Participations sociales au temps de la retraite. Une approche des inégalités et évolutions dans la vieillesse

TitleParticipations sociales au temps de la retraite. Une approche des inégalités et évolutions dans la vieillesse
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsBaeriswyl, M
EditorBurnay, N, Hummel, C
Book TitleL’impensé des classes sociales dans le processus de vieillissement
Series TitlePopulation, Family, and Society
Pagination141–170
PublisherPeter Lang
Place PublishedBern, Switzerland

The relation of education, occupation, and cognitive activity to cognitive status in old age: the role of physical frailty

TitleThe relation of education, occupation, and cognitive activity to cognitive status in old age: the role of physical frailty
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsIhle, A, Gouveia, ÉR, Gouveia, BR, Freitas, DL, Jurema, J, Odim, AP, Kliegel, M
JournalInternational Psychogeriatrics
Volume29
Issue9
Number9
Pagination1469–1474
Date Published09/2017
ISSN1041-6102, 1741-203X
Keywordscognition, cognitive reserve, grip strength, older adults, physical frailty
Abstract

ABSTRACT Background: It remains unclear so far whether the role of cognitive reserve may differ between physically frail compared to less frail individuals. Therefore, the present study set out to investigate the relation of key markers of cognitive reserve to cognitive status in old age and its interplay with physical frailty in a large sample of older adults. Methods: We assessed Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in 701 older adults. We measured grip strength as indicator of physical frailty and interviewed individuals on their education, past occupation, and cognitive leisure activity. Results: Greater grip strength, longer education, higher cognitive level of job, and greater engaging in cognitive leisure activity were significantly related to higher MMSE scores. Moderation analyses showed that the relations of education, cognitive level of job, and cognitive leisure activity to MMSE scores were significantly larger in individuals with lower, compared to those with greater grip strength. Conclusions: Cognitive status in old age may more strongly depend on cognitive reserve accumulated during the life course in physically frail (compared to less frail) older adults. These findings may be explained by cross-domain compensation effects in vulnerable individuals.

URLhttps://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/international-psychogeriatrics/article/relation-of-education-occupation-and-cognitive-activity-to-cognitive-status-in-old-age-the-role-of-physical-frailty/307F7F8D1E1BFEE4DB802FAF1199EFF0
DOI10.1017/S1041610217000795
Short TitleThe relation of education, occupation, and cognitive activity to cognitive status in old age

The influence of training task stimuli on transfer effects of working memory training in aging [L’influence des stimuli de la tâche d’entraînement de la mémoire de travail sur les effets de transfert dans le vieillissement]

TitleThe influence of training task stimuli on transfer effects of working memory training in aging [L’influence des stimuli de la tâche d’entraînement de la mémoire de travail sur les effets de transfert dans le vieillissement]
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsCantarella, A, Borella, E, Carretti, B, Kliegel, M, Mammarella, N, Fairfield, B, de Beni, R
JournalPsychologie Française
Date Published07/2017
ISSN0033-2984
Keywordsaging, Effets de transfert, Emotional stimuli, Entraînement de la mémoire de travail, Mémoire de travail visuospatial, Stimuli émotionnels, transfer effects, vieillissement, Visuospatial working memory, working memory training
Abstract

Working memory (WM) training is known to produce benefits in older adults’ WM. Transfer effects to untrained abilities, however, remain controversial and several aspects are thought to influence the generalization of benefits, including the kind of stimuli used in the training tasks, an aspect rarely addressed in older adults. Objective The present study had two aims: (1) to test the efficacy of a visuospatial WM training procedure in older adults, in terms of specific and transfer effects; (2) to examine in two experiments whether the type of stimuli used in the training task influences the training's effectiveness. Experiment 1 adopted images with a neutral valence while experiment 2 used emotionally positive images based on evidence that older adults tend to remember positive stimuli better. In both experiments, specific training-related gains in a visuospatial WM task (the criterion task) and transfer effects on measures of verbal WM, visuospatial short-term memory, processing speed and reasoning were examined. Maintenance of training benefits was also assessed at an 8-month follow-up. Method Seventy older adult (63–75 years old) volunteers (35 for experiment 1, and 35 for experiment 2) were randomly assigned to a training or active control group. The same visuospatial WM training procedure was used in both experiments, manipulating only the type of stimuli used (neutral in experiment 1 and emotionally positive in experiment 2). Results In both experiments, only trained participants showed specific benefits in the WM criterion task. These gains were also maintained at the follow-up, but no transfer effects were identified. Conclusion Overall, our findings using the present visuospatial WM training paradigm suggest that it is less effective, in terms of transfer effects, than the same paradigm administered verbally in a previous study, regardless of the type of stimuli used in WM training tasks (neutral or emotionally positive stimuli).

