Une Vie Florissante Sans Enfant ? Le Cas de la Suisse

TitleUne Vie Florissante Sans Enfant ? Le Cas de la Suisse
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsSauvain-Dugerdil, C
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume72
Pagination1-35
Date Published10/2018
ISSN2296-1658
Keywordsfamille en Suisse, infécondité, qualité de vie, réserve sociale, vie sans enfant, vieillir sans enfant
Abstract

Nous examinons ici si, en Suisse, vivre sans enfant représente une vie florissante, dans le sens de la liberté de «vivre la vie que l’on a raison de valoriser» (Sen, 1999). En utilisant les données de l’enquête suisse sur la famille et les générations (EFG 2013), nous posons trois questions. Nous commençons par examiner si l’existence sans enfant correspond à un mode de vie spécifique qui se répand. Dans un second temps, nous analysons le lien entre l’absence d’enfant et la qualité de vie à travers une série d’indicateurs relatifs au bien-être économique, à la santé, à la gestion du quotidien, aux relations de couple et à la vie sociale. Le bien-être des personnes sans enfants est étudié à deux moments du parcours de vie : durant la période de la parentalité, en comparant les personnes ayant ou non des enfants dans leur ménage, mais aussi pour la vie ultérieure des personnes ayant eu ou non des enfants.

En Suisse, l’infécondité est certes parmi les plus élevées au monde, mais elle ne s’accroît pas et n’apparaît pas comme un projet de vie. D’autre part, les personnes sans enfant n’ont pas une vision plus négative des implications de la parentalité. Nos résultats confirment que dans le contexte suisse les jeunes parents rencontrent des difficultés économiques, vivent au quotidien la pression des tâches familiales et ont une vie de couple de moindre qualité, mais la présence d’enfant au quotidien n’affecte pas la santé de leurs parents. Surtout, nos résultats montrent que vieillir sans enfant est associé à une moins bonne insertion sociale. Les enfants joueraient donc un rôle important dans la construction de liens sociaux forts, «réserves» utiles au grand âge.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2018.72

Le Travail Rémunéré à Temps Plein des Mères : Malédiction ou Bénédiction? - Le Cas Singulier de la Suisse Comparé à la Belgique, la France, l’Allemagne et la Suède

TitleLe Travail Rémunéré à Temps Plein des Mères : Malédiction ou Bénédiction? - Le Cas Singulier de la Suisse Comparé à la Belgique, la France, l’Allemagne et la Suède
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsFioretta, J, Rossier, C
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume69
Pagination1-30
PublisherNCCR LIVES
ISSNISSN 2296-1658
Keywordscomparaison internationale, Conflit-travail famille, politiques familiales, santé, sélection sociale, Suisse, travail à temps plein des mères
Abstract

Les travaux sur le conflit travail-famille montrent que les difficultés de conciliation sont plus fréquentes aux âges de la parentalité et chez les femmes, et qu'elles sont associées négativement à la santé. Les désavantages de la conciliation des rôles professionnel et familial pour les mères, souvent pointés du doigt, doivent toutefois être mis en perspective avec les gains économiques et de santé habituellement liés à une insertion professionnelle durable des femmes. Dans cette étude, nous comparons la Suisse – un pays largement dépourvu de dispositif soutenant la conciliation travail-famille - avec des pays de niveau socioéconomique comparable - la Belgique, la France, l'Allemagne et la Suède, dotés d'une diversité de politiques de conciliation. Grâce aux données de l'Enquête sur les Familles et les Générations 2013 pour la Suisse et des Enquêtes Genre et Générations pour les autres pays, nous montrons qu'en Suisse les parents d'enfants de moins de 13 ans à deux temps pleins ("dual earners") déclarent plus de difficultés à concilier le travail et la famille, ont une moins bonne santé auto-déclarée et éprouvent plus de difficultés financières que les couples où seul l’homme travaille à plein temps. A l'inverse, dans les autres pays, les "dual earners" ont des indicateurs de conflit travail-famille, de santé et de bien-être économique meilleurs que les autres couples. Ces résultats soulignent que les dispositifs de conciliation travail- famille (quelle qu'en soit la nature) permettent d'abord aux mères qui ont plus de ressources de s'investir substantiellement dans la sphère professionnelle, un mécanisme de sélection qui au final compense largement –sur l'ensemble des mères qui travaillent à temps plein- les désavantages liés aux conflits travail-famille.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2018.69

