Understanding personal networks as social capital

TitleUnderstanding personal networks as social capital
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsWidmer, E, Gouveia, R, Aeby, G, Cesnuityté, V
EditorWall, K, Widmer, E, Gauthier, J-A, Cesnuityté, V, Gouveia, R
Book TitleFamilies and personal networks: An international comparative perspective
Series TitlePalgrave Macmillan Studies in Family and Intimate Life
Chapter6
Pagination167–186
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan
Place PublishedLondon, United Kingdom
KeywordsBonding and bridging types of social capital, Comparative analysis, Lithuania, Personal configurations, personal networks, Portugal, social capital, Switzerland
Abstract

The main aim of this chapter is to compare the social capital structures produced by personal networks in Portugal, Switzerland, and Lithuania. On the one hand, we hypothesise that the type of social capital is primarily associated with the composition of personal configurations. On the other hand, we also expect that social capital structures are shaped by the constraints and opportunities associated with different welfare regimes, social policies, and level of social development in each country. Findings show that both Portuguese and Lithuanian networks are characterised by a bonding type of social capital, although in Portugal the interdependencies rely on the exchange of emotional support, whereas in Lithuania the interdependencies stem from face-to-face interactions. Switzerland, in contrast, is characterised by a bridging type of social capital.

URLhttps://www.palgrave.com/us/book/9781349952625

Linking family trajectories and personal networks

TitleLinking family trajectories and personal networks
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsGauthier, J-A, Aeby, G, Ramos, V, Cesnuityté, V
EditorWall, K, Widmer, E, Gauthier, J-A, Cesnuityté, V, Gouveia, R
Book TitleFamilies and personal network: An international comparative perspective
Series TitlePalgrave Macmillan Studies in Family and Intimate Life
Chapter7
Pagination187–223
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan
Place PublishedLondon, United Kingdom
KeywordsComparative analysis, international comparison, life course, life trajectories, Lithuania, Network analysis, personal networks, Portugal, sequence analysis, Switzerland
Abstract

The share of family and non-family ties in personal networks varies not only across the life course following major transitions and events but also according to the type of welfare state in which individual lives unfold. Using network and sequence analyses, this chapter investigates for two birth cohorts (1950–1955 and 1970–1975) how the composition of personal networks is influenced by past co-residence trajectories (from 1990 to 2010) in three European countries (Switzerland, Portugal, and Lithuania). The resulting co-residence trajectories capture a great variety of situations characterized by conjugal status as well as the presence and age of children. Network analyses reveal a focus on the nuclear family of procreation, although highlighting national differences regarding the inclusion of extended kin and non-kin.

URLhttps://www.palgrave.com/us/book/9781349952625

Mapping the plurality of personal configurations

TitleMapping the plurality of personal configurations
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsAeby, G, Widmer, E, Cesnuityté, V, Gouveia, R
EditorWall, K, Widmer, E, Gauthier, J-A, Cesnuityté, V, Gouveia, R
Book TitleFamilies and personal networks: an international perspective
Series TitlePalgrave Macmillan Studies in Family and Intimate Life
Chapter5
Pagination131–166
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan
Place PublishedLondon, United Kingdom
KeywordsComparative analysis, family, friendship, Kinship, Lithuania, Non-kin, Personal configurations, Personal relationships, Portugal, Switzerland
Abstract

The aim of this chapter is to map the variety of personal configurations by focusing on personal ties regarded as important. The configurational perspective emphasizes the inclusion of different kinds of close ties that go beyond kin, co-residence, and genealogical proximity in personal relationships. In order to identify the diversity of arrangements, we present a typology of personal configurations and compare their importance across three different countries, controlling for individuals’ position in social and family structures. Results show that while the family of procreation and parents are important overall, there are different patterns of sociability across countries: more inclusive of extended kin in Portugal, more inclusive of non-kin (friends) in Switzerland, and more focused on the nuclear family in Lithuania.