S’il a été montré que l’entraînement de la mémoire de travail (MdT) produit des améliorations de la MdT chez les personnes âgées, les effets de transfert de tels entraînements restent controversés. L’étude présentée a deux objectifs : tester l’efficacité d’une procédure d’entraînement de la MdT visuospatiale et examiner l’effet du type de stimuli utilisés dans la tâche d’entraînement sur le résultat de l’entraînement – en termes d’effets spécifiques et de généralisation à des tâches non entraînés. Soixante adultes âgés (63–75 ans) ont suivi une même tâche d’entraînement, comportant soit des stimuli neutres (expérience 1), soit à valence positive (expérience 2). Les résultats montrent un effet positif de l’entraînement sur la tâche critère de la MdT (également maintenu après 8 mois) mais aucun effet de transfert n’a été mis en évidence, indépendamment du type de stimuli utilisés dans les tâches d’entraînement visuospaitale de la MdT.

URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0033298417300213
DOI10.1016/j.psfr.2017.04.005

The effect of the ProBalance Programme on health-related quality of life of community-dwelling older adults: a randomised controlled trial

TitleThe effect of the ProBalance Programme on health-related quality of life of community-dwelling older adults: a randomised controlled trial
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsGouveia, BR, Gouveia, ÉR, Ihle, A, Jardim, HG, Martins, MM, Freitas, DL, Kliegel, M
JournalArchives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Volume74
Pagination26–31
ISSN0167-4943
Keywordsaging, Balance training, Gerontology, Health Promotion, quality of life, rehabilitation
Abstract

Background Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important health outcome in older adults. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of the ProBalance rehabilitation programme on HRQoL of community-dwelling older adults with balance impairments and to investigate whether effects differ between age groups and/or HRQoL components. Methods A single-blind, randomised controlled trial included community-dwelling older adults, aged 65–85, with balance impairments. Participants (n=52) were randomly allocated to an intervention group (IG) or a control group (CG). A rehabilitation programme included gait, balance, functional training, strengthening, flexibility, and 3D training. A group-based intervention was administered over a period of 12 weeks (90-min sessions, 2days per week). A wait-list control group was instructed to maintain their usual activities during the same period. Participants’ HRQoL was assessed using the SF-36 questionnaire. The time points for assessment were at zero (pre-test), 12 (post-test), and 24 weeks (follow up). Results A trend for higher HRQoL in the IG compared to the CG and a significant interaction of group with time were found, with significantly higher increases in HRQoL from the pre-test to the post-test (and to follow-up) in the IG, compared to the CG. Results were independent of age group (young-old vs. old-old) and HRQoL component (physical vs. mental). Conclusions Present results suggest that the ProBalance programme had a beneficial effect on HRQoL of community-dwelling older adults, which held across young and old adults and not only comprised physical but also mental HRQoL. Clinical Trial Registration Number: ACTRN12612000301864.

URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167494317302777
DOI10.1016/j.archger.2017.08.012

The interplay of intention maintenance and cue monitoring in younger and older adults’ prospective memory

TitleThe interplay of intention maintenance and cue monitoring in younger and older adults’ prospective memory
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsBallhausen, N, Schnitzspahn, K, Horn, SS, Kliegel, M
JournalMemory & Cognition
Volume45
Number7
Pagination1113–1125
Date Published06/2017
ISSN0090-502X, 1532-5946
Keywordsaging, Focality, Maintenance, Monitoring, prospective memory
Abstract

The retention phase of a prospective memory (PM) task poses different challenges, including demands to store or maintain an intended action and to realize the right moment for action execution. The interplay of these processes in younger and older adults has not been explored so far. In this study, the authors examined the impact of maintenance load and task focality on PM in 84 younger and in 83 older adults. Results indicated that PM performance and ongoing task response times were strongly affected by maintenance load and age. However, a focality effect only emerged when maintenance load was low but not when attentional resources were deployed for maintaining a more demanding intention. These findings suggest that maintenance and monitoring requirements compete for similar attentional resources. Furthermore, maintenance load may affect postretrieval processes through its impact on working-memory resources, which can restrain the typical advantage of focal over nonfocal PM tasks.

URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.3758/s13421-017-0720-5
DOI10.3758/s13421-017-0720-5

High-density lipoprotein cholesterol level relates to working memory, immediate and delayed cued recall in Brazilian older adults: the role of cognitive reserve

TitleHigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol level relates to working memory, immediate and delayed cued recall in Brazilian older adults: the role of cognitive reserve
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsIhle, A, Gouveia, ÉR, Gouveia, BR, Freitas, DL, Jurema, J, Tinôco, MA, Kliegel, M
JournalDementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Volume44
Pagination84–91
Date Published07/2017
ISSN1420-8008, 1421-9824
Keywordscognitive functioning, Cognitive leisure activity, Cognitive level of job, cognitive reserve, education, High-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, life course, older adults
Abstract

Aims: The present study set out to investigate the relation of the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level to cognitive performance and its interplay with key markers of cognitive reserve in a large sample of older adults. Methods: We assessed tests of working memory, immediate and delayed cued recall in 701 older adults from Amazonas, Brazil. The HDL-C level was derived from fasting blood samples. In addition, we interviewed individuals on their education, past occupation, and cognitive leisure activity. Results: A critically low HDL-C level (

URLhttps://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/477846
DOI10.1159/000477846
Short TitleHigh-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Level Relates to Working Memory, Immediate and Delayed Cued Recall in Brazilian Older Adults
PubMed ID28743108

Assessing adherence to multiple medications and in daily life among patients with multimorbidity

TitleAssessing adherence to multiple medications and in daily life among patients with multimorbidity
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsInauen, J, Bierbauer, W, Lüscher, J, König, C, Tobias, R, Ihle, A, Zimmerli, L, Holzer, B, Battegay, E, Siebenhüner, K, Kliegel, M, Scholz, U
JournalPsychology & Health
Volume32
Issue10
Pagination1233–1248
Date Published10/2017
ISSN0887-0446
Keywordselectronic medication adherence, multimorbidity, multiple chronic conditions, multiple medications, polypharmacy, self-report
Abstract

Objective: Chronic conditions often require multiple medication intake. However, past research has focused on assessing overall adherence or adherence to a single index medication only. This study explored adherence measures for multiple medication intake, and in daily life, among patients with multiple chronic conditions (i.e. multimorbidity). Design: Eighty-four patients with multimorbidity and multiple-medication regimens completed three monthly panel questionnaires. A randomly assigned subsample additionally completed a 30-day daily diary. Main outcome measure: The Non-Adherence Report; a brief self-report measure of adherence to each prescribed medication (NAR-M), and in daily life. We further assessed the Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS), and a subsample of participants were randomised to electronic adherence monitoring. Results: The NAR-M indicated M = 94.7% adherence at Time 1 (SD = 9.3%). The NAR-M was significantly correlated with the MARS (rt1 = .52, rt2 = .57, and rt3 = .65; p

URLhttps://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/08870446.2016.1275632
DOI10.1080/08870446.2016.1275632
PubMed ID28043163

Intra-individual variability from a lifespan perspective: a comparison of latency and accuracy measures

TitleIntra-individual variability from a lifespan perspective: a comparison of latency and accuracy measures
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsFagot, D, Mella, N, Borella, E, Ghisletta, P, Lecerf, T, de Ribaupierre, A
JournalJournal of Intelligence
Volume6
Number1
Pagination1-18
Date Published03/2018
Keywordsintra-individual variability, life-span, reaction time, working memory
Abstract