Who Has More Children in Switzerland: Swiss Or Foreign Women? - Why The TFR is a Misleading Measure

TitleWho Has More Children in Switzerland: Swiss Or Foreign Women? - Why The TFR is a Misleading Measure
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsBurkimsher, M, Rossier, C, Wanner, P
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume73
Pagination1-41
PublisherNCCR LIVES
Keywordscohort fertility, Comprehensive Fertility Profile, foreigner fertility, immigrant fertility, naturalisation, TFR
Abstract

The Swiss Federal Statistical Office publishes data showing that the TFR of foreign women is much higher than for Swiss women. However, statistics from household registration (STATPOP) and from the Family and Generations Survey (FGS) indicate that foreigners have slightly smaller families than Swiss women. How can we reconcile this apparent contradiction? To do this we follow the fertility of cohorts of Swiss and foreign women through their reproductive life. In addition to birth registrations and population totals by age (the input data for calculating the TFR) we also include data on how many children women have at the time of their immigration, emigration and naturalisation.
Using these input data, we compiled the fertility profiles of Swiss and foreign women aged 15-49 (cohorts 1965-2001); these correspond well with the FGS and household register data. Most immigrants arrive childless and start childbearing in the years following arrival; hence, younger foreign women in Switzerland have higher fertility than Swiss women. However, the ongoing inflow of low fertility women ‘dilutes’ the average fertility of older foreign women. Naturalisation–which is more frequent for women with children–significantly impacts the fertility profile of ‘Swiss’ and ‘foreign’ women. We confirmed that the TFR gives an inflated impression of the ultimate fertility of foreign women, and under-estimates that of Swiss women, because foreign women are only in the receiving country (Switzerland) for the most fertile portion of their reproductive career. Our comprehensive fertility model covering the entire reproductive life course better describes fertility differentials by age and nationality.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2018.73

An index of precarity for measuring early employment insecurity

TitleAn index of precarity for measuring early employment insecurity
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsRitschard, G, Bussi, M, O’Reilly, J
EditorRitschard, G, Studer, M
Book TitleSequence analysis and related approaches : Innovative methods and applications
Pagination289–308
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedCham, Switzerland
Abstract

A vast body of research examined changing employment relations and the ensued employment precarity. However there is a lack of quantitative tools able to assess the extent and impact of precarity overtime and at the individual level. Using the index of complexity as a starting point, we aim to create an index of precarity accounting for the benefit or loss entailed by each transition. Including the nature of each transition and the unpredictability of the whole employment trajectory in the index allows researchers to grasp both the complexity and the quality of young people’s employment trajectories. Our contribution shows how the proposed index provides a synthetic measure for comparing the degree of precarity. Results from a school-to-work transition dataset confirm the usefulness of the index as a predictor of future negative labour market trajectories.

Notes

\{:status: Advance online publication\}

URLhttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-319-95420-2_16
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-95420-2_16

Divisive property-based and fuzzy clustering for sequence analysis

TitleDivisive property-based and fuzzy clustering for sequence analysis
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsStuder, M
EditorRitschard, G, Studer, M
Book TitleSequence analysis and related approaches : Innovative methods and applications
Pagination233–239
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedCham, Switzerland
Abstract

This paper discusses the usefulness of divisive property-based and fuzzy clustering for sequence analysis. Divisive property-based clustering provides well-defined clustering membership rules. Aside from significantly simplifying interpretations of clustering, it is also useful when one plans to use the same typology in other samples or studies. We further enrich the methods by proposing new sets of sequence features that can be automatically extracted and used in the procedure. We then discuss the use of fuzzy clustering, where sequences belong to each cluster with an estimated membership strength. This approach is particularly useful when some sequences are thought to lie between two (or more) sequence types (i.e., hybrid-type sequences) or when only a weak structure is found in the data. This paper also discusses several methods by which to visualize a fuzzy clustering solution, and analyzes them with regression-like approaches. It also introduces R code to run all the discussed analyses; all the proposed developments are made available in the WeightedCluster R package.

URLhttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-95420-2_13
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-95420-2_13

Markovian-based clustering of internet addiction trajectories

TitleMarkovian-based clustering of internet addiction trajectories
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsTaushanov, Z, Berchtold, A
EditorRitschard, G, Studer, M
Book TitleSequence analysis and related approaches : Innovative methods and applications.
Pagination203-222
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedCham, Switzerland
URLhttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-95420-2_12
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-95420-2_12

Sequence history analysis (SHA): Estimating the effect of past trajectories on an upcoming event

TitleSequence history analysis (SHA): Estimating the effect of past trajectories on an upcoming event
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsRossignon, F, Studer, M, Gauthier, J-A, Le Goff, J-M
EditorRitschard, G, Studer, M
Book TitleSequence analysis and related approaches : Innovative methods and applications.
Pagination83–100
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedCham, Switzerland
Abstract

In this article, we propose an innovative method which is a combination of Sequences Analysis and Event History Analysis. We called this method Sequence History Analysis (SHA). We start by identifying typical past trajectories of individuals over time by using Sequence Analysis. We then estimate the effect of these typical past trajectories on the event under study using discrete-time models. The aim of this approach is to estimate the effect of past trajectories on the chances of experiencing an event. We apply the proposed methodological approach to an original study of the effect of past childhood co-residence structures on the chances of leaving the parental home in Switzerland. The empirical research was based on the LIVES Cohort study, a panel survey that started in autumn 2013 in Switzerland. Analyses show that it is not only the occurrence of an event that increases the risk of experiencing another event, but also the order in which various states occurred. What is more, it seems that two features have a significant influence on departure from the parental home: the co-residence structures and the arrival or departure of siblings from the parental home.

URLhttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-95420-2_6
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-95420-2_6
Short TitleSequence history analysis (SHA)

Parental Leave Take-Up of Fathers in Luxembourg

TitleParental Leave Take-Up of Fathers in Luxembourg
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsZhelyazkova, N, Ritschard, G
JournalPopulation Research and Policy Review
Volume37
Pagination769-793
ISSN0167-5923, 1573-7829
KeywordsFather and parental leave, parental leave, Work–family reconciliation
Abstract

The study uses administrative data from Luxembourg to investigate fathers’ decisions to use parental leave. We focus on two measures of opportunity cost: the difference between the parental leave benefit and the salary of the father and the mean salary growth for a period of 6 months for each father. The first measure captures the direct opportunity cost, while the second is a proxy for foregone promotion opportunities. We use Cox proportional hazards model for the analysis. The results suggest a negative relationship between foregone income and taking parental leave. Surprisingly, salary growth appears to be positively related to the hazard of taking parental leave. Coefficients of control variables are in line with previous findings: fathers are more likely to use parental leave if they work in larger organization and for the first child.

URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11113-018-9470-8
DOI10.1007/s11113-018-9470-8

Sequence analysis and related approaches : Innovative methods and applications

TitleSequence analysis and related approaches : Innovative methods and applications
Publication TypeBook
Year of Publication2018
Series EditorRitschard, G, Studer, M
Series TitleLife Course Research and social Policies
Volume10
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedCham, Switzerland
ISBN978-3-319-95420-2
Keywordsdual-earner couples, family and work trajectories, gendered occupational trajectories, life, life course, longitudinal data, Markov models, multistate models, network-based sequence analysis, open access, population dynamics, survival analysis
Abstract