URLhttps://www.palgrave.com/us/book/9781349952625

Changing meanings of family in personal relationships: a comparative perspective

TitleChanging meanings of family in personal relationships: a comparative perspective
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsWall, K, Gouveia, R, Aeby, G, Cesnuityté, V
EditorWall, K, Gouveia, R, Cesnuityté, V, Widmer, E, Gauthier, J-A
Book TitleFamilies and personal networks: an international comparative perspective
Series TitlePalgrave Macmillan Studies in Family and Intimate Life
Chapter4
Pagination99–130
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan
Place PublishedLondon, United Kingdom
KeywordsComparative analysis, family, Family meanings, family networks, Kin ties, Lithuania, Non-kinties, Overlap, Portugal, Switzerland
Abstract

Family relationships in late modernity are considered to be embedded in wider processes of closeness and commitment, which go beyond blood and alliance principles. The aim of this chapter is to identify who is perceived as family in personal relationships and to examine the overlap between personal configurations and family networks. Despite some blurring of ties, findings show that there continue to be fairly clear boundaries between kin and non-kin ties in the predominant meanings of family. The salience of close kin ties emerges in all three countries, as well as the focus on long-lasting friendship; but there are country-specific aspects with regard to the categories and number of ties imbued with family meaning, the degree of overlap, and the types of family network.

URLhttps://www.palgrave.com/us/book/9781349952625#

A first portrait of personal networks in a comparative perspective

TitleA first portrait of personal networks in a comparative perspective
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsGouveia, R, Aeby, G, Cesnuityté, V
EditorGouveia, R, Cesnuityté, V, Wall, K, Widmer, E, Gauthier, J-A
Book TitleFamilies and personal networks: An international comparative perspective
Series TitlePalgrave Macmillan Studies in Family and Intimate Life
Chapter3
Pagination61–97
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan
Place PublishedLondon, United Kingdom
KeywordsAcquaintanceship, Co-residence, Comparative analysis, Homophily, individualization, Kinship, Lithuania, personal networks, Pluralization, Portugal, Switzerland
Abstract

In order to understand how changing trends of individualization and pluralization have been affecting personal networks in the three countries, this chapter provides an overview of the core characteristics of personal networks in Portugal, Switzerland, and Lithuania. First, we compare the size and composition of personal networks across the three countries, by highlighting the commonalities and differences. Secondly, we examine how the characteristics of personal networks are shaped by individuals’ birth-cohort, structural conditions, and normative contexts. Findings show that the underlying mechanisms of proximity linked to kinship, friendship, co-residency, long-lasting acquaintanceship, and gender homophily are differently valued in the three countries. These differences are discussed in the light of individuals’ social context, but also according to national historical pathways, welfare regimes, and social-economic conditions.

URLhttps://www.palgrave.com/us/book/9781349952625
DOI10.1057/978-1-349-95263-2_3

Contextualising personal networks across birth cohorts and countries

TitleContextualising personal networks across birth cohorts and countries
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsRamos, V, Cesnuityté, V, Wall, K, Joye, D
EditorWall, K, Widmer, E, Gauthier, J-A, Cesnuityté, V, Gouveia, R
Book TitleFamilies and personal networks : An international comparative perspective
Series TitlePalgrave Macmillan Studies in Family and Intimate Life
Chapter2
Pagination19-60
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan
Place PublishedLondon, United Kingdom
KeywordsBirth cohorts, Comparative analysis, Contextualisation, family, Family trajectories, Historical analysis, life course, Lithuania, Normative framework, Personal relationships, Portugal, Switzerland
Abstract

This chapter starts with a depiction of the macro-level features of Portugal, Switzerland, and Lithuania. Assuming the core tenets of the life course, it draws attention to relevant historical markers in each country’s chronology since the 1950s, and to crucial political and social transformations. At a second stage, it provides a multidimensional depiction of the birth cohorts, which highlights communalities and dissimilarities namely in terms of biographical pathways, familial and occupational trajectories, normative frameworks, and structural conditions. By doing so, we offer a profile of each cohort across countries, which is a key element in understanding how individuals build their family and personal relationships. Underlying our approach is the theoretical stance that personal networks are best understood within the broader contexts in which they exist and evolve.