Within-task variability across trials (intra-individual variability (IIV)) has been mainly studied using latency measures but rarely with accuracy measures. The aim of the Geneva Variability Study was to examine IIV in both latency and accuracy measures of cognitive performance across the lifespan, administering the same tasks to children, younger adults, and older adults. Six processing speed tasks (Response Time (RT) tasks, 8 conditions) and two working memory tasks scored in terms of the number of correct responses (Working Memory (WM)—verbal and visuo-spatial, 6 conditions), as well as control tasks, were administered to over 500 individuals distributed across the three age periods. The main questions were whether age differences in IIV would vary throughout the lifespan according (i) to the type of measure used (RTs vs. accuracy); and (ii) to task complexity. The objective of this paper was to present the general experimental design and to provide an essentially descriptive picture of the results. For all experimental tasks, IIV was estimated using intra-individual standard deviation (iSDr), controlling for the individual level (mean) of performance and for potential practice effects. As concerns RTs, and in conformity with a majority of the literature, younger adults were less variable than both children and older adults, and the young children were often the most variable. In contrast, IIV in the WM accuracy scores pointed to different age trends—age effects were either not observed or, when found, they indicated that younger adults were the more variable group. Overall, the findings suggest that IIV provides complementary information to that based on a mean performance, and that the relation of IIV to cognitive development depends on the type of measure used.

URLhttp://www.mdpi.com/2079-3200/6/1/16
DOI10.3390/jintelligence6010016
Short TitleIntra-Individual Variability from a Lifespan Perspective

Age and sex differences in intra-individual variability in a simple reaction time task

TitleAge and sex differences in intra-individual variability in a simple reaction time task
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsGhisletta, P, Renaud, O, Fagot, D, Lecerf, T, de Ribaupierre, A
JournalInternational Journal of Behavioral Development
Volume42
Issue2
Pagination294–299
Date Published03/2018
ISSN0165-0254
Keywordsgeneralized additive models, intra-individual variability, lifespan, Simple reaction time
Abstract

While age effects in reaction time (RT) tasks across the lifespan are well established for level of performance, analogous findings have started appearing also for indicators of intra-individual variability (IIV). Children are not only slower, but also display more variability than younger adults in RT. Yet, little is known about potential moderating sex effects on RT-IIV. We analyzed responses in a simple RT task with 120 trials in children, younger, and older adults. To best capture sex differences we used generalized additive models (GAMs), a semi-parametric regression approach, to fit splines relating nonlinearly age to RT, and capable of testing sex differences therein. This method is more adequate to test sex differences in nonlinear age relations than polynomial regression. Results show that (a) males are faster than females (except in the older adults), and (b) in younger and older adults, males are less variable than females. No sex difference in IIV emerged in children. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that sex differences in RT variability may be attributable to brain effects of sex hormones, in particular estrogen, whose receptors are present in several brain regions involved in information processing and attention, which are systems involved in the regulation of variability in information processing. Thus, according to this hypothesis, sex differences in RT-IIV should be present after puberty, but not in pre-pubertal children.

URLhttp://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0165025417739179
DOI10.1177/0165025417739179

‘And we are still here’: Life courses and life conditions of Italian, Spanish and Portuguese retirees in Switzerland

Title‘And we are still here’: Life courses and life conditions of Italian, Spanish and Portuguese retirees in Switzerland
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsBolzman, C, Vagni, G
EditorVlase, I, Voicu, B
Book TitleGender, Family, and Adaptation of Migrants in Europe - A Life Course Perspective
Pagination75–97
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan
Place PublishedLondon, United Kingdom
Abstract

This book discusses the challenges faced by international migrants and returnees after years of experience in other countries....

Notes

status: Advance online publication

URLwww.palgrave.com/gb/book/9783319766560

Four-week strategy-based training to enhance prospective memory in older adults: targeting intention retention is more beneficial than targeting intention formation

TitleFour-week strategy-based training to enhance prospective memory in older adults: targeting intention retention is more beneficial than targeting intention formation
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsIhle, A, Albiński, R, Gurynowicz, K, Kliegel, M
JournalGerontology
Volume63
Issue6
Pagination560–571
Date Published01/2018
ISSN0304-324X, 1423-0003
Keywordsimagery, old age, prospective memory, Rehearsal, Strategy-based training
Abstract

