Long lives and old age poverty: Social stratification and life course institutionalization in Switzerland

TitleLong lives and old age poverty: Social stratification and life course institutionalization in Switzerland
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsOris, M, Gabriel, R, Ritschard, G, Kliegel, M
JournalResearch in Human Development
Volume14
Issue1
Pagination68-87
Keywordslife course, old age, poverty, social stratification, Switzerland
Abstract

This article combines an inter- and an intra-cohort perspective to study economic vulnerability in old age. The theoretical background is given through the combination of a social stratification framework and an institutional perspective emphasizing life course policies. At the macro level, the increase in overall education levels and the implementation of a pension system were the driving forces of the strong decrease in old age poverty over the last three decades. At an individual level, the pathway from low education early in life to economic hardship after retirement is most prominent, corresponding to a social stratification and cumulative disadvantage view.

DOI10.1080/15427609.2016.1268890
Citation Key3102
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Improving our Understanding of Employer Decision-making Thanks to Factorial Survey Analysis

TitleImproving our Understanding of Employer Decision-making Thanks to Factorial Survey Analysis
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsMcDonald, P
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume61
Pagination26
PublisherNCCR LIVES
Keywordsdiscrimination, employer behaviour, employer surveys, Factorial survey analysis, recruitment
Abstract

Factorial Survey Analysis (FSA) is an analytical tool that presents respondents with fictional situations (“vignettes”) to be rated or judged. In this paper we study the uses of FSA in labour market sociology, with a particular focus on employer-based surveys, and what they can teach us about hiring decisions. FSA is a useful tool in this context as it targets employers directly, rather than relying on inference from labour-force surveys, or recollection of previous decision-making. Additionally, it makes causal relationships more easily identifiable. This review article seeks to pinpoint the contributions FSA has made to the field, and shows that FSA is useful in gleaning new and important information on previously hard-to-reach issues. Particularly, FSA can be used to analyse employers’ use of signals and indices, and their decision-making behaviours in general. Finally, the paper proposes some further applications for FSA going forward, especially in terms of understanding recruitment discrimination.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2017.61
Citation Key3157

Vulnerability of Lone Mothers over the Life Course in Switzerland

TitleVulnerability of Lone Mothers over the Life Course in Switzerland
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsStruffolino, E, Bernardi, L
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume60
Pagination1-28
PublisherNCCR LIVES
Keywordseducation, employment, health, life course, lone mothers, vulnerability
Abstract

This paper contributes to the understanding of vulnerability of lone mothers in Switzerland. Vulnerability is a dynamic process along which individuals may experience falls and losses of resources, but through which they might also rise and gain empowerment as a consequence of coping and adaptation mechanisms. Vulnerability that originates within one specific life domain (e.g. family, employment, health) can then spill over to other life domains. Lone mothers and their children are often identified as vulnerable populations because of their overrepresentation among the poor and the less healthy compared to the general population. Yet, lone mothers are increasingly heterogeneous in terms of social background and resources, so that durations into and experiences of lone motherhood vary substantially. Such heterogeneity poses new challenges for defining the relative disadvantage of lone mothers and their families which we argue should have to be appraised through a multidimensional perspective. Drawing on a number of quantitative and qualitative data sources we first discuss the transition to lone parenthood and in which ways it is relevant to the analysis of multidimensional vulnerability for lone mothers in the Swiss context. Second, we refer to original empirical results on lone mothers’ labour market participation over the last two decades by focussing on differences by age and educational level. Finally, we discuss various findings on the relationship between lone parenthood, employment, and health from our research project on lone mothers to highlight the conjunctures of disadvantages across life-course domains leading to vulnerability. Switzerland is an interesting case study, because of a welfare shaped around a two-parent and one main earner family model and a gendered unequal distribution of caring and financial responsibility within the family. Weak work-family reconciliation policies discourage mothers’ full-time participation to the labour market. In such context particularly, the transition to lone motherhood might represents excessive strains for parents who have little choice but to take on alone both full care and financial responsibilities.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2017.60
Citation Key3113
Refereed DesignationNon-Refereed

