient, allowing the user to specify coefficient-specific sets of potential moderators, and allowing the algorithm to select moderators individually by coefficient. In addition to describing the algorithm, the TVCM is evaluated using a benchmark comparison and a simulation study and the R commands are demonstrated by means of empirical applications.

URLhttps://www.jstatsoft.org/article/view/v080i06
DOI10.18637/jss.v080.i06

Prospective Memory Is a Key Predictor of Functional Independence in Older Adults

TitreProspective Memory Is a Key Predictor of Functional Independence in Older Adults
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursHering, A, Kliegel, M, Rendell, PG, Craik, FIM, Rose, NS
JournalJournal of the International Neuropsychological Society
Volume24
Pagination1–6
Date Published04/2018
ISSN1355-6177, 1469-7661
Mots-clésaging, delayed intentions, Everyday functioning, Instrumental activities of daily living, Memory for intentions, Old adulthood
Résumé

Objectives: Prospective memory (PM), the ability to execute delayed intentions, has received increasing attention in neuropsychology and gerontology. Most of this research is motivated by the claim that PM is critical for maintaining functional independence; yet, there is a dearth of empirical evidence to back up the claims. Thus, the present study tested whether PM predicts functional independence in older adults using validated behavioral performance measures for both PM and functional independence. Methods: Fifty-eight healthy older adults performed a computerized PM paradigm, the Virtual Week task, as well as a timed version of an instrumental activities of daily living (TIADL) task. Furthermore, we assessed vocabulary, processing speed, and self-reported prospective remembering. Results: TIADL scores correlated significantly with performance in the Virtual Week task, vocabulary, and processing speed. Hierarchical linear regressions revealed that vocabulary and Virtual Week performance were significant predictors for TIADL. However, self-reported PM scores did not predict everyday functioning. Conclusions: The findings indicate that PM is an important cognitive ability for successful and independent everyday life beyond vocabulary. Moreover, the results show a substantial incremental contribution of intact PM performance for the prediction of everyday functioning by using objective PM measures.

URLhttps://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society/article/prospective-memory-is-a-key-predictor-of-functional-independence-in-older-adults/C76245304041305A0D9EE74A2745E71F
DOI10.1017/S1355617718000152

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