Background: So far, training of prospective memory (PM) focused on very short instances (single sessions) and targeted the intention-formation phase only. Objective: We aimed to compare the effectiveness of 2 different 4-week strategy-based PM training types, namely imagery training (targeting the encoding of the PM intention in the intention-formation phase) versus rehearsal training (targeting the maintenance of the PM intention in the intention-retention phase) in older adults. Methods: We used a 4-week training protocol (8 sessions in total, 2 sessions per week). From the 44 participants, 21 were randomly assigned to the imagery training (vividly imagining a mental picture to memorize the connection between the PM cue words and related actions during intention formation) and 23 to the rehearsal training (rehearsing the PM cue words during intention retention). The criterion PM task was assessed before and after the training. Results: Comparing the effectiveness of both training types, we found a significant time by training type interaction on PM accuracy in terms of PM cue detection, F(1, 42) = 6.07, p = 0.018, η2p = 0.13. Subsequent analyses revealed that the rehearsal training was more effective in enhancing PM accuracy in terms of PM cue detection than the imagery training. Conclusion: Strategy-based PM training in older adults targeting the maintenance of the PM intention in the intention-retention phase may be more effective in enhancing PM accuracy in terms of PM cue detection than the strategy targeting the encoding of the PM intention in the intention-formation phase. This suggests that for successful prospective remembering, older adults may need more support to keep the PM cues active in memory while working on the ongoing task than to initially encode the PM intention.

URLhttp://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/485796
DOI10.1159/000485796
Short TitleFour-Week Strategy-Based Training to Enhance Prospective Memory in Older Adults
PubMed ID28675907

Time-based prospective memory in children and adolescents with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

TitleTime-based prospective memory in children and adolescents with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsSouchay, C, Dubourg, L, Ballhausen, N, Schneider, M, Cerf, C, Schnitzspahn, K, Faivre, L, Kliegel, M, Eliez, S
JournalThe Clinical Neuropsychologist
Pagination1–12
Date Published11/2017
ISSN1385-4046
Keywords22q11.2 deletion syndrome, prospective memory, time checking
Abstract

Objective: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, also known as velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) is a genetic disorder caused by a microdeletion on chromosome 22q11.2 and characterized by marked impairment in visual attention and executive function. The present study examined if this cognitive deficit extends to prospective memory (the type of memory involved in remembering to perform actions in the future). Method: 20 participants with 22q11.2DS aged between 6 and 14 were included in the study as well as 22 typically developing individuals (TDC) aged 6–12. To measure prospective memory, participants were asked to play a driving game (the Dresden Cruiser). This time-based prospective memory task required children to remember to refuel their car when the fuel level was low by pressing a refuel button while driving. Results and discussion: Participants with 22q11.2DS remembered less often to refuel the car. Furthermore, participants with 22q11.2DS checked the fuel gage significantly less often than the controls. Conclusions: Participants with 22q11.2DS therefore demonstrate difficulties completing a time-based prospective memory task. This can be explained by a generally less frequent time checking behavior in comparison to TDC.

URLhttps://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13854046.2017.1403652
DOI10.1080/13854046.2017.1403652

Prospective and retrospective memory are differentially related to self-rated omission and commission errors in medication adherence in multimorbidity

TitleProspective and retrospective memory are differentially related to self-rated omission and commission errors in medication adherence in multimorbidity
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsIhle, A, Inauen, J, Scholz, U, König, C, Holzer, B, Zimmerli, L, Battegay, E, Tobias, R, Kliegel, M
JournalApplied Neuropsychology: Adult
Volume24
Issue6
Pagination505–511
ISSN2327-9095
Keywordsforgetting, medication adherence, multimorbidity, prospective remembering
Abstract

We investigated the relations of self-rated omission errors (i.e., forgetting to take one’s medication) and commission errors (i.e., unnecessary repetitions of medication intake because of forgetting that it has already been taken) in medication adherence in multimorbidity to prospective and retrospective memory performance. Moreover, we examined whether these relations were moderated by the number of medications that had to be taken. Eighty-four patients with multimorbidity (aged 28–84 years, M = 62.4) reported medication adherence regarding the last seven days and the number of medications they had to take. In addition, we administered psychometric tests on prospective memory (PM) and retrospective memory performance. We found that reported omission errors in medication adherence were related significantly to lower PM performance. This relationship was increased in individuals with a lower number of medications. In comparison, reported commission errors in medication adherence were related significantly to lower retrospective memory performance. This relationship was increased in individuals with a larger number of medications. Present data suggest that omission errors in medication adherence in multimorbidity may reflect primarily PM errors, particularly if few medications have to be taken, while commission errors may reflect mainly retrospective memory failures, especially with a large number of medications that need to be taken as prescribed. From an applied neuropsychological perspective, these results underline the importance of trying to enhance PM and retrospective memory performance in patients with multimorbidity.