Family salience across nations: Configurations of morphological conditions

TitleFamily salience across nations: Configurations of morphological conditions
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsGanjour, O, Widmer, E
Book TitleFamily continuity and change
Series TitlePalgrave Macmillan Studies in Family and Intimate Life
EditionFirst
Pagination33-59
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan
Place PublishedLondon, United Kingdom
KeywordsFamily change
Abstract

Family change across societies is a complex issue that raised considerable debates throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Particular attention was given at the time to the unequal pace of family change according to countries or regions in the world, with a hypothesized similar turn to the dominance of the nuclear family in all national contexts, Western or non- Western (e.g., Goode 1963). Since then, family sociology has rebuffed the nuclearization thesis and has, to the contrary, stressed historical trends of family pluralization away from the nuclear family that are present in all Western nations (Lesthaeghe 1995)

Citation Key3078
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Conclusion

TitleConclusion
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsCesnuityté, V, Lück, D, Widmer, E
Book TitleFamily continuity and change
Series TitlePalgrave Macmillan Studies in Family and Intimate Life
EditionFirst
Pagination27-31
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan
Place PublishedLondon, United Kingdom
Abstract

This chapter has set out three different approaches to the study of family life: practice theory, historical contextualization, and narrative analysis. The choice of approach, of course, will depend on which aspects of family life are of interest—the everyday or whether the focus is over long stretches of a life’s course or across family generations. In addition, time and place are important factors in any analysis. In relation to the micro routine or habitual aspects of family lives, I have pointed to social practice theories. It is obvious that the habitual aspects of people’s lives alter and are modified over time. Yet such behaviours are not easily subject to recall or reflection by their practitioners and are therefore among the most difficult for researchers to study.

Citation Key3077
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Introduction

TitleIntroduction
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsWidmer, E, Cesnuityté, V, Lück, D
Book TitleFamily continuity and change
Series TitlePalgrave Macmillan Studies in Family and Intimate Life
EditionFirst
Pagination1-5
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan
Place PublishedLondon, United Kingdom
KeywordsFamily change
Abstract

The goal of this book is to present a variety of empirical research on continuity and family change within the European space, with respect to three dimensions: family understanding or theorizing, family transitions across its individual life course, and family practices. Researchers from nine European countries investigate families, their conceptualization, transitions, and practices between persisting needs and flowing circumstances, between holding on to traditional routines and adapting to a fast-changing socioeconomic environment, and between individual agency and social constraints.

Citation Key3076
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Family continuity and change

TitleFamily continuity and change
Publication TypeBook
Year of Publication2017
Series EditorWidmer, E, Cesnuityté, V, Lück, D
EditionFirst
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan
Place PublishedLondon, United Kingdom
KeywordsFamily change, life course
Abstract

The goal of this book is to present a variety of empirical research on continuity and family change within the European space, with respect to three dimensions: family understanding or theorizing, family transitions across its individual life course, and family practices. Researchers from nine European countries investigate families, their conceptualization, transitions, and practices between persisting needs and flowing circumstances, between holding on to traditional routines and adapting to a fast-changing socioeconomic environment, and between individual agency and social constraints.

Citation Key3075
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Multidimensionality of well-being and spillover effects across life domains: How do parenthood and personality affect changes in domain-specific satisfaction?

TitleMultidimensionality of well-being and spillover effects across life domains: How do parenthood and personality affect changes in domain-specific satisfaction?
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsBernardi, L, Bollmann, G, Potârcă, G, Rossier, J
JournalResearch in Human Development
Volume14
Pagination26-51
Abstract