URLhttps://www.palgrave.com/us/book/9781349952625#

Introduction

TitleIntroduction
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsWidmer, E, Gauthier, J-A, Wall, K, Cesnuityté, V, Gouveia, R
EditorWidmer, E, Gauthier, J-A, Wall, K, Cesnuityté, V, Gouveia, R
Book TitleFamilies and personal networks
Series TitlePalgrave Macmillan Studies in Family and Intimate Life
Chapter1
Pagination1–18
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan
Place PublishedLondon, United Kingdom
URLwww.palgrave.com/de/book/9781349952625

Personality, tobacco consumption, physical inactivity, obesity markers, and metabolic components as risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the general population

TitlePersonality, tobacco consumption, physical inactivity, obesity markers, and metabolic components as risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the general population
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsPocnet, C, Antonietti, J-P, Strippoli, M-PF, Glaus, J, Rossier, J, Preisig, M
JournalPsychology, Health & Medicine
Volume22
Issue8
Pagination932–939
ISSN1354-8506, 1465-3966
Keywordscardiovascular risk factors, metabolic components, obesity markers, personality
Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between personality traits, tobacco consumption, physical inactivity, obesity markers and metabolic components as cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). A total of 2543 participants from the general population (CoLaus|PsyCoLaus) had provided complete information on physical health and unhealthy behaviors and completed the Revised NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Our results show a strong cross-correlation between obesity markers and metabolic components suggesting that their combination could represent an important CVRF. Moreover, socio-demographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, and physical inactivity were associated with both obesity markers and metabolic components latent traits. The conscientiousness personality trait was significantly associated with obesity markers, but played a modest role. Indeed, higher conscientiousness was associated with lower level of obesity indicators. However, no link between personality and metabolic components were found. In sum, our data suggest that health related behaviours have more effect on the development of cardiovascular diseases than personality traits.

URLhttps://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13548506.2016.1255767
DOI10.1080/13548506.2016.1255767

The importance of career adaptability, career resilience, and employability in designing a successful life

TitleThe importance of career adaptability, career resilience, and employability in designing a successful life
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsRossier, J, Ginevra, MCristina, Bollmann, G, Nota, L
EditorMaree, K
Book TitlePsychology of career adaptability, employability and resilience
Pagination65–82
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Place PublishedDordrecht, the Netherlands
ISBN Number978-3-319-66953-3, 978-3-319-66954-0
Keywordscareer adaptability, employability, resilience, well-being
Abstract

Advocating a holistic approach, the life design paradigm suggests that individual and environmental constraints as well as resources shape people’s career journeys and their broader evolution. In particular, career adaptability and career resilience are central personal resources that help people in designing their career. In specific situations, people are able to activate these resources, and career interventions can strengthen them. Career adaptability and career resilience also help people to better use their environment’s resources, which eventually contribute to their employability. Over time, these constant interactions between people and their environment can lead to the development of negative spirals or virtuous circles, ultimately fostering adaptive functioning, and a successful life. People’s career path and employability thus depend on a combination of personal, and environmental factors, occurring within specific organizational, social, economic, and political structures.

URLhttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-66954-0_5
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-66954-0_5

Les méthodes qualitatives en psychologie et sciences humaines de la santé

TitleLes méthodes qualitatives en psychologie et sciences humaines de la santé
Publication TypeBook
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsSantiago-Delfosse, M, Carral, MDel Rio
Number of Pages274
PublisherDunod
Place PublishedParis, France
Abstract

Depuis une dizaine d'années, les méthodes qualitatives en sciences humaines, sociales ou psychologiques se sont fortement développées et ont trouvé une réelle visibilité. L'objectif de cet ouvrage est d'ouvrir des pistes méthodologiques pour les chercheurs et de leur offrir un panorama non exhaustif d'outils de recherche qualitatifs en lien avec des théories et des recherches de terrain. Ce manuel à la fois théorique, méthodologique et, avant tout, pratique, introduit le lecteur aux débats caractérisant la recherche en sciences humaines et sociales et en psychologie. Il présente une série de perspectives et d'outils reconnus au niveau international aujourd'hui. Il suit une structure d'ensemble qui introduit aux méthodes qualitatives dès leurs fondements : phénoménologie, théorie ancrée, analyse thématique et des discours, analyse de l'activité et place des logiciels dans la recherche qualitative.