This open access book provides innovative methods and original applications of sequence analysis (SA) and related methods for analysing longitudinal data describing life trajectories such as professional careers, family paths, the succession of health statuses, or the time use. The applications as well as the methodological contributions proposed in this book pay special attention to the combined use of SA and other methods for longitudinal data such as event history analysis, Markov modelling, and sequence network. The methodological contributions in this book include among others original propositions for measuring the precarity of work trajectories, Markov-based methods for clustering sequences, fuzzy and monothetic clustering of sequences, network-based SA, joint use of SA and hidden Markov models, and of SA and survival models. The applications cover the comparison of gendered occupational trajectories in Germany, the study of the changes in women market participation in Denmark, the study of typical day of dual-earner couples in Italy, of mobility patterns in Togo, of internet addiction in Switzerland, and of the quality of employment career after a first unemployment spell. As such this book provides a wealth of information for social scientists interested in quantitative life course analysis, and all those working in sociology, demography, economics, health, psychology, social policy, and statistics.

URLhttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-319-95420-2#about
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-95420-2

A cause-of-death decomposition of young adult excess mortality

TitleA cause-of-death decomposition of young adult excess mortality
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsRemund, A, Camarda, CG, Riffe, T
JournalDemography
Volume55
Number3
Pagination957–978
ISSN0070-3370, 1533-7790
Abstract

We propose a method to decompose the young adult mortality hump by cause of death. This method is based on a flexible shape decomposition of mortality rates that separates cause-of-death contributions to the hump from senescent mortality. We apply the method to U.S. males and females from 1959 to 2015. Results show divergence between time trends of hump and observed deaths, both for all-cause and cause-specific mortality. The study of the hump shape reveals age, period, and cohort effects, suggesting that it is formed by a complex combination of different forces of biological and socioeconomic nature. Male and female humps share some traits in all-cause shape and trend, but they also differ by their overall magnitude and cause-specific contributions. Notably, among males, the contributions of traffic and other accidents were progressively replaced by those of suicides, homicides, and poisonings; among females, traffic accidents remained the major contributor to the hump.

URLhttp://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13524-018-0680-9
DOI10.1007/s13524-018-0680-9

Inégalités spatiales de mortalité en Suisse : l’influence des contextes sur les différentiels entre natifs et migrants

TitleInégalités spatiales de mortalité en Suisse : l’influence des contextes sur les différentiels entre natifs et migrants
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsZufferey, J, Oris, M
JournalEspace populations sociétés [Space populations societies]
Volume1-2
Pagination1–23
ISSN0755-7809
Abstract

Dans les sociétés postindustrielles contemporaines, les migrants ont généralement des risques de mortalité plus faibles que les natifs malgré des positions sociales tendanciellement plus basses. La recherche académique peine toujours à expliquer pleinement les origines de ce paradoxe. Bien que les facteurs individuels soient les causes fondamentales des inégalités face à la mort, l’influence de l’environnement social, économique et culturel est aussi décisif. En prenant l’exemple de la Suisse, cet article détermine dans quelle mesure les contextes socioéconomique, culturel et géographique parviennent expliquer le différentiel entre les natifs et les migrants. Par des modèles bayésiens multiniveaux, les auteurs décomposent, pour chaque population, les inégalités spatiales de mortalité dans les communes et les quartiers Suisses.
In Western societies, migrants are known to have lower mortality risks than natives although they are characterized by a lower socioeconomic status. Academic research has found some explanations, but the causes of the migrant mortality paradox are still partially unknown. Individual factors are generally seen as the fundamental causes of death, but recent research showed that social, economic and cultural environments also produce inequalities in mortality. This article aims at determining the influence of socioeconomic, cultural and geographic contexts in explaining the mortality differences between migrants and natives. In running multilevel bayesian models, the authors decompose spatial inequalities in mortality between migrants and natives within Swiss municipalities and neighborhoods.

