Do cross-border workers cause unemployment in the host country? The case of Switzerland

TitleDo cross-border workers cause unemployment in the host country? The case of Switzerland
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsWeber, S, Ferro-Luzzi, G, Ramirez, J
JournalEspace populations sociétés
VolumeAdvance online publication
Number2017-3
Pagination1-29
ISSN0755-7809
Keywordscross-border workers, Granger causality, unemployment
Abstract

Switzerland’s labour market traditionally accommodates many cross-border workers: their number is currently above 300 000, corresponding to almost 7 % of the workforce. Social acceptance of such workers has however deteriorated over the last years, and questions arise over their potential adverse impacts on the local labour market. Using quarterly data over 1996-2017, we investigate the claim that border workers create unemployment among the local labour force, conducting both time-series analyses at the country-level and longitudinal analyses at the canton-level. Our findings indicate that causality runs mainly from unemployment to border workers, the latter being repelled when unemployment increases. The opposite effect, from border workers to unemployment appears to be weaker or even non-existent.
Le marché suisse du travail accueille traditionnellement de nombreux frontaliers : ils sont actuellement plus de 300 000, soit près de 7 % de la population active. L’acceptation sociale de ces travailleurs s’est toutefois détériorée au cours des dernières années. En utilisant des données trimestrielles sur la période 1996-2017, nous étudions l’affirmation selon laquelle les travailleurs frontaliers créent du chômage parmi la population locale, effectuant à la fois des analyses de séries chronologiques au niveau national et des analyses longitudinales au niveau cantonal. Nos résultats indiquent que la causalité va principalement du chômage vers les travailleurs frontaliers, ces derniers étant repoussés lorsque le chômage augmente. L’effet inverse, des travailleurs frontaliers vers le chômage, semble être plus faible, voire inexistant.

URLhttp://journals.openedition.org/eps/7301
DOI10.4000/eps.7301

On the efficiency of school tracking: a perspective from outcomes in dual VET in Switzerland

TitleOn the efficiency of school tracking: a perspective from outcomes in dual VET in Switzerland
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsLatina, J, Ramirez, J
JournalJournal for Labour Market Research
Volume51
Number2
Pagination1–19
Date Published09/2017
ISSN2510-5027
KeywordsAbstract learning, Contextualised learning, Dual vocational education and training, tracking, Zero inflated models
Abstract

In this paper, we examine the efficiency of the sort done by the Swiss lower secondary school tracking system, looking at students’ outcomes in dual vocational education and training (VET)—the most common education type at the upper secondary level in the country. We discuss a simple Ricardian model about the process of school tracking based on the absolute advantage (i.e., the ability) of students in abstract learning, as opposed to contextualised learning which is more decisive in dual VET. The mismatch created by the tracking system for certain types of students is key to explain the relative track effect on outcomes in dual VET. Using administrative panel data for the Canton of Geneva, we estimate a series of zero inflated models. All results support the assumption of a miss-allocation of students to lower secondary school tracks. We thus conclude that the efficiency of the sort related to the tracking system could be improved, were students sorted on the basis of their comparative and not absolute advantage in each form of learning.

URLhttps://labourmarketresearch.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s12651-017-0233-5
DOI10.1186/s12651-017-0233-5

Honte et migration : une relation complexe à saisir [Shame and migration: a complex relationship to grasp]

TitleHonte et migration : une relation complexe à saisir [Shame and migration: a complex relationship to grasp]
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsBolzman, C, Gakuba, T-O, Amalaman, M
JournalPensée plurielle
Volume1
Number44
Pagination129–138
Date Published03/2017
ISSN1376-0963
Keywordsautrui significatifs, emotions, groupe de référence, honte, migration
Abstract

