La mémoire autobiographique à travers le parcours de vie: Évaluation rétrospective du bonheur et de la vulnérabilité

TitleLa mémoire autobiographique à travers le parcours de vie: Évaluation rétrospective du bonheur et de la vulnérabilité
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsDasoki, N, Morselli, D, Spini, D
JournalCanadian Journal on Aging
Volume35
Issue03
Pagination308-318
Keywordseffet de positivité, mémoire autobiographique, personnes âgées
Abstract

The interest of this study is on the one hand to understand if within the elderly population there are age differences in terms of positivity effect. On the other hand we test if perception of happiness and vulnerability are two independent systems. To test our hypotheses we used the Vivre / Leben / Vivere survey on a population of 65 years and older (N=4200), in Switzerland. Findings show that happiness depends on social and cultural norms while vulnerability on age effect. For happiness there are not age differences unlike vulnerability: the oldest age groups are less likely to report episodes of vulnerability during most of their life. L’intérêt de cette recherche est de comprendre comment les personnes âgées évaluent rétrospectivement leur passé de façon diversifiée. D’une part, nous cherchons à savoir si, au sein de la population âgée, il existe des différences d’âge concernant l’effet de positivité. D’autre part, nous nous demandons si les perceptions de bonheur et de vulnérabilité liées à des souvenirs répondent à deux processus différents de rappel. Pour tester nos hypothèses, nous avons utilisé l’enquête Vivre / Leben / Vivere menée auprès d’individus de 65 ans et plus vivant en Suisse (N=4200). Les résultats montrent que le bonheur dépend des normes culturelles et sociales alors que la vulnérabilité d’un effet d’âge, confirmant l’indépendance de ces deux processus de rappel. Par ailleurs, pour le bonheur, il n’existe pas de différences d’âge, alors que c’est le cas pour la vulnérabilité: les groupes les plus âgés ont globalement moins de probabilité d’indiquer des moments de vulnérabilité.

DOI10.1017/S0714980816000362
Citation Key2079
Refereed DesignationRefereed

"Neighborhood in Solidarity": A community development methodology that emerged throughout an action research experience

Title"Neighborhood in Solidarity": A community development methodology that emerged throughout an action research experience
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of PublicationIn Press
AuthorsZwygart, M, Plattet, A, Spini, D
JournalAction Research
PaginationAdvance online publication
Abstract

Abstract Population aging and urbanization are often associated with a restriction of the living environment and an increasing tendency to remain at home. This community development report presents the ‘‘Neighborhood in Solidarity’’ methodology as a response to counter or at least slow this restriction and enhance the ability of elderly persons to be active within their neighborhoods. Co-constructed throughout the action research process, the Neighborhood in Solidarity methodology is based on a 13-year experience, accumulated through 22 projects in 17 cities, with promising results in the Canton of Vaud in Switzerland. The genesis and the emergence of the methodology throughout action research workshops and interregional structures are described in the document. The description of Neighborhood in Solidarity is a snapshot of a living methodology, which continues to evolve on a daily basis. The process focuses on empowering the older people through a five-year methodology, which is intended to create an autonomous community that can resolve its own problems. The methodology comprises six steps described throughout the paper: (1) preliminary analysis, (2) diagnostic, (3) construction, (4) project design, (5) project implementation, and (6) empowerment. In 2013, an external assessment evaluated the Neighborhood in Solidarity methodology as effective at and appropriate for achieving its objectives. The promising results of this original methodology motivated this publication.

DOI10.1177/1476750316666935
Citation Key2991
Refereed DesignationRefereed

An internet-based self-help intervention for older adults after marital bereavement, separation or divorce: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

TitleAn internet-based self-help intervention for older adults after marital bereavement, separation or divorce: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsBrodbeck, J, Berger, T, Znoj, H
JournalTrials
Volume18
Issue21
Pagination1-8
Date Publishedjan
Keywordsbereavement, depression, divorce, grief, Internet-based self-help, older adults, randomized controlled trial, séparation
Abstract