URLhttps://doi.org/10.1080/23279095.2016.1209675
DOI10.1080/23279095.2016.1209675
PubMed ID27450575

On the plausibility of socioeconomic mortality estimates derived from linked data: a demographic approach

TitleOn the plausibility of socioeconomic mortality estimates derived from linked data: a demographic approach
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsLerch, M, Spoerri, A, Jasilionis, D, Fernandèz, FViciana
JournalPopulation Health Metrics
Volume15
Issue26
Pagination1-15
Date Published07/2017
ISSN1478-7954
KeywordsAndalusia, Finland, Indirect estimation, Linked data, Lithuania, mortality, Quality assessment, Socioeconomic differentials of mortality, Switzerland
Abstract

Background Reliable estimates of mortality according to socioeconomic status play a crucial role in informing the policy debate about social inequality, social cohesion, and exclusion as well as about the reform of pension systems. Linked mortality data have become a gold standard for monitoring socioeconomic differentials in survival. Several approaches have been proposed to assess the quality of the linkage, in order to avoid the misclassification of deaths according to socioeconomic status. However, the plausibility of mortality estimates has never been scrutinized from a demographic perspective, and the potential problems with the quality of the data on the at-risk populations have been overlooked. Methods Using indirect demographic estimation (i.e., the synthetic extinct generation method), we analyze the plausibility of old-age mortality estimates according to educational attainment in four European data contexts with different quality issues: deterministic and probabilistic linkage of deaths, as well as differences in the methodology of the collection of educational data. We evaluate whether the at-risk population according to educational attainment is misclassified and/or misestimated, correct these biases, and estimate the education-specific linkage rates of deaths. Results The results confirm a good linkage of death records within different educational strata, even when probabilistic matching is used. The main biases in mortality estimates concern the classification and estimation of the person-years of exposure according to educational attainment. Changes in the census questions about educational attainment led to inconsistent information over time, which misclassified the at-risk population. Sample censuses also misestimated the at-risk populations according to educational attainment. Conclusion The synthetic extinct generation method can be recommended for quality assessments of linked data because it is capable not only of quantifying linkage precision, but also of tracking problems in the population data. Rather than focusing only on the quality of the linkage, more attention should be directed towards the quality of the self-reported socioeconomic status at censuses, as well as towards the accurate estimation of the at-risk populations.

URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5513033/
DOI10.1186/s12963-017-0143-3
Short TitleOn the plausibility of socioeconomic mortality estimates derived from linked data
PubMed ID28705165

Periurbanization and the transformation of the urban mortality gradient in Switzerland

TitlePeriurbanization and the transformation of the urban mortality gradient in Switzerland
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsLerch, M, Oris, M, Wanner, P
JournalPopulation, English edition
Volume72
Number1
Pagination93–122
ISSN1958-9190
Keywordsmultilevel analysis, periurbanization, Switzerland, urban living, urban mortality, urbanization
Abstract

While regional differences in life expectancy have flattened out in Switzerland, we investigate the effect of periurbanization on the geography of mortality. Using data from vital statistics and censuses, we find an increasing intra-urban differentiation of mortality since 1980, especially in the largest and most recently sprawling cities. A non-linear gradient, in which life expectancy is lower in city centres and rural areas than in urban agglomeration belts, has emerged. Age- and cause-specific mortality profiles suggest that lifestyles specific to the population of the city centres and related to the spatial concentration of disadvantaged groups play a dominant role in shaping this pattern. Considering mortality at ages 20-64, a multilevel model applied to census-linked mortality data shows how the mortality advantage observed in periurban areas can be explained by a concentration of highly educated individuals and of families. Excess mortality at ages 20-64 in city centres, by contrast, arises from more deprived material and social living environments. However, these socioeconomic consequences of periurbanization fail to account for the urban mortality gradient observed among older people.

