The role of cue detection for prospective memory development across the lifespan

TitleThe role of cue detection for prospective memory development across the lifespan
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsHering, A, Wild-Wall, N, Gajewski, P, Falkenstein, M, Kliegel, M, Zinke, K
JournalNeuropsychologia
Volume93
Pagination289-300
Date Publisheddec
DOI10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2016.11.008
Citation Key3240
Refereed DesignationRefereed

The relation of obesity to performance in verbal abilities, processing speed, and cognitive flexibility in old age: The role of cognitive reserve

TitleThe relation of obesity to performance in verbal abilities, processing speed, and cognitive flexibility in old age: The role of cognitive reserve
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsIhle, A, Mons, U, Perna, L, Oris, M, Fagot, D, Gabriel, R, Kliegel, M
JournalDementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Volume42
Issue1-2
Pagination117-126
DOI10.1159/000448916
Citation Key3241
Refereed DesignationRefereed

La féminisation des enseignant·e·s-chercheur·e·s en France: entre conformité et transgression de genre

TitleLa féminisation des enseignant·e·s-chercheur·e·s en France: entre conformité et transgression de genre
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsLe Feuvre, N
EditorBuisson-Fenet, H
Book TitleÉcole des filles, école des femmes. L’institution scolaire face aux parcours, normes et rôles professionnels sexués
EditionFirst
Pagination207-220
Publisherde Boeck supérieur
Place PublishedBrussels, Belgium
KeywordsAcademic career, France, gender
Citation Key3257
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Social networks and job access for the unemployed: Work ties for the upper-middle class, communal ties for the working class

TitleSocial networks and job access for the unemployed: Work ties for the upper-middle class, communal ties for the working class
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsOesch, D, von Ow, A
JournalEuropean Sociolocial Review
Volume33
Issue2
Pagination275-291
DOI10.1093/esr/jcx041
Citation Key3149
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Changes in the order of family life events in 20th-century Europe: A cross-regional perspective

TitleChanges in the order of family life events in 20th-century Europe: A cross-regional perspective
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsBürgin, R, Schumacher, R, Ritschard, G
JournalHistorical life course studies
Volume4
Pagination41-58
Date Publishedmar
Keywordsevent sequences, family-life events, second demographic transition, transition to adulthood
Abstract

This article analyzes the evolution of the sequencing of family life events in Europe during the second half of the 20th century using individual data from the European Social Survey and from the Generation and Gender Program. Considering the four events ‘leaving the parental home‘, ‘first cohabiting union‘, ‘first marriage‘, and ‘first parenthood‘, we hypothesize a transition from a traditional standard event order characterized by a high degree of synchronization between the first three events towards a new standard whose features are a high degree of de-synchronization between first cohabitation and first marriage and a reversal of the traditional order between first marriage and first parenthood. We also hypothesize cross-regional differences in the timing and in the shape of the transition from one standard to another. Applying specifically developed tools to visualize and analyze event sequences, we show important regional variation in the evolution of the sequencing of family life events. Hardly any change can be observed in Southern Europe, where the sequencing behavior of family events has remained highly standardized and rooted in the traditional standard. In Eastern Europe where family event sequences have become less standardized and where a particular sequence characterized by the reversal of the traditional order between leaving home and family formation has been observed, the hypothesized transition is still in its very beginning. In Western Europe the transition is clearly on its way, but no re-standardization towards a new standard can be observed as for now. As expected, the transition is most advanced in Northern Europe, where evidence for a certain re-standardization process in the sequencing of family life events has been found.