Background: Marital bereavement and separation or divorce are among the most stressful critical life events in later life. These events require a dissolution of social and emotional ties, adjustments in daily routine and changes in identity and perspectives for the future. After a normative grief or distress reaction, most individuals cope well with the loss. However, some develop a prolonged grief reaction. Internet-based self-help interventions have proved beneficial for a broad range of disorders, including complicated grief. Based on the task model and the dual-process model of coping with bereavement, we developed a guided internet-based self-help intervention for individuals who experienced marital bereavement, separation or divorce at least 6 months prior to enrolment. The intervention consists of 10 text-based self-help sessions and one supportive email a week. The primary purpose of this study is the evaluation of the feasibility and efficacy of the intervention compared with a waiting control group. The secondary purpose is to compare the effects in bereaved and separated participants. Furthermore, we aim to analyze other predictors, moderators and mediators of the outcome, such as age, psychological distress and intensity of use of the intervention. Methods: The design is a randomized controlled trial with a waiting control condition of 12 weeks and a 24-weeks follow-up. At least 72 widowed or separated participants will be recruited via our study website and internet forums. Primary outcomes are reductions in grief symptoms, depression and psychological distress. Secondary outcome measures are related to loneliness, satisfaction with life, embitterment and the sessions. Discussion: The trial will provide insights into the acceptance and efficacy of internet-based interventions among adults experiencing grief symptoms, psychological distress and adaptation problems in daily life after spousal bereavement, separation or divorce. Findings will add to existing knowledge by (1) evaluating an internet-based intervention specifically designed for spousal bereavement and its consequences; (2) testing whether this intervention is equally effective for individuals after separation or divorce; and (3) suggesting adaptations to improve the efficacy of the intervention, selective indication and adaptations for different needs.

DOI10.1186/s13063-016-1759-5
Citation Key3073
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Nouveaux parents: Quelle égalité face au temps?

TitleNouveaux parents: Quelle égalité face au temps?
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsSauvain-Dugerdil, C, Koncilja-Sartorius, B
EditorLe Goff, J-M, Levy, R
Book TitleDevenir parent, devenir inégaux
Pagination130-163
PublisherSeismo
Place PublishedZurich, Switzerland
KeywordsParentality
Citation Key683
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Co-residence as a mechanism of relational proximity: The impact of household trajectories on the diversification of personal networks

TitleCo-residence as a mechanism of relational proximity: The impact of household trajectories on the diversification of personal networks
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsRamos, V, Gouveia, R, Wall, K
Book TitleFamily Continuity and Change
Pagination187-210
PublisherPalgrave
Place PublishedBasingstoke, United Kingdom
Keywordspersonal networks, trajectories
Citation Key2768
Refereed DesignationNon-Refereed

Apprendre à "Vivre avec le VIH": processus de légitimité et de redéfinition de soi

TitleApprendre à "Vivre avec le VIH": processus de légitimité et de redéfinition de soi
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsFargnoli, V
EditorDemailly, L, Garnoussi, N
Book TitleAller mieux - Approches sociologiques
EditionFirst
Pagination97-110
PublisherPresses Universitaires du Septentrion
Place PublishedLille, France
KeywordsVIH
Citation Key2990
Refereed DesignationNon-Refereed

Misleading norms and vulnerability in the life course: Definition and illustrations

TitleMisleading norms and vulnerability in the life course: Definition and illustrations
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsWidmer, E, Spini, D
JournalResearch in Human Development
Volume14
Issue1
Pagination52-67
Date Publishedfeb
Keywordslife course, norms, vulnerability
Abstract

This review paper investigates the potentially misleading effect of some social norms on life trajectories. Conformity to some gender norms related to the division of paid and family work becomes counterproductive for individuals who experience turning points in their life along the way. We present various empirical results mainly drawn from the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research LIVES where conformity to social norms has detrimental effects on life trajectories. We conclude by stressing that the sensitizing concept of misleading norms contributes to a better understanding of vulnerability across the life course.

DOI10.1080/15427609.2016.1268894
Citation Key3089
Refereed DesignationRefereed

La transformation des réseaux personnels des femmes et des hommes durant la transition à la parentalité: Contraction des liens et gestation d'inégalités

TitleLa transformation des réseaux personnels des femmes et des hommes durant la transition à la parentalité: Contraction des liens et gestation d'inégalités
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsSapin, M, Widmer, E
EditorLe Goff, J-M, Levy, R
Book TitleDevenir parents, devenir inégaux. Transition à la parentalité et inégalités de genre
Series TitleCollection questions de genre
Pagination164-182
PublisherSeismo
Place PublishedZurich and Geneva, Switzerland
KeywordsParentalité
Abstract

La transition à la parentalité a été à maintes reprises annoncées comme une période de transformation fondamentale des relations avec les proches, touchant particulièrement les futures mères. De fait, diverses études montrent que les relations personnelles changent au cours de cette transition (Belskiy et Rovine, 1984; Power et Parke, 1984; Belsky et al., 1986; McCannel, 1988; Antonucci et Mikus, 1988; Ruble et al, 1990; Cox et Paley, 1997; Bots et al., 2002). Les connaissances manquent cependant sur les changements que les réseaux personnels encourent du point de vue structural, et l'effet des rapports sociaux de sexe en la matière demeure encore incertain, malgré les rares travaux existants (Munch et al., 1997). Ce chapitre entend amener quelques éléments de connaissance et de réflexion sur ces changements.