Ecological validity as a key feature of external validity in research on human development

TitleEcological validity as a key feature of external validity in research on human development
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsDiehl, M, Wahl, H-W, Freund, A
JournalResearch in Human Development
Volume14
Issue1
Pagination177–181
Date Published08/2017
ISSN1542-7609
Keywordsliveswebsite
Abstract

This issue addresses the topic of ecological validity in research in human development across the life span. Although recent developments in study design, data collection methods, and data analysis techniques have greatly advanced researchers’ ability to collect large amounts of data on large groups of individuals in natural settings, it is important to approach these data with a reflected understanding of their ecological validity. Just because data were collected using everyday and familiar stimuli or ecological momentary assessment methods does not mean automatically that the ecological validity of these data is guaranteed and can go unquestioned.

URLhttps://doi.org/10.1080/15427609.2017.1340053
DOI10.1080/15427609.2017.1340053

Social motives predict loneliness during a developmental transition

TitleSocial motives predict loneliness during a developmental transition
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsNikitin, J, Freund, A
JournalSwiss Journal of Psychology
Volume76
Pagination145–153
ISSN1421-0185
Keywordsdevelopmental transition, loneliness, social approach and social avoidance motives, social motivation, young adulthood
Abstract

Establishing new social relationships is important for mastering developmental transitions in young adulthood. In a 2-year longitudinal study with four measurement occasions (T1: n = 245, T2: n = 96, T3: n = 103, T4: n = 85), we investigated the role of social motives in college students’ mastery of the transition of moving out of the parental home, using loneliness as an indicator of poor adjustment to the transition. Students with strong social approach motivation reported stable and low levels of loneliness. In contrast, students with strong social avoidance motivation reported high levels of loneliness. However, this effect dissipated relatively quickly as most of the young adults adapted to the transition over a period of several weeks. The present study also provides evidence for an interaction between social approach and social avoidance motives: Social approach motives buffered the negative effect on social well-being of social avoidance motives. These results illustrate the importance of social approach and social avoidance motives and their interplay during developmental transitions.

URLhttps://econtent.hogrefe.com/doi/abs/10.1024/1421-0185/a000201
DOI10.1024/1421-0185/a000201

Some evidence for the usefulness of an optimal foraging theory perspective on goal conflict and goal facilitation

TitleSome evidence for the usefulness of an optimal foraging theory perspective on goal conflict and goal facilitation
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsTomasik, M, Knecht, M, Freund, A
JournalJournal of Personality and Social Psychology
Volume113
Issue6
Pagination962–980
Date Published12/2017
ISSN1939-1315
Keywordsdisengagement, goal systems, multiple goals, optimal foraging
Abstract

Based on optimal foraging theory, we propose a metric that allows evaluating the goodness of goal systems, that is, systems comprising multiple goals with facilitative and conflicting interrelations. This optimal foraging theory takes into account expectancy and value, as well as opportunity costs, of foraging. Applying this approach to goal systems provides a single index of goodness of a goal system for goal striving. Three quasi-experimental studies (N = 277, N = 145, and N = 210) provide evidence for the usefulness of this approach for goal systems comprising between 3 to 10 goals. Results indicate that persons with a more optimized goal-system are more conscientious and open to new experience, are more likely to represent their goals in terms of means (i.e., adopt a process focus), and are more satisfied and engaged with their goals. Persons with a suboptimal goal system tend to switch their goals more often and thereby optimize their goal system. We discuss limitations as well as possible future directions of this approach.

URLhttp://psycnet.apa.org/fulltext/2017-37176-001.html
DOI10.1037/pspp0000165
PubMed ID28857579

Does early child care affect children's development?