Cet article explore une dimension émotionnelle dans la vie sociale des individus, à savoir la question de la honte en relation avec la migration. À partir du cas des migrants d’Afrique de l’Ouest en Europe, et plus particulièrement en Suisse, il s’agit de comprendre la place que les sentiments de honte et de culpabilité ont pu jouer dans leur projet migratoire, dans ce que les migrants résidant en Europe communiquent aux personnes restées au pays d’origine, dans le positionnement que les personnes qui n’ont pas l’autorisation de résider de manière légitime en Europe adoptent par rapport à la question d’un éventuel retour au pays d’origine. Il s’agit également de contextualiser et discuter les résultats, ainsi que de situer certaines implications pour l’intervention.
This article explores an emotional dimension in the social life of individuals, namely the issue of shame in relation to migration. The case study of migrants from West Africa to Europe, and more particularly in Switzerland, allows to study the place that feelings of shame and guilt may have played in their migratory project, but also in the information that migrants living in Europe provide to their fellow countrymen living in their country of origin. The article also explores the stand adopted by migrants who do not have the authorization to reside legitimately anymore in Europe with respect to a possible return to their home country. Finally, the article contextualises and discusses the main results and deals with some implications for intervention.

URLhttps://www.cairn.info/revue-pensee-plurielle-2017-1-page-129.htm
DOI10.3917/pp.044.0129

Étudiants du « Sud » en Suisse romande : de la précarité lors des études aux risques de brain waste dans le cadre de la mobilité internationale

TitleÉtudiants du « Sud » en Suisse romande : de la précarité lors des études aux risques de brain waste dans le cadre de la mobilité internationale
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsBolzman, C, Guissé, I
JournalJournal of international Mobility
Volume1
Number5
Pagination133–156
Date Published12/2017
ISSN2296-5165
Keywordsbrain waste, employabilité, étudiants africains, latino-américains, mobilité internationale, précarité, Suisse
Abstract

À l’ère de la globalisation, la mobilité internationale des étudiants est considérée comme une valeur importante par les établissements d’éducation supérieure et les gouvernements européens. Différents États cherchent en effet à attirer les «cerveaux » dans leurs établissements d’enseignement supérieur. Le fait d’effectuer une partie ou la totalité des études à l’étranger est perçu comme une opportunité d’accroître le capital humain des étudiants et leur employabilité sur un marché du travail international devenu plus concurrentiel et flexible. Toutefois, lorsque l’on observe la situation de la majorité des étudiants en provenance des pays africains et latino-américains dans les États européens, on constate une précarisation de leurs conditions de vie pendant les années de formation, ceci tant sur le plan du statut juridique que sur le plan socioéconomique, ce qui peut avoir des effets sur leur rendement académique. De plus, certains États n’autorisent pas ou limitent l’accès à l’emploi de ces étudiants une fois leur formation achevée. Ils ne peuvent souvent pas non plus trouver un travail en lien avec leur diplôme dans leur pays d’origine. Ainsi, plutôt que l’accroissement de leur employabilité, on observe­rait un phénomène de gaspillage de cerveaux ou alors une mobilité plus ou moins contrainte vers des États tiers, notamment d’Amérique du Nord ou d’Océanie, où les risques de déqualification sont aussi bien présents. En contrepoint des rapports Nord-Sud, souvent envisagés en termes de « brain drain » ou de « brain gain », cet article s’interroge sur l’émergence d’un troisième processus, le « brain waste ». Le matériel empirique est composé d’entretiens qualitatifs avec 64 étudiants interviewés dans une première phase, puis dans une deuxième phase, avec 22 diplômés de la HES-SO originaires de l’Afrique et de l’Amérique latine et ayant suivi principalement les filières de santé et des ingénieurs des Cantons de Genève et de Vaud qui sont celles qui accueillent le plus grand nombre d’étudiants étrangers.,
In a globalized world, international student mobility is highly valued by higher education institutions and European governments. Different states indeed seek to attract “brains” in their higher education institutions. Going abroad to study, part or all of a curriculum, is seen as an opportunity to increase students’ human capital and employability in a more competitive and flexible international labor market. When we look at the situation of most students from African and Latin American countries in European states, their living conditions are, however, precarious during their years of study, both in terms of legal status and socio-economic conditions, which may have an impact on their academic performance. Moreover, some countries do not allow or restrict access to employment for these students once they have completed their studies. Quite often, they cannot find a job related to their degree in their country of origin either. Thus, rather than an increase in their employability, we observe a phenomenon of brain waste or another mobility, more or less imposed, towards other countries, especially in North America or Oceania, where the risks of de-skilling are real. As a counterpoint to the North-South relations, often considered in terms of “brain drain” or “brain gain,” this article examines the emergence of a third process, the “brain waste.” The empirical data originates from 64 students’ qualitative interviews followed, in a second phase, by 22 interviews from HES-SO (University of Applied Sciences and Arts—Western Switzerland) graduates from Africa and Latin America who followed health and engineering studies in the Cantons of Geneva and Vaud, which host the largest number of foreign students.