Citation Key3090
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Changes in employment uncertainty and the fertility intention-realization link: An analysis based on the Swiss household panel

TitleChanges in employment uncertainty and the fertility intention-realization link: An analysis based on the Swiss household panel
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsHanappi, D, Ryser, V-A, Bernardi, L, Le Goff, J-M
JournalEuropean Journal of Population
Volume33
Issue3
Pagination381-407
Date Publishedfeb
Keywordsemployment uncertainty, fertility intentions, gender, life course, panel data, Switzerland
Abstract

How do changes in employment uncertainty matter for fertility? Empirical studies on the impact of employment uncertainty on reproductive decision-making offer a variety of conclusions, ranging from gender and socio-economic differences in the effect of employment uncertainty on fertility intentions and behaviour, to the effect of employment on changes in fertility intentions. This article analyses the association between a change in subjective employment uncertainty and fertility intentions and behaviour by distinguishing male and female partners’ employment uncertainty, and examines the variation in these associations by education. Using a sample of men and women living in a couple from the Swiss Household Panel (SHP 2002–2011), we examine through multinomial analysis how changes in employment uncertainty and selected socio-demographic factors are related to individual childbearing decisions. Our results show strong gendered effects of changes in employment uncertainty on the revision of reproductive decisions among the highly educated population.

DOI10.1007/s10680-016-9408-y
Citation Key3107
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Childless at age 30: A qualitative study of the life course plans of working women in East and West Germany

TitleChildless at age 30: A qualitative study of the life course plans of working women in East and West Germany
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsBernardi, L, Keim, S
Book TitleChildlessness in Europe: Contexts, causes, and consequences
Series TitleDemographic Research Monographs
Pagination253-267
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedBerlin, Allemagne
Keywordscombination of family and work, Family formation, life course plans, socialization, unification
Abstract

At German unification, two states with fundamentally different economic and social systems became one. To help us gain a better understanding of the legacies of the past, this paper compares the attitudes of childless women who grew up in the former East and West Germany, but who reached early adulthood in unified Germany. How did these women plan and envisage having children and combining work and family life? We analyzed data from a qualitative research project on social influences on family formation collected in 2004 and 2005 in the two structurally similar towns of Lübeck (West Germany) and Rostock (East Germany). Our results show that the typical family models of the former East and West Germany were still very present in the narrations of these young women, and that the ongoing influence of these models contributes to persistent differences in the strategies these women use in dealing with the issues surrounding family formation and work and family reconciliation. We rely on Bourdieu’s concept of “inertial effect” to interpret the results. This concept stresses the relevance of socialization for the formation of attitudes and values, for the meanings attached to certain behavior, and for perceptions regarding the potential range of action. Our results suggests that family values are rather stable traits that are resistant to change, even when the macro-level societal conditions change radically.

Citation Key3108
Refereed DesignationRefereed

The intergenerational transmission of fertility

TitleThe intergenerational transmission of fertility
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsBernardi, L
Book TitleEmerging trends in the social and behavioral sciences
Pagination01-16
PublisherJohn Wiley & Sons
Place PublishedEtats-Unis, Hoboken
Keywordsinheritance, intergenerational transmission, social influence, social norms, socialization
Abstract

The intergenerational transmission of fertility has direct consequences on population dynamics and is indirectly related to the reproduction of social inequality. Early studies focused on the positive correlation of parents and children fertility outcomes such as family size or childbearing timing. Explanations for the observed correlations have spanned from genetic and social status inheritance mechanisms to role modeling and socialization processes based on social learning and social influence. More recently, the focus has shifted from fertility outcomes to similarities and dissimilarities of family formation patterns across generations, framing fertility in the context of interrelated life course trajectories. Recent cutting-edge research has also expanded upon the existing literature by focusing on the role played by multigenerational relationships and by bidirectional influence processes in parents-children fertility behaviors. Challenges for future research are provided by the need to disentangle the interplay between genes and culture in defining tastes and preferences for given values and norms related to fertility and the increasing family complexity and migration that interfere with socialization processes.