Mientras que las diferencias regionales de mortalidad en Suiza han prácticamente desaparecido ¿qué efectos produce la peri-urbanización sobre la geografía de la mortalidad? A partir de datos del estado civil y de los censos, se observa un aumento de los diferenciales intra-urbanos de mortalidad desde 1980, particularmente en las ciudades más grandes o en las que han crecido recientemente. El gradiente que aparece no es linear: la esperanza de vida es más baja en el centro de las ciudades y en las zonas rurales que en la cintura de las aglomeraciones urbanas. Los perfiles de mortalidad por edad y causa sugieren que este fenómeno se debe tanto a los estilos de vida propios a los residentes del centro de las ciudades como a la concentración espacial de los grupos desfavorecidos. Un modelo multinivel aplicado a los datos de la mortalidad a 20-64 años asociados a los censos, muestra que la menor mortalidad observada en las zonas periurbanas se debe a la concentración de individuos muy instruidos y de familias. Por el contrario, la mortalidad excesiva de los 20-64 anos en el centro de las ciudades refleja desventajas materiales y sociales. Sin embargo, las consecuencias socioeconómicas de la periurbanización no son suficientes para explicar el gradiente de la mortalidad urbana observado en las personas mayores.

URLhttps://muse.jhu.edu/article/658434

Les contours du concept de vulnérabilité

TitleLes contours du concept de vulnérabilité
Publication TypeConference Paper
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsOris, M
Conference NameXVIè colloque national de démographie et d'études des populations: Les populations vulnérables
PublisherCUDEP
Place PublishedBordeaux, France
Citation Keyoris_michel_les_2017

Individual differences in developmental change: quantifying the amplitude and heterogeneity in cognitive change across old age

TitleIndividual differences in developmental change: quantifying the amplitude and heterogeneity in cognitive change across old age
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsMella, N, Fagot, D, Renaud, O, Kliegel, M, de Ribaupierre, A
JournalJournal of Intelligence
Volume6
Number10
Pagination1-14
Date Published02/2018
Keywordscognitive aging, cognitive heterogeneity, individual differences, longitudinal method
Abstract

It is well known that cognitive decline in older adults is of smaller amplitude in longitudinal than in cross-sectional studies. Yet, the measure of interest rests generally with aggregated group data. A focus on individual developmental trajectories is rare, mainly because it is difficult to assess intraindividual change reliably. Individual differences in developmental trajectories may differ quantitatively (e.g., larger or smaller decline) or qualitatively (e.g., decline vs improvement), as well as in the degree of heterogeneity of change across different cognitive domains or different tasks. The present paper aims at exploring, within the Geneva Variability Study, individual change across several cognitive domains in 92 older adults (aged 59–89 years at baseline) over a maximum of seven years and a half. Two novel, complementary methods were used to explore change in cognitive performance while remaining entirely at the intra-individual level. A bootstrap based confidence interval was estimated, for each participant and for each experimental condition, making it possible to define three patterns: stability, increase or decrease in performance. Within-person ANOVAs were also conducted for each individual on all the tasks. Those two methods allowed quantifying the direction, the amplitude and the heterogeneity of change for each individual. Results show that trajectories differed widely among individuals and that decline is far from being the rule.

URLhttp://www.mdpi.com/2079-3200/6/1/10
DOI10.3390/jintelligence6010010
Short TitleIndividual Differences in Developmental Change

Association of early- and adult-life socioeconomic circumstances with muscle strength in older age

TitleAssociation of early- and adult-life socioeconomic circumstances with muscle strength in older age
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsCheval, B, Boisgontier, M, Orsholits, D, Sieber, S, Guessous, I, Gabriel, R, Stringhini, S, Blane, D, Van der Linden, BWA, Kliegel, M, Burton-Jeangros, C, Courvoisier, D, Cullati, S
JournalAge and Ageing
Volume47
Issue3
Pagination398–407
Date Published05/2018
Keywordsageing, hand strength, health, older people, socioeconomic status
Abstract