Whether having children improves our well-being is a long-standing topic of debate. Demographic and sociological research has investigated changes in individuals’ overall well-being and partnership satis- faction when they become parents. However, little is known about how becoming parent may produce vulnerability—observable as an enduring decrease in well-being—in life domains that are strongly interdependent with the family domain, such as work and leisure. Linking life-course and personality psychology perspectives, the authors examine the trajectories of subjective well-being—measured as satisfaction with life, work, and leisure—3 years before and 3 years after the transition to parenthood. The authors particularly focus on the moderating effects of gender and personality. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (1984–2013) and multilevel growth curve modeling, the authors show strong gender-based vulnerability in how people react to parenthood. Although men display a nonlinear pathway of decreasing life satisfaction and a stable trajectory of job satisfaction, women experience more changes in their satisfaction with work and more dramatic decreases in leisure satisfaction. Contrary to most of our expectations, the moderating effects of personality were modest. Extraversion influenced the trajectories of work satisfaction, whereas neuroticism and conscientiousness affected the pathway of leisure satisfaction for women only. This article shows that the transition to parenthood influences well- being trajectories in specific domains, and this influence differs between women and men.

DOI10.1080/15427609.2016.1268893
Citation Key3070
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Insight as a social identity process in the evolution of psychosocial functioning in the early phase of psychosis

TitleInsight as a social identity process in the evolution of psychosocial functioning in the early phase of psychosis
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsKlaas, H, Clémence, A, Marion-Veyron, R, Antonietti, J-P, Alameda, L, Golay, P, Conus, P
JournalPsychological Medicine
Volume47
Pagination718-729
Date Publishedmar
KeywordsEarly phase of psychosis, insight, schizophrenia, social functioning, social identity, TIPP
Abstract

Awareness of illness (insight) has been found to have contradictory effects for different functional outcomes after the early course of psychosis. Whereas it is related to psychotic symptom reduction and medication adherence, it is also associated with increased depressive symptoms. In this line, the specific effects of insight on the evolution of functioning over time have not been identified, and social indicators, such as socio-occupational functioning have barely been considered. Drawing from social identity theory we investigated the impact of insight on the development of psychosocial outcomes and the interactions of these variables over time. The participants, 240 patients in early phase of psychosis from the Treatment and Early Intervention in Psychosis Program (TIPP) of the University Hospital of Lausanne, Switzerland, were assessed at eight time points over 3 years. Cross-lagged panel analyses and multilevel analyses were conducted on socio-occupational and general functioning [Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF)] with insight, time and depressive symptoms as independent variables. Results from multilevel analyses point to an overall positive impact of insight on psychosocial functioning, which increases over time. Yet the cross-lagged panel analysis did not reveal a systematic positive and causal effect of insight on SOFAS and GAF scores. Depressive symptoms seem only to be relevant in the beginning of the treatment process. Our results point to a complex process in which the positive impact of insight on psychosocial functioning increases over time, even when considering depressive symptoms. Future studies and treatment approaches should consider the procedural aspect of insight.

DOI10.1017/S0033291716002506
Citation Key3079
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Ethnicity, authority and political participation: Expressing political attitudes in contexts of shifting ethnic salience

TitleEthnicity, authority and political participation: Expressing political attitudes in contexts of shifting ethnic salience
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsBady, Z
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume59.2
Pagination45
PublisherNCCR LIVES
KeywordsEthnicity, political participation, social representations, spiral of silence
Abstract

Since the second half of the twentieth century, ethnicity has come to play an increasingly important role in political phenomena, especially in the justification of armed conflicts. To explain this particular role that ethnic identities seem to play, recent research highlights the strategic mobilization of ethnic identities by elites to obtain and legitimize positions of power. Based on this work, this research aims to answer two main gaps that characterize quantitative studies on the subject and which prevent a better understanding of the role of ethnicity in the acceptance of leaders’ authority. First, quantitative research on ethnicity typically fails to take the social constructivist stance seriously as shown by the use of measurements (i.e. "fractionalization" or "polarization" indices) that treat ethnic identity as a descriptive characteristic, regardless of its subjective relevance for individuals. Second, research generally focuses on either the societal (national) level or the individual level when trying to understand the relationship between ethnicity and violence, and therefore confuses dynamics that happen at the national level with those occurring at more local scales. Relying on the spiral of silence theory and the social representation approach, I propose the following hypothesis to explain how strong leadership may become uncontested: local contexts where the importance of ethnic identities substantially changes are characterized by a questioning of the political norms (i.e. what political stances can be publicly enacted) and constitutes therefore places where otherwise censored political views (e.g. authoritarian) may come to dominate the public sphere. To test this hypothesis, I use data from the first two rounds of the Afrobarometer survey collected in 10 African countries. Using multilevel logistic models, I examine whether regional change in the salience of ethnic identities interacts with the political attitude of individuals (authoritarian vs Democrats) to predict their political participation. As hypothesized, results show that regional volatility selectively affects the enactment of political views. However, the pattern is more complex than predicted and suggests that the spiral of silence framework is be too simplistic to explain processes occurring in these contexts.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2017.59.2
Citation Key2181