Citation Key3109
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Global life satisfaction in adolescence: The role of personality traits, self-esteem, and self-efficacy

TitleGlobal life satisfaction in adolescence: The role of personality traits, self-esteem, and self-efficacy
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsMarcionetti, J, Rossier, J
JournalJournal of Individual Differences
Volume37
Issue7
Pagination135-144
DOI10.1027/1614-0001/a000198
Citation Key2907
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Soziale Ungleichheiten in der Schweiz: eine Bestandsaufnahme und aktuelle Herausforderungen

TitleSoziale Ungleichheiten in der Schweiz: eine Bestandsaufnahme und aktuelle Herausforderungen
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsJoye, D, Falcon, J
EditorZiegler, B
Book TitleUngleichheit(en) und Demokratie
EditionFirst
Pagination21-41
PublisherSchulthess
Place PublishedZürich
Citation Key1952
Refereed DesignationNon-Refereed

Does the internet affect assortative mating? Evidence from the U.S. and Germany

TitleDoes the internet affect assortative mating? Evidence from the U.S. and Germany
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsPotârcă, G
JournalSocial Science Research
Volume61
Issue2017
Pagination278-297
Date Publishedjan
Abstract

The Internet has now become a habitual channel for finding a partner, but little is known about the impact of this recent partnership market on mate selection patterns. This study revisits the supply side perspective on assortative mating by exploring the role played by online venues in breeding educational, racial/ethnic and religious endogamy. It compares couples that met online (through either online dating platforms, Internet social networking, Internet gaming website, Internet chat, Internet community, etc.) to those that met through various offline contexts of interaction. Using unique data from the U.S. for the year 2009 and data from Germany collected between 2008 and 2014, I run logmultiplicative models that allow for the strength of partners’ association to vary along meeting settings. Results reveal that the Internet promotes weaker couple endogamy compared to conventional contexts typically known to foster endogamy, such as school, family, friends, or religious venues.

DOI10.1016/j.ssresearch.2016.06.019
Citation Key2635
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Construction and validation of the moral inclusion/exclusion of other groups (MIEG) scale

TitleConstruction and validation of the moral inclusion/exclusion of other groups (MIEG) scale
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of PublicationIn Press
AuthorsPassini, S, Morselli, D
JournalSocial Indicators Research
PaginationAdvance online publication
Keywordsmoral exclusion, moral inclusion, scale, scope of justice, validation
Abstract

Moral exclusion is defined as viewing others as lying beyond the boundary within which moral values and rules of justice apply. In contrast, the process of moral inclusion involves the extension of social justice to several social groups. Thus, both moral inclusion and exclusion are a pivotal dimension in the study of social inequalities. Although the concept of moral inclusion/exclusion has a history of more than 20 years, research still lacks accurate instruments for measuring it. In this article, a first version of a scale that measures moral inclusion/exclusion was constructed and validated. The good reliability and correlation indexes found across the samples suggest that MIEG is a good measure for tapping into moral exclusion/inclusion symptoms.

DOI10.1007/s11205-016-1458-3
Citation Key3074
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Calendar interviewing: a mixed methods device for a biographical aproach to migration

TitleCalendar interviewing: a mixed methods device for a biographical aproach to migration
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsBarbeiro, A, Spini, D
JournalQualitative Research in Psychology
Volume14
Issue1
Pagination81-107
Abstract

Biographical interviews are used in life stories research to elicit narratives on retrospective views of the self and the social world. Life calendars are used in life course research to collect standardized data in various domains of individual lives. Both instruments deal with autobiographical memory, which is a critical aspect for data quality and accuracy. This article presents a mixed methods use of life calendars and life stories for researching on migration called the Calendar Interviewing Device (CID). The CID consists of a life calendar for characterizing trajectories and collecting life stories through open-ended interviews. An analysis of 12 interviews examines the features of this particular research device, namely its flexibility on adapting to different interviewees, the strategies they used for recalling events and locating them in time, and the richness of the data obtained with the CID.

DOI10.1080/14780887.2016.1249581
Citation Key3094
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Toward a life course framework for studying vulnerability

TitleToward a life course framework for studying vulnerability
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsSpini, D, Bernardi, L, Oris, M
JournalResearch in Human Development
Volume14
Issue1
Pagination5-25
Abstract

Interest in the study of vulnerability has experienced impressive growth across various disciplines. To contribute to this major but scattered development in the study of vulnerability, this article argues for a multidisciplinary life-course framework. This framework promotes a systemic and dynamic perspective focused on three complementary research directions: multidimensional, multilevel, and multidirectional. On the basis of this life course perspective, the authors also propose a definition of vulnerability as a dynamic process of stress and resources across various domains of life (i.e., work, family, health, migration, etc.), levels (i.e., person, group, collective), and time (i.e., long-term processes).

DOI10.1080/15427609.2016.1268892
Citation Key3096
Refereed DesignationRefereed

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