URLhttps://www.cairn.info/revue-journal-of-international-mobility-2017-1-page-133.html
DOI10.3917/jim.005.0133

Situating children of migrants across borders and origins: A methodological overview

TitleSituating children of migrants across borders and origins: A methodological overview
Publication TypeBook
Year of Publication2017
Series EditorBolzman, C, Bernardi, L, Le Goff, J-M
Series TitleLife Course Research and Social Policies
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedNetherlands
ISBN Number978-94-024-1139-3
Abstract

This open access wide-ranging collation of papers examines a host of issues in studying second-generation immigrants, their life courses, and their relations with older generations. Tightly focused on methodological aspects, both quantitative and qualitative, the volume features the work of authors from numerous countries, from differing disciplines, and approaches. A key addition in a corpus of literature which has until now been restricted to studying the childhood, adolescence and youth of the children of immigrants, the material includes analysis of longitudinal and transnational efforts to address challenges such as defining the population to be studied, and the difficulties of follow-up research that spans both time and geographic space. In addition to perceptive reviews of extant literature, chapters also detail work in surveying the children of immigrants in Europe, the USA, and elsewhere. Authors address key questions such as the complexities of surveying each generation in families where parents have migrated and left children in their country of origin, and the epistemological advances in methodology which now challenge assumptions based on the Westphalian nation-state paradigm. The book is in part an outgrowth of temporal factors (immigrants’ children are now reaching adulthood in more significant numbers), but also reflects the added sophistication and sensitivity of social science surveys. In linking theoretical and methodological factors, it shows just how much the study of these second generations, and their families, can be enriched by evolving methodologies.​

Social dimensions of personal growth following widowhood: A three-wave study

TitleSocial dimensions of personal growth following widowhood: A three-wave study
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsRecksiedler, C, Loter, K, Klaas, H, Hollstein, B, Perrig-Chiello, P
JournalGerontology
Pagination1–17
Date Published12/2017
ISSN0304-324X, 1423-0003
KeywordsEmotional support, older adults, Personal growth, social support, Social support seeking, widowhood
Abstract

BACKGROUND: Losing one's spouse is one of the most stressful life events in old age, yet research on positive consequences of overcoming critical life events describes experiences of personal growth for survivors. OBJECTIVE: Because prior studies conceptualized personal growth as a stable accomplishment of an individual, our study challenges this assumption by examining trajectories of personal growth and its links to two aspects of social support. We assume that personal growth is boosted by heightened levels of loss-related social support seeking during early years of widowhood. However, toward the later stages in the bereavement process, we expect personal growth to be fostered by perceived social embeddedness. DATA AND METHOD: Data stem from a survey on relationships in later life conducted in 2012, 2014, and 2016 in Switzerland. The final analytical sample consisted of 508 individuals aged 50+ years, who were on average 73 years old and widowed for about 3 years at baseline. Longitudinal explorative factor analyses yielded a 3-factorial solution for personal growth. Random-effects group-specific growth curves were used to examine the trajectories of personal growth and its subdimensions, by different levels of loss-related social support seeking and embeddedness in a supportive network, over the first 8 years of widowhood. Our analyses included time-invariant and time-varying covariates. RESULTS: On average, our findings point to a stable trajectory of personal growth after having become widowed in later life. Group-specific analyses, however, showed different courses in the trajectories for specific subdimensions of personal growth - particularly for spiritual change and appreciation of life. Average marginal effects also yielded group differences by loss-related support seeking in the level of personal growth over time, which highlight the importance of social support seeking, rather than social embeddedness, at all stages of the bereavement process. CONCLUSION: Findings underline the importance of a longitudinal and linked-lives perspective on personal growth and point to different pathways regarding its various subdimensions. Future research should further examine the validity of personal growth scales for other populations and consider the possibility to experience personal growth already during the anticipation of a traumatic event (e.g., in the case of long-term caretaking).