When development is not "right": Understanding the relationship between perceptions, collective action and victimhood

TitleWhen development is not "right": Understanding the relationship between perceptions, collective action and victimhood
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsJayakody, S
Secondary AuthorsUsoof-Thowfeek, R
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume59.1
Pagination39
PublisherNCCR LIVES
Keywordscollective action, conflict, development, victim beliefs
Abstract

Much of the research on effective reconciliation advocates a holistic approach to social harmony in post war settings. However, many state and non-governmental entities choose physical infrastructure development, as a strategy for reconciliation believing that enhanced access to physical resources would dampen any recurrence of violence and conflict. At the end of 30 years of war between the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Ealem (LTTE) and the Sri Lankan military, the Sri Lankan government for several years after, took a similar path. This paper examines community and individual responses to such development, in post war Sri Lanka with special focus on community reactions to development in situations where development is perceived as imposed. The paper specifically examines how these responses relate to support for collective action and whether this relationship is mediated by different forms of victim beliefs that community members hold.
The paper uses data collected in a survey conducted in two districts in Sri Lanka from 202 respondents, representative of all ethnic and religious groups. The survey probed respondents on their own and community views of the development that had taken place in post war Sri Lanka, their beliefs about their group’s victimhood and their support and willingness to engage in collective action. The analysis revealed higher conflict exposure to be associated with higher tendencies to engage in collective action in the presence of certain types of victim beliefs. It revealed that lower receptiveness of development was positively related with collective action, but different types of victim beliefs mediated this relationship.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2017.59.1
Citation Key2180

Does Vocational Education Give a Happy Start and a Lousy End to Careers?

TitleDoes Vocational Education Give a Happy Start and a Lousy End to Careers?
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsKorber, M, Oesch, D
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume57
Pagination40
PublisherNCCR LIVES
Keywordsapprenticeship, earnings, employment, life course, specific skills, Switzerland, vocational education and training
Abstract

Since the Great Recession, vocational training has been advocated as the solution against high youth unemployment. It gives workers a head start in the labor market and may thus lead to better careers. Yet vocational skills may also become obsolete sooner and leave older workers vulnerable to technological change. We address this issue by comparing earnings and employment over the life course for vocational and general education at the upper-secondary level. We do so for Switzerland, the OECD country with the highest share of youth undertaking vocational education and training (VET), using the Swiss Labor Force Survey 1991-2014 and the Swiss Household Panel. We find that employment prospects for older workers with VET are as good as those for workers with general education. However, general education is associated with higher earnings than VET once workers enter their thirties. There are strong gender differences: Among men, life-cycle earnings with VET exceed those of workers with general education, whereas among women, general education is associated with higher earnings.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2016.57
Citation Key2153

Inequality of BMI Dynamics: A Socioeconomic and Gender Perspective

TitleInequality of BMI Dynamics: A Socioeconomic and Gender Perspective
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsLipps, O, Zella, S
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume56
Pagination1-23
PublisherNCCR LIVES
Keywordsage differences, fixed effects modeling, gender differences, Germany, SES and individual BMI, Switzerland, USA
Abstract