TitleDoes early child care affect children's development?
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsFelfe, C, Lalive, R
JournalJournal of Public Economics
Volume159
Pagination33–53
Date Published01/2018
ISSN0047-2727
Keywordschild development, Early child care, marginal treatment effects, Rationing
Abstract

We study how early child care (ECC) affects children's development in a marginal treatment effect framework that allows for rich forms of observed and unobserved effect heterogeneity. Exploiting a reform in Germany that induced school districts to expand ECC at different points in time, we find strong but diverging effects on children's motor and socio-emotional skills. Children who were most likely to attend ECC benefit in terms of their motor skill development. Children who were least likely to attend ECC gain in terms of their socio-emotional skill development, especially boys and children from disadvantaged families, such as those with low education or migration backgrounds. Simulating expansions of ECC, we find that a moderate expansion fosters motor skills for all children and language skills for boys and immigrant children. A progressive expansion of ECC improves all children's socio-emotional development but neither their motor skills nor their language skills.

URLhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047272718300148
DOI10.1016/j.jpubeco.2018.01.014

Introduction: situating children of migrants across borders and origins

TitleIntroduction: situating children of migrants across borders and origins
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsBolzman, C, Le Goff, J-M, Bernardi, L
EditorBolzman, C, Bernardi, L, Le Goff, J-M
Book TitleSituating children of Migrants across Borders and Origins. A Methodological Overview
Pagination1–21
PublisherCham-Heidelberg: Springer
Place PublishedBerlin, Germany

Marseille années 68

TitleMarseille années 68
Publication TypeBook
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsFillieule, O, Sommier, I
PublisherLes Presses de Sciences Po
Place PublishedParis, France
ISBN Number978-2-7246-2225-6
Abstract

L'histoire de Mai 68 ne s’est pas écrite qu’à Paris, et ses auteurs ne sont pas que des étudiants. Partout en France, d’autres territoires, d’autres militants ont contribué à faire de la décennie qui suivit l’explosion de mai un « âge d’or des luttes », jouant parfois un rôle de catalyseur au plan national.
C’est le cas de Marseille et des Bouches-du-Rhône, sur lesquels cet ouvrage porte un regard singulier. En dépouillant des archives récemment déclassifiées, notamment celles des Renseignements généraux, et en collectant de nombreuses interviews de soixantehuitards marseillais, il exhume une histoire sociale et politique inédite de la région. De la fin des années 1960 au milieu des années 1980, il dévoile une cité phocéenne à l’avant-garde de combats tels que la défense des travailleurs immigrés et la reconnaissance des mouvements féministes, lesbiens et homosexuels.
Loin de la vulgate officielle centrée sur quelques figures médiatiques, Marseille années 68 fait revivre les actions de milliers de femmes et d’hommes « ordinaires » qui se sont engagés pour un monde plus juste et qui ont payé lourdement cet engagement, aussi bien sur le plan professionnel que personnel.
Il réhabilite une époque et une génération souvent mises en accusation et instrumentalisées à des fins politiques.

Self-administered event history calendars: a possibility for surveys?

TitleSelf-administered event history calendars: a possibility for surveys?
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsMorselli, D, Le Goff, J-M, Gauthier, J-A
JournalContemporary Social Science
Pagination1–24
Date Published01/2018
ISSN2158-2041
Keywordsevent history calendar, mode comparison, paper-and-pencil, self-adminsitration, survey methods
Abstract

Event history calendar (EHC) methods have received increasing attention from the life-course surveys that have been used in recent years. According to the literature, the EHC provides high-quality data in retrospective surveys because it replicates the autobiographical memory retrieval processes. EHC interviewing is processed through the visual display of individual life events, phases and transitions on a chronological calendar grid, which allows respondents to effectively link events as well as to identify and correct possible dating errors. Moreover, interactive interviewing facilitates the retrieval mechanism. In this study, we test whether the absence of an interviewer and/or interactive interviewing are associated with a reduction in data quality. This aspect is particularly relevant for surveys, as the absence of the interviewer would allow the implementation of EHC methods in self-administered questionnaires. In Study 1, an experimental design compared the results of self-administered paper-and-pencil EHCs in the presence and absence of an interviewer. In Study 2, a quasi-experimental approach compared the results of an interactive EHC interview with those of a self-administered paper-and-pencil EHC. Neither of these studies showed systematic differences between self-administered and interviewer-administered EHCs. The self-administered mode performs better when the instructions and layout design of the questionnaire are clear and detailed. Our findings suggest that the visual properties of the EHC could be a sufficient condition for collecting good retrospective data in the self-administered mode once the initial burden of the task is overcome.