URLhttps://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/485916
DOI10.1159/000485916
PubMed ID29402839

Exclusive and inclusive protest in Europe: Investigating values, support for democracy, and life conditions

TitleExclusive and inclusive protest in Europe: Investigating values, support for democracy, and life conditions
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsMorselli, D, Passini, S
JournalJournal of Community & Applied Social Psychology
Pagination1-19
Date Published01/2018
ISSN1099-1298
Keywordsdemocracy, Europe, life-course, protest, values
Abstract

Dissatisfaction with the economic situation and perceived governmental inefficacy in regard to the financial crisis has spawned a widespread feeling of political distrust across Europe. This distrust has been translated into protests against institutional authority that aims at either expanding democratic procedures or supporting xenophobic and populist measures. This research uses European Social Survey data to compare exclusive and inclusive protesters with regard to a number of personal and social values, attitudes toward democratic principles, and different life conditions and socio-economic resources. It also considers contextual factors to investigate how different protesters' profiles are interwoven with socio-economic conditions. The results of a multilevel latent profile analysis show that exclusive and inclusive protesters, despite sharing similar levels of political distrust, differ with regard to key values and political attitudes, and these differences are related to individual and collective living conditions. We argue that unfavourable living conditions play a non-negligible role in increasing the probability of easy (i.e., populist) scapegoat political attitudes. Further support for this hypothesis is provided by the cross-country analysis, which shows that higher levels of exclusive protest are present in countries that were characterized by worse living conditions before the economic crisis.

URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/casp.2345/abstract
DOI10.1002/casp.2345

Changer le monde, changer sa vie : Enquête sur les militantes et militants des années 68 en France

TitleChanger le monde, changer sa vie : Enquête sur les militantes et militants des années 68 en France
Publication TypeBook
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsFillieule, O, Béroud, S, Masclet, C, Sommier, I
PublisherACTES SUD
Place PublishedArles, France
ISBN Number978-2-330-09684-7
Abstract

Cinquante ans après Mai 1968, que sont les militants devenus ? Après avoir jeté toutes leurs forces dans la bataille, cru souvent en l'imminence d'une révolution, suspendu longtemps leurs investissements scolaires, professionnels, voire affectifs pour "faire l'histoire", comment ont-ils vécu l'érosion des espoirs de changement politique ? La force de ce livre tient à un triple déplacement du regard - de Paris aux régions, des têtes d'affiche aux militants ordinaires, de la crise de mai à la séquence historique 1966-1983 - autant qu'à la richesse du matériau exploité : un dépouillement d'archives le plus souvent inexplorées, comme les documents déclassifiés des Renseignements généraux et des centaines de récits de vie recueillis à Lille, Lyon, Marseille, Nantes et Rennes auprès de militants des syndicats ouvriers, des gauches alternatives et du mouvement féministe. Cette mosaïque d'histoires constitue la chair de ce livre et permet de brosser un portrait non impressionniste des soixante-huitards, de leur carrière professionnelle, de leur vie affective, de la continuité de leurs engagements, apportant des réponses enfin étayées aux questions suivantes : la vie des soixante-huitards a-t-elle été bouleversée ou simplement infléchie par le militantisme corps et âme des années 1970 ? En ont-ils tiré profit ou le déclassement social fut-il le prix à payer ? Face aux convictions politiques d'antan, les militants font-ils figure d'apostats ou sont-ils toujours ancrés dans un rapport critique au monde social ? Peut-on dire qu'il existe une génération 68 ou n'est-ce qu'un mythe recouvrant d'un voile épais une hétérogénéité de personnes plus grande qu'on ne l'imaginait ?