Citation Key3163
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Analyzing state sequences with probabilistic suffix trees: the PST R package

TitleAnalyzing state sequences with probabilistic suffix trees: the PST R package
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsGabadinho, A, Ritschard, G
JournalJournal of Statistical Software
Volume72
Issue3
Pagination1-39
Date Publishedaug
Keywordscategorical sequences, Probabilistic suffix trees, R, Sequence data mining, sequence visualization, state sequences, Variable-length Markov chains
Abstract

This article presents the PST R package for categorical sequence analysis with probabilistic suffix trees (PSTs), i.e., structures that store variable-length Markov chains (VLMCs). VLMCs allow to model high-order dependencies in categorical sequences with parsimonious models based on simple estimation procedures. The package is specifically adapted to the field of social sciences, as it allows for VLMC models to be learned from sets of individual sequences possibly containing missing values; in addition, the package is extended to account for case weights. This article describes how a VLMC model is learned from one or more categorical sequences and stored in a PST. The PST can then be used for sequence prediction, i.e., to assign a probability to whole observed or artificial sequences. This feature supports data mining applications such as the extraction of typical patterns and outliers. This article also introduces original visualization tools for both the model and the outcomes of sequence prediction. Other features such as functions for pattern mining and artificial sequence generation are described as well. The PST package also allows for the computation of probabilistic divergence between two models and the fitting of segmented VLMCs, where sub-models fitted to distinct strata of the learning sample are stored in a single PST.

DOI10.18637/jss.v072.i03
Citation Key3164
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Memory self-efficacy and memory performance in older adults: The mediating role of task persistence

TitleMemory self-efficacy and memory performance in older adults: The mediating role of task persistence
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsBeaudoin, M, Desrichard, O
JournalSwiss Journal of Psychology
Volume76
Issue1
Pagination23-33
Date Publishedjan
Keywordsaging, memory performance, memory self-efficacy, motivation, persistence, study time
Abstract

The present research examined the role persistence plays in mediating the positive impact of memory self-efficacy (MSE, i.e., one’s confidence in one’s own memory abilities) on older adults’ memory performance. In three studies, 81 to 264 older adults completed an MSE scale and carried out an explicit episodic memory task, during which we recorded their study time as an indicator of task persistence. We found that higher MSE was indirectly related to better memory performance through greater persistence during encoding, as measured by longer study time. Indirect effects were of medium size, with point estimates ranging from 0.64 to 0.85. This mediation effect was independent of factors that could be confounded with study time: chronological age, memory span, prior level of memory performance, episodic memory ability, and use of learning strategies (encoding strategies and self-testing). When confronted with difficult memory tasks, older adults who lack confidence in their memory abilities cease their efforts prematurely, which contributes to a decrease in their performance. Encouraging older adults to persist in the face of difficulties during encoding and retrieval may help alleviate the negative impact of low MSE on memory performance and allow researchers and clinicians to more accurately estimate older adults’ true memory abilities.

DOI10.1024/1421-0185/a000188
Citation Key3169
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Is Medical Environment Detrimental to Memory? A Test of A White Coat Effect on Older People’s Memory Performance

TitleIs Medical Environment Detrimental to Memory? A Test of A White Coat Effect on Older People’s Memory Performance
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of PublicationIn Press
AuthorsSchemmler, M, Desrichard, O
JournalClinical Gerontologist
PaginationAdvance Online Publication
Date Publishedmar
Keywordsaging, memory, memory problem testing, memory self-efficacy, Self-efficacy, white coat effect
Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Test if older people’s memory assessment may be impacted by a medical environment and if memory self-efficacy (MSE) will moderate this effect. METHODS: We evaluated memory performance and MSE in 27 older adults in 2 different settings: a (control) university research environment, or a (proxy-medical) neuropsychological examination environment. RESULTS: The results showed a MSE × environment interaction effect on story-recall performance, with older people with low MSE performing less well in the proxy-medical situation than in the control situation and with elders with high MSE performing better in the proxy-medical situation than in the control situation. The same marginally-significant effect for the word-span task was also found. CONCLUSIONS: Testing in a medical environment undermines the memory performance of older people with low MSE and boosts performance of older people with high MSE. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: We encourage neuropsychologists to pay attention to psychosocial determinants of older people’s performance when assessing their memory abilities.