URLhttps://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/21582041.2017.1418528
DOI10.1080/21582041.2017.1418528

Structured cooperative learning as a means for improving average achievers' mathematical learning in fractions

TitleStructured cooperative learning as a means for improving average achievers' mathematical learning in fractions
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsBuchs, C, Wiederkehr, V, Filippou, D, Sommet, N, Darnon, C
JournalInovacije u nastavi - časopis za savremenu nastavu (Teaching Innovations)
Volume28
Number3
Pagination15–35
ISSN0352-2334
Abstract

In primary school, learning fractions is a central mathematical objective. However, the mastery of basic procedures involving fractions presents a difficulty for many students. The aim of the current intervention is to introduce structured cooperative learning as means to improve students' learning, particularly for average achievers. Previous research has underscored that heterogeneous groups might be deleterious for average achievers because they are excluded by the teacher learner relationships that is likely to take place between low and high achievers students. This intervention proposes structuring interactions in order to boost the learning of average achievers in heterogeneous groups. We hypothesize that highly structured cooperative learning should improve average achievers' understanding of the content-targeted in group work as well as progress in terms of fractions learning, when compared to low-structured cooperative learning. In this intervention, 108 fifth graders worked cooperatively in heterogeneous triads (a low, average, and high achiever). The triads had to express the length of one segment using three rulers with different sub-units and respecting three mathematical skills regarding fractions. Triads were randomly assigned to a low-structured or high-structured cooperative learning condition. In the low-structured condition, no specific structure was provided. (i.e., they organized their cooperative work as they wished). In the high-structured condition, each student became an expert for one part before working in the triad and endorsed different responsibilities. The results indicated that highly structured cooperative learning favors the understanding of the targeted task, especially for average-ability students. Moreover, students at all levels progressed from the baseline test to the post-test. Indeed, low and high achievers had the same progression in both conditions, whereas average achievers progressed more in the highly structured condition. Results are discussed in terms of new teaching methods that could efficiently increase average achievers' performances.

URLhttp://scindeks.ceon.rs/Article.aspx?artid=0352-23341503015B
DOI10.5937/inovacije1503015B
PubMed ID352

Reconfigurations familiales et relations intergénérationnelles dans les réseaux transnationaux

TitleReconfigurations familiales et relations intergénérationnelles dans les réseaux transnationaux
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsVatz-Laaroussi, M, Le Gall, J, Bolzman, C, Rachédi, L
EditorVatz-Laaroussi, M
Book TitleDynamiques familiales, sociojuridiques et citoyennes dans la migration
EditionL'Harmattan
Pagination59–82
Place PublishedParis

The socialization of performance goals

TitleThe socialization of performance goals
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsSommet, N, Pillaud, V, Meuleman, B, Butera, F
JournalContemporary Educational Psychology
Volume49
Pagination337–354
Date Published04/2017
ISSN0361-476X
KeywordsLeadership, Performance goals, Self-competence, Social identification, socialization
Abstract

How are competitive goals transmitted over time? As most competence-relevant contexts (e.g., school) are hierarchy-relevant (e.g., teacher/students), supervisors’ performance-approach goals (desire to outperform others) should play a major role. We formulated a performance goals socialization hypothesis: The higher a supervisor’s performance-approach goals, the stronger the effects of time on followers’ performance-approach and -avoidance (desire not to be outperformed by others) goals. Study 1, involving coaches and their soccer players, showed that indeed a performance goals socialization phenomenon exists. Study 2, involving thesis supervisors and their Ph.D. students, showed its consequences: performance goals socialization reduced subordinates’ motivation and well-being over time. Study 3, involving video game team leaders and their players, showed its enabling condition: the stronger the subordinates’ identification to their team, the more pronounced the performance goals socialization. Study 4, involving schoolteachers and their pupils, showed its directional moderator: the higher the subordinates’ perceived self-competence, the higher the change in performance-approach goals over time, and the lower that in performance-avoidance goals. It is then crucial to consider social hierarchy when studying goal formation.

URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0361476X17300711
DOI10.1016/j.cedpsych.2017.03.008

Pages