Economic conditions and social trust climates in Europe over ten years: An ecological analysis of change

TitleEconomic conditions and social trust climates in Europe over ten years: An ecological analysis of change
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsMorselli, D, Glaeser, S
JournalJournal of Trust Research
Pagination1-19
Date Published03/2018
ISSN2151-5581
KeywordsGuido Möllering, income distribution, inequality, social change, social trust, trust climates
Abstract

Two concurrent positions have driven research on the relationship between economic factors and social trust across countries: While some research has shown that unequal wealth distribution leads to poor social trust, other research has argued that social trust is the precondition to a country's economic performance and distribution of economic resources. Using an ecological linear growth model, this study tests these two concurrent positions with data from the first six rounds of the European Social Survey (ESS). This study focuses on the links between socio-economic conditions and inclusive social capital climates, i.e. social climates where inclusive attitudes and generalised trust are widely extended to outgroups. Two models are estimated with Bayesian methods and then compared. The results support the hypothesis that the diffusion of inclusive social capital climates can predict the improvement of a country's socio-economic conditions. However, they also support the opposite hypothesis, according to which the improvement of socio-economic conditions is pivotal in creating a climate of trust. Slightly stronger results are found for the latter hypothesis, suggesting that the enhancement of economic conditions and income distribution may be pivotal in reinforcing the social fabric.

URLhttps://www.tandfonline.com/doi/ref/10.1080/21515581.2018.1442722?scroll=top
DOI10.1080/21515581.2018.1442722

Enjeux identitaires dans l’évaluation entre pairs : compétition sociale symbolique et menace de la compétence.

TitleEnjeux identitaires dans l’évaluation entre pairs : compétition sociale symbolique et menace de la compétence.
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsMugny, G, Colparet, L, Lalot, F, Quiamzade, A, Sommet, N
EditorStaerklé, C, Butera, F
Book TitleConflits constructifs, conflits destructifs. Regards psychosociaux
Pagination67–84
PublisherEditions Antipodes
Place PublishedSwitzerland
ISBN Number978-2-88901-123-0
Abstract

Fait marquant de la vie sociale, le conflit s’exprime de multiples façons : conflit entre différentes identités de l’individu, conflit entre des valeurs sociales incompatibles, conflit entre individus en compétition, conflit entre groupes minoritaires et majoritaires. En régulant les rapports entre individus et groupes, le conflit intervient continuellement dans la vie quotidienne et contribue ainsi à organiser le vivre ensemble. Surtout connu pour son potentiel déstabilisateur, voire destructeur, le conflit a pourtant aussi des mérites. Le conflit sociocognitif, par exemple, est un moteur de l’apprentissage, et le conflit entre groupes dominants et dominés permet de promouvoir le changement social. Cet ouvrage analyse le conflit en tant que notion clé de la psychologie sociale et propose des regards variés sur différentes dynamiques sociales associées au conflit. Sur la base de nombreuses recherches empiriques, quatre grands champs sont abordés : celui de l’apprentissage et de l’éducation ; celui de la compétition et de la compétence ; celui des trajectoires des minorités et celui de l’intégration sociale. Quatorze chapitres rédigés par des chercheurs et chercheuses des Universités de Lausanne et de Genève récapitulent la littérature scientifique du conflit dans chacun de ces domaines et résument les résultats de leurs études de façon accessible. Cet ouvrage s’adresse autant aux étudiants et aux enseignants intéressés par une analyse psychosociale du conflit qu’aux professionnels et au public plus large souhaitant approfondir leurs connaissances dans ce domaine.

I Will Put My Law in Their Minds: Social Control and Cheating Behavior Among Catholics and Protestants

TitleI Will Put My Law in Their Minds: Social Control and Cheating Behavior Among Catholics and Protestants
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsQuiamzade, A, Sommet, N, Laborde, JBurgos, L'Huillier, J-P, Guiso, L
JournalJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion
Volume56
Number2
Pagination365–382
Date Published06/2017
ISSN1468-5906
KeywordsCatholics, cheating, intrinsic-extrinsic religiousness, Protestants, religion, social control
Abstract

Catholics and Protestants differ in terms of social autonomy versus heteronomy. We propose that the regulation of behavior in accordance with social norms depends on the social control exercised by an authority for Catholics more than it does for Protestants. Two experiments measured cheating behavior (the transgression of a social norm) as a function of the religious group (Protestant vs. Catholic) and social control (with vs. without). Catholics were found to be more responsive to social control, that is, to cheat less when social control was salient, whereas Protestants' behavior did not depend on this dimension. In Study 2, intrinsic-extrinsic religiousness was found to mediate this difference. Results are discussed in the context of the effects of public policies based on social control.

URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jssr.12337/abstract
DOI10.1111/jssr.12337

Achievement goals, reasons for goal pursuit, and achievement goal complexes as predictors of beneficial outcomes: Is the influence of goals reducible to reasons?

TitleAchievement goals, reasons for goal pursuit, and achievement goal complexes as predictors of beneficial outcomes: Is the influence of goals reducible to reasons?
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsSommet, N, Elliot, AJ
JournalJournal of Educational Psychology
Volume109
Number8
Pagination1141–1162
ISSN1939-2176(Electronic),0022-0663(Print)
Keywords*Achievement, *Achievement Motivation, *Goals, *Self-Determination, Academic Achievement Motivation, autonomy, College Students, Mastery Learning, Performance, Self-Regulated Learning
Abstract

In the present research, we proposed a systematic approach to disentangling the shared and unique variance explained by achievement goals, reasons for goal pursuit, and specific goal-reason combinations (i.e., achievement goal complexes). Four studies using this approach (involving nearly 1,800 participants) led to 3 basic sets of findings. First, when testing goals and reasons separately, mastery (-approach) goals and autonomous reasons explained variance in beneficial experiential (interest, satisfaction, positive emotion) and self-regulated learning (deep learning, help-seeking, challenging tasks, persistence) outcomes. Second, when testing goals and reasons simultaneously, mastery goals and autonomous reasons explained independent variance in most of the outcomes, with the predictive strength of each being diminished. Third, when testing goals, reasons, and goal complexes together, the autonomous mastery goal complex explained incremental variance in most of the outcomes, with the predictive strength of both mastery goals and autonomous reasons being diminished. Comparable results were observed for performance (-approach) goals, the autonomous performance goal complex, and performance goal-relevant outcomes. These findings suggest that achievement goals and reasons are both distinct and overlapping constructs, and that neither unilaterally eliminates the influence of the other. Integrating achievement goals and reasons offers the most promising avenue for a full account of competence motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

URLhttp://psycnet.apa.org/fulltext/2017-14473-001.pdf
DOI10.1037/edu0000199

Comment vivre de la musique à l'heure de la crise du disque? Le cas des musicien.ne.s ordinaires de Suisse romande

TitleComment vivre de la musique à l'heure de la crise du disque? Le cas des musicien.ne.s ordinaires de Suisse romande
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsBataille, P, Perrenoud, M
JournalSMArt - Études et analyses d'éducation permanente
Number11
URLhttp://smartbe.be/media/uploads/2016/12/11-musique.pdf

Do depressive symptoms predict paranoia or vice versa?

TitleDo depressive symptoms predict paranoia or vice versa?
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsMoritz, S, Göritz, A, McLean, B, Westermann, S, Brodbeck, J
JournalJournal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Volume56
Pagination113–121
Date Published09/2017
ISSN00057916
KeywordsAvoidance, Delusions, depression, Paranoia, Sleep, Worry
Abstract

Background and objectives: Affective versus nonaffective psychoses are today no longer regarded as mutually exclusive disorders. Theorists have recently highlighted the role of affective symptoms in the formation of paranoid beliefs, particularly negative beliefs about the self, interpersonal sensitivity, sleep disturbances, and worrying, which exist along a continuum in the general population. For the present study, we tested the bidirectional causal relationships between paranoia and affect. Method: A large population sample (N = 2,357) was examined at three time-points (baseline, six months, two years) as to the severity of subclinical paranoid beliefs (Paranoia Checklist, PCL) and depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9, PHQ-9). Worrying and avoidance were measured with items from the Maladaptive and Adaptive Coping Style Questionnaire (MAX). Results: Depression and paranoid symptoms were strongly cross-sectionally related (r = 0.69) and showed high stability (r > 0.72). Depressive symptoms at T2 predicted paranoid symptoms at T3 (beta = 0.16; no significant relationship from T1 to T2), whereas paranoid symptoms predicted depressive symptoms from T1 to T2 (beta = 0.09; no significant relationship from T2 to T3). Limitations: Results should be replicated in a sample of paranoid patients, as risk factors for subclinical versus manifest paranoia may differ. Some constructs were measured with single items derived from a new scale. Conclusions: The predictive association of depression to subsequent paranoia was small and confined to the long interval from T2 to T3. Treatments should target both paranoia and depression – irrespective of their causal relationship – particularly as patients with psychosis consider treatment of their emotional problems a priority.