DOI10.1080/07317115.2017.1307891
Citation Key3176
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Spiritual Care - eine psychologische Annäherung

TitleSpiritual Care - eine psychologische Annäherung
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsPerrig-Chiello, P, Margelisch, K
EditorNoth, I, Wenz, G, Schweizer, E
Book TitlePastoral and Spiritual Care across Religions and Cultures
EditionFirst
Pagination71-82
PublisherVandenhoeck & Ruprecht
Place PublishedGöttingen, Germany
Keywordskritische Lebensereignisse, Psychologie, Schweiz, Spiritual Care
Abstract

Spirituality is a travelling concept among different disciplines. As for psychology, spirituality has long been a neglected topic – especially in the academic context. However, during the last decade there has been an increase of theoretical and empirical work, mainly emerging from positive and life-span developmental psychology. This research focuses spirituality either as an element of well-being or as predictor of well-being and health (e.g. as a coping strategy), or finally as an outcome after dealing with critical life events (i.e. spiritual growth). This knowledge has an impact on spiritual care – and vice-versa spiritual care – as a growing inter- and transdisciplinary field – has an impact on clinical psychological practice. Against this background the aims of the present contribution are: - To provide some empirical data on spiritual and religious practice in Switzerland (Swiss Social Report 2012). - To shed light on the importance of spirituality in times of incertitude, namely critical life events (such as divorce and bereavement), and two biographical transitions, the transition into the second life half (midlife transition), and the transition to very old age.

Citation Key3179
Refereed DesignationNon-Refereed

The Rise of Economic Insecurity in the EU: Concepts and Measures

TitleThe Rise of Economic Insecurity in the EU: Concepts and Measures
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsRanci, C, Parma, A, Bernardi, L, Beckfield, J
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume62
Pagination1-29
PublisherNCCR LIVES
Keywordsclass, family, inequality, poverty, social structure, welfare state
Abstract

Economic instability, an array of social changes, and welfare state retrenchment place the question of economic insecurity high on the scholarly and political agenda. We contribute to these debates by drawing conceptual distinctions between inequality and insecurity. Fundamentally, inequality concerns the distribution of resources across individuals, while insecurity concerns exposure to multiple social risks that can deteriorate living conditions. The multiplicity and dynamism of insecurity inform our development of a new measure of economic insecurity, using longitudinal data from the EU-SILC database. Substantively, we then use our new measure to analyze the distribution of insecurity in Europe. Our analysis shows that insecurity is widespread across Europe, affecting countries with different inequality and welfare structures. Second, it is widespread across the income distribution and social classes affecting a relevant part of the middle classes. This result suggests that the European Social Model is increasingly failing to insulate households from economic insecurity.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2017.62
Citation Key3200

Gender differences in the acceptance of the Muslim headscarf

TitleGender differences in the acceptance of the Muslim headscarf
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsSarrasin, O
EditorFaniko, K, Lorenzi-Cioldi, F, Sarrasin, O, Mayor, E
Book TitleGender and Social Hierarchies: Perspectives from social psychology
Pagination159–174
PublisherRoutledge
Place PublishedNew York, USA
Keywordsattitudes, gender, headscarf, Muslim
Abstract

Based on data from the 2011 Swiss post-electoral survey Selects (N = 1531), we examined gender differences in the acceptance of the headscarf. On the one hand, women’s greater support for multiculturalism may translate into positive attitudes toward the headscarf as an expression of tolerance towards diversity. On the other hand, women may not approve of a garment often presented as a symbol of patriarchal oppression. Our results gave weight to the former assumption: Swiss women expressed a greater support to the Muslim headscarf than Swiss men, and they did so because they held more left-wing and multicultural ideologies.

Citation Key1609
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Critical views of the nation, national attachment, and attitudes toward immigrants in Switzerland

TitleCritical views of the nation, national attachment, and attitudes toward immigrants in Switzerland
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsSarrasin, O, Fasel, N, Green, E
EditorSchmidt, P, Seethaler, J, Grimm, J, Huddy, L
Book TitleDynamics of national identity: Media and societal factors of what we are
Pagination192-205
PublisherRoutledge
Place PublishedLondon, united Kingdom
Keywordsattitudes, critical views, immigration, nationalism, patriotism, Switzerland, threat
Citation Key1615
Refereed DesignationNon-Refereed