Background: socioeconomic circumstances (SEC) during a person’s lifespan influence a wide range of health outcomes. However, solid evidence of the association of early- and adult-life SEC with health trajectories in ageing is still lacking. This study assessed whether early-life SEC are associated with muscle strength in later life—a biomarker of health—and whether this relationship is caused by adult-life SEC and health behaviours. Methods: we used data from the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe, a 12-year population-based cohort study with repeated measurement in six waves (2004–15) and retrospective collection of life-course data. Participants’ grip strength was assessed by using a handheld dynamometer. Confounder-adjusted logistic mixed-effect models were used to examine the associations of early- and adult-life SEC with the risk of low muscle strength (LMS) in older age. Results: a total of 24,179 participants (96,375 observations) aged 50–96 living in 14 European countries were included in the analyses. Risk of LMS was increased with disadvantaged relative to advantaged early-life SEC. The association between risk of LMS and disadvantaged early-life SEC gradually decreased when adjusting for adult-life SEC for both sexes and with unhealthy behaviours for women. After adjusting for these factors, all associations between risk of LMS and early-life SEC remained significant for women. Conclusion: early-life SEC are associated with muscle strength after adjusting for adult-life SEC and behavioural lifestyle factors, especially in women, which suggests that early life may represent a sensitive period for future health.

URLhttps://academic.oup.com/ageing/advance-article/doi/10.1093/ageing/afy003/4855280
DOI10.1093/ageing/afy003

The Cognitive Telephone Screening Instrument (COGTEL): a brief, reliable, and valid tool for capturing interindividual differences in cognitive functioning in epidemiological and aging studies

TitleThe Cognitive Telephone Screening Instrument (COGTEL): a brief, reliable, and valid tool for capturing interindividual differences in cognitive functioning in epidemiological and aging studies
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsIhle, A, Gouveia, ÉR, Gouveia, BR, Kliegel, M
JournalDementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Volume7
Number3
Pagination339–345
ISSN1664-5464
KeywordsAssessment of cognitive functioning, Interindividual differences, older adults
Abstract

Aims: The present study set out to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Cognitive Telephone Screening Instrument (COGTEL) in 2 different samples of older adults. Methods: We assessed COGTEL in 116 older adults, with retest after 7 days to evaluate the test-retest reliability. Moreover, we assessed COGTEL in 868 older adults to evaluate convergent validity to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Results: Test-retest reliability of the COGTEL total score was good at 0.85 (p

URLhttps://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/479680
DOI10.1159/000479680
Short TitleThe Cognitive Telephone Screening Instrument (COGTEL)
PubMed ID29118786

Health behavior change in older adults: testing the health action process approach at the inter‐ and intraindividual level

TitleHealth behavior change in older adults: testing the health action process approach at the inter‐ and intraindividual level
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsBierbauer, W, Inauen, J, Schaefer, S, Kleemeyer, MM, Lüscher, J, König, C, Tobias, R, Kliegel, M, Ihle, A, Zimmerli, L, Holzer, BM, Siebenhuener, K, Battegay, E, Schmied, C, Scholz, U
JournalApplied Psychology: Health and Well-Being
Volume9
Issue3
Pagination324–348
Date Published11/2017
ISSN1758-0846
Keywordsaging, health behavior change, intensive longitudinal methods, medication adherence, physical activity, within‐person
Abstract

Background: Health behavior change theories usually claim to be universally and individually applicable. Most research has tested behavior change theories at the interindividual level and within young‐to‐middle‐aged populations. However, associations at the interindividual level can differ substantially from associations at the intraindividual level. This study examines the applicability of the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) at the inter‐ and the intraindividual level among older adults.
Methods: Two intensive longitudinal studies examined the HAPA model covering two different health behaviors and two different time spans: Study 1 (physical activity, N = 52 × 6 monthly observations) and Study 2 (medication adherence, N = 64 × 30 daily observations). The HAPA constructs (risk awareness, outcome expectancy, self‐efficacy, intention, action planning, action control), and self‐reported behaviors were assessed.
Results: Overall, at the interindividual level, results of both studies largely confirmed the associations specified by the HAPA. At the intraindividual level, results were less in line with the HAPA. Only action control emerged as consistent predictor of behavior.
Conclusions: This study emphasises the importance of examining health behavior change theories at both, the inter‐ and the intraindividual level.

URLhttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/aphw.12094
DOI10.1111/aphw.12094
Short TitleHealth Behavior Change in Older Adults

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