URLhttp://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0005791616301355
DOI10.1016/j.jbtep.2016.10.002

Centenarians in Europe

TitleCentenarians in Europe
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsTeixeira, L, Araújo, L, Jopp, D, Ribeiro, O
JournalMaturitas
Volume104
Pagination90–95
Date Published10/2017
ISSN03785122
KeywordsCentenarians, Demographic analysis, Europe, longevity, Population ageing
Abstract

Objectives: The group of individuals aged 80 and over is growing faster than other segments of the population, and within this group the number of centenarians has risen exponentially worldwide. This paper reports the numbers of centenarians (total, and ratio relative to total population) in 32 European countries and their key characteristics: gender distribution, level of education, and type of residence.
Study design: Population based study. Measures: We used national census data collected in 2011 for individuals aged 100 and over living in Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK. Data on gender, residence and education were used. Results: The total number of centenarians was 89156, corresponding to 17.3 centenarians per 100000 inhabitants of the total population and 98.0 centenarians per 100000 individuals aged 65 and older. Centenarian ratios were highest in France, Italy and Greece, and lowest in Bulgaria, Romania, and Croatia. The percentage of men was 16.5% on average, and ranged from around 13% (Germany, Latvia, Belgium) to 37% (Hungary). Across Europe, 62.7% of the centenarians lived in private households, with a range from 10.9% (Iceland) to 90.0% (Romania). Education levels varied across countries, with an average of 13.6% having no formal education, ranging from 0.0% (the UK, Finland, Iceland) to 61.6% (Portugal). Conclusions: Centenarian numbers have increased substantially since last available data. The findings will inform specific health promotion policies, the strengthening of current services and the development of innovative care systems.

URLhttp://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0378512217305923
DOI10.1016/j.maturitas.2017.08.005

Daily Work Stress and Relationship Satisfaction: Detachment Affects Romantic Couples’ Interactions Quality

TitleDaily Work Stress and Relationship Satisfaction: Detachment Affects Romantic Couples’ Interactions Quality
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsDebrot, A, Siegler, S, Klumb, PL, Schoebi, D
JournalJournal of Happiness Studies
Date Published09/2017
ISSN1389-4978, 1573-7780
KeywordsAffection, Psychological detachment from work, Relationship quality, Romantic relationships, Spillover and crossover, Strain, well-being, work stress
Abstract

Psychologically detaching from work in the private setting is crucial to recover from work stress and promotes well-being. Moreover, broad evidence documents negative effects of stress on relationship quality. However, the interpersonal consequences of detachment have barely been studied. We seek to investigate, in daily life, whether and how detachment affects the interaction quality with the romantic partner. We propose that stress impedes detaching from work, and that detachment in turn, promotes individuals’ ability to engage in positive interactions at home, which increases individual and relational well-being. In a first experience sampling study, involving 106 dual-earner couples with young children, detachment mediated the association between work stress and not only the stressed individual’s, but also their partner’s relationship quality. However, positive (affectionate) behaviors did not play a significant role in this process. In a second experience sampling study, involving 53 dual-earner couples with preschool children, detachment was associated with more affectionate interactions, which in turn, predicted lower actor, but not partner evening strain. These results suggest that detachment from work not only affects the working individual’s, but also their close partner’s the perception of their interactions, showing that detachment plays an important mediating role in the stress spillover and crossover process. This emphasizes the relevance of addressing interpersonal processes in the association between detachment and well-being.