Lone parenthood in the life course

TitleLone parenthood in the life course
Publication TypeBook
Year of Publication2017
Series EditorBernardi, L, Mortelmans, D
Series TitleLife Course and Social Policies
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedNew York, USA
Keywordscomparative research, family, life course, lone parents, poverty
Abstract

Lone parenthood is an increasing reality in the XXI century, reinforced by the diffusion of divorce and separation. Despite the significance of this phenomenon, current studies and official statistics say relatively little about the process leading to lone parenthood, the nature of such living arrangement (whether it is transitory, stable, or recurrent) and the end of it. This book offers new insights in the lives of lone parents from a wide number of angles: first, it addresses the definition of lone parenthood as family form and its challenges; it explores the social representations of lone parents; it measures and explains pathways in and out of lone parenthood, the trajectories of lone parents in terms of income, poverty, labor market behavior, wellbeing, and health. When possible, these aspects are addressed in a comparative perspective. The experts in the book come from many disciplines and backgrounds and throw new light on lone parenthood, too often reduced to a state of poverty profiting from welfare benefits. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, the authors in the volume show that lone parenthood is a heterogeneous world of mothers and fathers dealing with specific difficulties and developing specific strategies and perspectives on parenthood and family to overcome such difficulties.

Citation Key1849
Refereed DesignationNon-Refereed

Impacts of Globalization Processes on the Swiss National Business Elite Community: A Diachronic Analysis of Swiss Large Corporations (1980–2010)

TitleImpacts of Globalization Processes on the Swiss National Business Elite Community: A Diachronic Analysis of Swiss Large Corporations (1980–2010)
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsDavoine, E, Ginalski, S, Mach, A, Ravasi, C
JournalResearch in the Sociology of Organizations
Volume43
Pagination131-163
Keywordsbusiness elite, corporate network, globalization, Switzerland, transnational community
Abstract

This paper investigates the impacts of globalization processes on the Swiss business elite community during the 1980-2010 period. Switzerland has been characterized in the 20th century by its extraordinary stability and by the strong cohesion of its elite community. To study recent changes, we focus on Switzerland’s 110 largest firms’ by adopting a diachronic perspective based on three elite cohorts (1980, 2000, and 2010). An analysis of interlocking directorates allows us to describe the decline of the Swiss corporate network. The second analysis focuses on top managers’ profiles in terms of education, nationality as well as participation in national community networks that used to reinforce the cultural cohesion of the Swiss elite community, especially the militia army. Our results highlight a slow but profound transformation of top management profiles, characterized by a decline of traditional national elements of legitimacy and the emergence of new “global” elements. The diachronic and combined analysis brings into light the strong cultural changes experienced by the national business elite community.

DOI10.1108/S0733-558X20150000043017
Citation Key3130
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Fostering humor

TitleFostering humor
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsRuch, W, Hofmann, J
EditorProctor, C
Book TitlePositive psychology interventions in practice
Pagination65-80
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedNew York, USA
Citation Key3132
Refereed DesignationRefereed

A systematic review of the career adaptability literature and future outlook

TitleA systematic review of the career adaptability literature and future outlook
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of PublicationIn Press
AuthorsJohnston, C
JournalJournal of Career Assessment
PaginationAdvance online publication
DOI10.1177/1069072716679921
Citation Key3134
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Mit Innovation gegen Armut. Sozial innovative Projekte im Kontext der Armutsprävention und Armutsbekämpfung in Kantonen, Städten und Gemeinden

TitleMit Innovation gegen Armut. Sozial innovative Projekte im Kontext der Armutsprävention und Armutsbekämpfung in Kantonen, Städten und Gemeinden
Publication TypeBook
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsDittmann, J, Heinzmann, S, Knoepfel, L
Series TitleBeiträge zur Sozialen Sicherheit
PublisherBundesamt für Sozialversicherungen
Place PublishedBern, Switzerland
KeywordsArmut, Innovation, Projekte
Abstract