The aim is to understand causal effects of gender, socio-economic status, and ageing on body mass index (BMI) of individuals in three industrialized countries which are characterized by different BMI distributions.
Data comes from three large population representative panel surveys in the USA, Switzerland, and Germany including about 65 000 individuals and 254 000 measurements. Individuals report up to eleven times, measured annually (Switzerland) or bi-annually (USA and Germany). We use fixed effects models to interprete causal effects and random effects models to estimate coefficients of time invariant covariates. We find that not working increases BMI in the US and Germany, in women, and in lower educated individuals. A higher income increases BMI in men and in the US. Ageing is the driving force in all countries, in particular in Germany. Women increase their BMI faster than men, and the lower educated faster than those with a higher education. We conclude that the generally more deprived individuals (women, not working, lower educated, people from less affluent countries) suffer from a comparatively stronger BMI increase over their lifetime.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2016.56
Citation Key2142

Treatment Versus Regime Effects of Carrots and Sticks

TitleTreatment Versus Regime Effects of Carrots and Sticks
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsArni, P, van den Berg, G, Lalive, R
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume55
Pagination1-40
PublisherNCCR LIVES
Keywordsactive labor market programs, caseworkers, earnings, employment, policy regime, treatment effect, unemployment
Abstract

Public Employment Service (PES) agencies and caseworkers (CW) often have substantial leeway in the design and implementation of active labor market policies (ALMP) for the unemployed, resulting in variation of usage. This paper presents a novel framework in which this variation is used for the joint assessment of different ways in which ALMP effects can operate. We examine an additional layer of impacts - beyond the treatment effects on the treated job seekers - called regime effects, which potentially affect all job seekers and which are defined by the extent to which programs are intended to be used in a market. We propose a novel method to jointly estimate regime effects for two types of programs, supportive (carrots) and restrictive (sticks) programs. We apply this to contrast regime and treatment effects on unemployment durations, employment, and post-unemployment earnings using register data that contain PES and caseworker identifiers for about 130,000 job seekers. The results show that “carrots” and “sticks” treatments prolong unemployment, but carrots increase earnings whereas sticks decrease them. We find regime effects of a similar order of magnitude. Higher intended usage of carrots and sticks reduces unemployment durations, but carrots raise earnings whereas sticks decrease them. We also find interaction effects between carrots and sticks policies. Regime effects are economically substantial. Our comprehensive cost-benefits analyses show that modest increases in the intended usage of carrots and sticks reduce the total cost of an unemployed individual by up to 10%.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2016.55
Citation Key2142

Availability, cost or culture? Obstacles to Childcare Services for Low Income Families

TitleAvailability, cost or culture? Obstacles to Childcare Services for Low Income Families
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsAbrassart, A, Bonoli, G
JournalJournal of Social Policy
Volume44
Issue4
Pagination787-806
DOI10.1017/S0047279415000288
Citation Key2987
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Gender, education, and family life courses in East and West Germany: Insights from new sequence analysis techniques

TitleGender, education, and family life courses in East and West Germany: Insights from new sequence analysis techniques
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsStruffolino, E, Studer, M, Fasang, A
JournalAdvances in Life Course Research
Volume29
Pagination66-79
KeywordsEast/West Germany, education, Family life course, gender, Implicative statistic for sequences of typical, Sequence discrepancy analysis, States analysis
Abstract

How do men and women's family life courses differ? Are gender differences in family life courses greater at higher or lower educational levels? And how does the intersection of gender, education and family life courses vary across different macro-structural contexts? This paper addresses these questions comparing East and West Germany during the German division (1961–1990). We thereby compare a strong male breadwinner model in a social market economy in West Germany and a universal breadwinner model in a state socialist system in the East. The analysis uses data from the German National Education Panel (NEPS) and employs two new sequence analysis tools: sequence discrepancy analysis and the implicative statistic for analyzing sequences of typical states. These tools enable us to scrutinize the degree, content, and timing of differences in family trajectories between men and women of different educational levels in the two sub-societies. In line with our expectations, family life courses were more de-standardized in the West compared to the East, and this occurred to the same extent for men and women in both contexts. While we find moderate gender differences in family life courses across all educational groups in the strong male breadwinner context in West Germany, for East Germany gender differences were significant among the medium and lower educated, but not among the highly educated. These findings underline the fact that the intersection of gender and education for family life courses is highly context-specific. They further suggest that different patterns of assortative mating play a key role for gender differences in family life courses. We demonstrate the added value of sequence discrepancy analysis and the implicative statistic to illuminate differences in longitudinal life courses between men and women or other social groups.

URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1040260815000714
DOI10.1016/j.alcr.2015.12.001
Citation Key2231
Refereed DesignationRefereed

The association of timing of retirement with cognitive performance in old age: The role of leisure activities after retirement

TitleThe association of timing of retirement with cognitive performance in old age: The role of leisure activities after retirement
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsIhle, A, Grotz, C, Adam, S, Oris, M, Fagot, D, Gabriel, R, Kliegel, M
JournalInternational Psychogeriatrics
Volume28
Issue10
Pagination1659-1669
ISSN1741-203X
Keywordsactivity engagement, cognitive functioning, cognitive level of occupation, cognitive reserve, cognitive stimulation, older adults, physical demand of job, timing of retirement
Abstract

Background: The role of timing of retirement on cognitive functioning in old age is inconclusive so far. Therefore, the present study set out to investigate the association of timing of retirement with cognitive performance and its interplay with key correlates of cognitive reserve in a large sample of older adults. Methods: Two thousand two hundred and sixty three older adults served as sample for the present study. Different psychometric tests (TMT A, TMT B, Mill Hill) were administered. In addition, individuals were interviewed on their retirement, occupation, educational attainment, and regarding 18 leisure activities that have been carried out after retirement. Results: Earlier retirement (compared to retirement at legal age) was significantly associated with better performance in the TMT A, the TMT B, and the Mill Hill vocabulary test. Moderation analyses showed that in individuals with a moderate number of leisure activities in old age, earlier retirement was related to better cognitive performance, but not in those with a relatively large number of leisure activities. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that entering leisure activities as additional predictor significantly increased explained variance in the cognitive measures over and above all other investigated markers of cognitive reserve (i.e., occupation and education). Conclusions: Present data further corroborate the view that leisure activities even in old age may lead to further enrichment effects and thereby may be related to better cognitive functioning. The role of engaging in activities in the context of major life events such as retirement is discussed.

DOI10.1017/S1041610216000958
Citation Key2515
Refereed DesignationRefereed

The relation of the number of languages spoken to performance in different cognitive abilities in old age

TitleThe relation of the number of languages spoken to performance in different cognitive abilities in old age
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsIhle, A, Oris, M, Fagot, D, Kliegel, M
JournalJournal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Volume38
Issue10
Pagination1103-1114
ISSN1380-3395
Keywordsactivity engagement, cognitive functioning, cognitive reserve, multilingualism, older adults
Abstract

Introduction: Findings on the association of speaking different languages with cognitive functioning in old age are inconsistent and inconclusive so far. Therefore, the present study set out to investigate the relation of the number of languages spoken to cognitive performance and its interplay with several other markers of cognitive reserve in a large sample of older adults. Methods: Two thousand eight hundred and twelve older adults served as sample for the present study. Psychometric tests on verbal abilities, basic processing speed, and cognitive flexibility were administered. In addition, individuals were interviewed on their different languages spoken on a regular basis, educational attainment, occupation, and engaging in different activities throughout adulthood. Results: Higher number of languages regularly spoken was significantly associated with better performance in verbal abilities and processing speed, but unrelated to cognitive flexibility. Regression analyses showed that the number of languages spoken predicted cognitive performance over and above leisure activities/physical demand of job/gainful activity as respective additional predictor, but not over and above educational attainment/cognitive level of job as respective additional predictor. There was no significant moderation of the association of the number of languages spoken with cognitive performance in any model. Conclusions: Present data suggest that speaking different languages on a regular basis may additionally contribute to the built-up of cognitive reserve in old age. Yet, this may not be universal, but linked to verbal abilities and basic cognitive processing speed. Moreover, it may be dependent on other types of cognitive stimulation individuals also engaged in during their life course.

DOI10.1080/13803395.2016.1197184
Citation Key2634
Refereed DesignationRefereed

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