URLhttp://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10902-017-9922-6
DOI10.1007/s10902-017-9922-6
Short TitleDaily Work Stress and Relationship Satisfaction

Variety of transitions into lone parenthood

TitleVariety of transitions into lone parenthood
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsBernardi, L, Larenza, O
EditorBernardi, L, Mortelmans, D
Book TitleLone parenthood in the life course
Chapter5
Pagination93–108
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Place PublishedCham, Switzerland
Abstract

The identification of lone-parent households is a challenging task in an era of new family forms and related changes in the legislation regulating parental care and financial responsibilities. Official statistics hardly reflect the composite reality of households between which children circulate and in which relationships with biological and non-biological parents change during the life course. On the basis of an explorative qualitative study in Switzerland, we focus on the blurry boundaries used to define the transition to lone parenthood. We analyse the life course of individuals whose entry into the lone-parent state fits one of these patterns: (a) becoming a lone parent despite beginning parenthood within a couple (separation, divorce, or widowhood); (b) becoming a lone parent coinciding with becoming a parent (contraceptive failure, partner refusal of parenthood, or lone parenthood as a life choice). We explore the way in which individuals describe their transition to lone parenthood and to which extent they identify themselves as lone parents. We conclude that such transitions are often non-linear processes and are often characterized by much ambivalence. They involve an array of heterogeneous and multidirectional transitions that are not always captured by current surveys, and we suggest how we could improve future measurements of the timing and occurrence of lone parenthood.

URLhttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-319-63295-7#about

Changing lone parents, changing life courses

TitleChanging lone parents, changing life courses
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsLarenza, O, Bernardi, L, Mortelmans, D
EditorBernardi, L, Mortelmans, D
Book TitleLone parenthood in the life course
Chapter1
Pagination1–26
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Place PublishedCham, Switzerland
URLhttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-319-63295-7

Effect of early- and adult-life socioeconomic circumstances on physical inactivity

TitleEffect of early- and adult-life socioeconomic circumstances on physical inactivity
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsCheval, B, Sieber, S, Guessous, I, Orsholits, D, Courvoisier, DS, Kliegel, M, Stringhini, S, Swinnen, SP, Burton-Jeangros, C, Cullati, S, Boisgontier, MP
JournalMedicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
Volume50
Issue3
Pagination476–485
Date Published03/2018
ISSN0195-9131
Keywordsaging, health, Physical inactivity, socioeconomic status
Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the associations between early- and adult-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity (level and evolution) in aging using large-scale longitudinal data. This study used the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe, a 10-yr population-based cohort study with repeated measurements in five waves, every 2 yr between 2004 and 2013. Self-reported physical inactivity (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), household income (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), educational attainment (wave of the first measurement occasion), and early-life socioeconomic circumstance (wave 3) were collected in 22,846 individuals 50 to 95 yr of age. Risk of physical inactivity was increased for women with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.86). With aging, the risk of physical inactivity increased for both sexes and was strongest for those with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (OR, 1.04 (95% CI, 1.02–1.06) for women; OR, 1.02 (95% CI, 1.00–1.05) for men), with the former effect being more robust than the latter one. The association between early-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity was mediated by adult-life socioeconomic circumstances, with education being the strongest mediator. Early-life socioeconomic circumstances predicted high levels of physical inactivity at older ages, but this effect was mediated by socioeconomic indicators in adult life. This finding has implications for public health policies, which should continue to promote education to reduce physical inactivity in people at older ages and to ensure optimal healthy aging trajectories, especially among women with disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances.

URLhttps://insights.ovid.com/pubmed?pmid=29112624
DOI10.1249/MSS.0000000000001472
PubMed ID5768

Conclusions

TitleConclusions
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsWall, K, Cesnuityté, V, Widmer, E, Gauthier, J-A
EditorWall, K, Widmer, E, Gauthier, J-A, Cesnuityté, V, Gouveia, R
Book TitleFamilies and personal networks: An international comparative perspective
Series TitlePalgrave Macmillan Studies in Family and Intimate Life
Chapter8
Pagination225–238
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan
Place PublishedLondon, United Kingdom
URLhttps://www.palgrave.com/us/book/9781349952625#

Pages