Die Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz hat im Auftrag des Bundesamtes für Sozialversicherungen (BSV) im Rahmen des Nationalen Programms gegen Armut eine empirische Studie über sozial innovative Projekte im Kontext der Armutsprävention und -bekämpfung in allen 26 Kantonen sowie in zehn Städten und 28 Gemeinden durchgeführt. Ziel der Untersuchung war es, sozial innovative Projekte in der Armutsprävention und -Bekämpfung zu erheben, zu systematisieren und zu vertiefen. In der vorliegenden Studie wurde von einem mehrdimensionalen Armutsverständnis ausgegangen, welches über den monetären Mangel hinausgeht. Armut wird in diesem Sinne als Mangel in zentralen Lebensbereichen verstanden. Dem mehrdimensionalen Armutsverständnis folgend wurden Projekte in die Bestandserhebung aufgenommen, welche neben materiellen Aspekten auch soziale und bildungsbezogene Bereiche von Armut beinhalten sollten. Aufgrund der finanziellen und zeitlichen beschränkten Ressourcen musste auf die Erhebung weiterer Projekte für Armutsbetroffene in anderen wichtigen Lebensbereichen, wie z.B. im Bereich der Gesundheit und Wohnen verzichtet werden.

Citation Key3140
Refereed DesignationNon-Refereed

Test–retest: Agreement or reliability?

TitleTest–retest: Agreement or reliability?
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsBerchtold, A
JournalMethodological Innovations
Volume9
Pagination1-7
Date Publishedoct
Keywordsagreement, Bland–Altman plot, concordance coefficient, correlation, reliability, Test–retest
Abstract

Test–retest is a concept that is routinely evaluated during the validation phase of many measurement tools. However, this term covers at least two related but very different concepts: reliability and agreement. Reliability is the ability of a measure applied twice upon the same respondents to produce the same ranking on both occasions. Agreement requires the measurement tool to produce twice the same exact values. An analysis of research papers showed that the distinction between both concepts remains anything but clear, and that the current practice is to evaluate reliability only, generally on the basis of the sole Pearson’s correlation. This practice is very problematic in the context of longitudinal studies because it becomes difficult to determine whether a difference between two successive observations is attributable to a real change of the respondents or only to the characteristics of the measurement tool, which then leads to a possible misinterpretation of the results. More focus should be given on the real interpretation of linear correlation, and when agreement is required in addition to reliability, then correct alternative, such as the Bland–Altman plot, should be more generally used.

DOI10.1177/2059799116672875
Citation Key2994
Refereed DesignationRefereed

A direct local search method and its application to a markovian model

TitleA direct local search method and its application to a markovian model
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsTaushanov, Z, Berchtold, A
JournalStatistics, optimization and information computing
Volume5
Pagination19-34
Date Publishedmar
Keywordsheuristic, Hidden Mixture Transition Distribution model, hill-climbing method, longitudinal data, optimization
Abstract

While the hidden mixture transition distribution (HMTD) model is a powerful framework for the description,analysis, and classification of longitudinal sequences of continuous data, it is notoriously difficult to estimate because of the complexity of its solution space. In this paper, we explore how a new heuristic specifically developed for the HMTD performs compared to different standard optimization algorithms. This specific heuristic can be classified as a hill-climbing method, and different variants are proposed, including a jittering procedure to escape local maxima and measures to speed up the convergence. Different popular approaches are used for comparison, including PSO, SA, GA, NM, L-BFGS-B, and DE. The same HMTD model was optimized on different datasets and the results were compared in terms of both fit to the data and estimated parameters. Even if the complexity of the problem implies that no one algorithm can be considered as an overall best, our heuristic performed well in all situations, leading to useful solutions in terms of both fit and interpretability. The principles presented in this paper can be easily applied to other similar statistical models with complex solution spaces.

DOI10.19139/soic.v5i1.253
Citation Key3104
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Ageing and the reconciliation of history and biographies: An approach to fill the gap

TitleAgeing and the reconciliation of history and biographies: An approach to fill the gap
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsOris, M
EditorMatthijs, K, Hin, S, Matsuo, H, Kok, J
Book TitleThe future of historical demography. Upside down and inside out
Pagination126-129
PublisherAcco
Place PublishedLeuven, Belgium/Den Haag, The Netherlands
Keywordsageing, life calendars, longevity
Citation Key1941
Refereed DesignationRefereed

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