URLhttp://journals.openedition.org/eps/7576
DOI10.4000/eps.7576

Cross-lagged relation of leisure activity participation to Trail Making Test performance 6 years later: differential patterns in old age and very old age

TitleCross-lagged relation of leisure activity participation to Trail Making Test performance 6 years later: differential patterns in old age and very old age
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsIhle, A, Fagot, D, Vallet, F, Ballhausen, N, Mella, N, Baeriswyl, M, Sauter, J, Oris, M, Maurer, J, Kliegel, M
JournalNeuropsychology
Volume33
Number2
Pagination234–244
ISSN1931-1559
Keywordsactivities, cognition, cognitive reserve, life course, longitudinal study
Abstract

OBJECTIVE: We investigated cross-lagged relations between leisure activity participation and Trail Making Test (TMT) performance over 6 years and whether those reciprocal associations differed between individuals. METHOD: We analyzed data from 232 participants tested on performance in TMT Parts A and B as well as interviewed on leisure activity participation in 2 waves 6 years apart. Mean age in the Wave 1 was 73.42 years. Participants were also tested on vocabulary (Mill Hill scale) as a proxy indicator of crystallized intelligence and reported information on early and midlife cognitive reserve markers (education and occupation). Latent cross-lagged models were applied to investigate potential reciprocal activity-TMT relationships. RESULTS: The relation of leisure activity participation predicting TMT performance 6 years later was significantly larger than was the relation of TMT performance predicting later leisure activity participation. Statistically comparing different moderator groups revealed that this pattern was evident both in individuals with low education and in those with high education but, notably, emerged in only young-old adults (but not in old-old adults), in individuals with a low cognitive level of job in midlife (but not in those with a high cognitive level of job in midlife), and in individuals with high scores in vocabulary (but not in those with low scores in vocabulary). CONCLUSIONS: Late-life leisure activity participation may predict later cognitive status in terms of TMT performance, but individuals may markedly differ with respect to such effects. Implications for current cognitive reserve and neuropsychological aging research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

URLhttps://psycnet.apa.org/fulltext/2018-49051-001.html
DOI10.1037/neu0000497
Short TitleCross-lagged relation of leisure activity participation to trail making test performance six years later

The relation of close friends to cognitive performance in old age: the mediating role of leisure activities

TitleThe relation of close friends to cognitive performance in old age: the mediating role of leisure activities
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsIhle, A, Oris, M, Baeriswyl, M, Kliegel, M
JournalInternational Psychogeriatrics
Volume30
Number12
Pagination1753–1758
ISSN1041-6102, 1741-203X
Keywordsclose friends, cognition, cognitive reserve, leisure activities, older adults
Abstract

Background:From a conceptual point of view, close friends are an important resource for promoting activity engagement in old age. Leisure activity engagement in turn is a key predictor of cognitive performance. Empirically, it remains unclear so far whether leisure activity engagement mediates between having close friends on the one hand and cognitive performance on the other, which we investigated in a large sample of older adults.Methods:We assessed cognitive performance (Mill Hill vocabulary scale and Trail Making Test (TMT) parts A and B) in 2,812 older adults. Participants reported information on leisure activity engagement and close friends.Results:A larger number of leisure activities and a larger number of close friends were significantly related to better cognitive performance in the Mill Hill vocabulary scale and TMT parts A and B. A larger number of close friends were significantly related to a larger number of leisure activities. The number of leisure activities mediated more than half of the relation of the number of close friends to performance in all three cognitive measures.Conclusions:Having close friends may be helpful to stimulate and promote activity participation in old age. By enhancing individuals’ cognitive reserve, this may finally preserve their cognitive performance level in old age.

URLhttps://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/international-psychogeriatrics/article/relation-of-close-friends-to-cognitive-performance-in-old-age-the-mediating-role-of-leisure-activities/59282D2D93BE51DBEC2CE666939C761C
DOI10.1017/S1041610218000789
Short Titlehe relation of close friends to cognitive performance in old age

Cognitive Reserve and Social Capital Accrued in Early and Midlife Moderate the Relation of Psychological Stress to Cognitive Performance in Old Age

TitleCognitive Reserve and Social Capital Accrued in Early and Midlife Moderate the Relation of Psychological Stress to Cognitive Performance in Old Age
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsIhle, A, Oris, M, Sauter, J, Rimmele, U, Kliegel, M
JournalDementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Volume45
Pagination190–197
ISSN1420-8008, 1421-9824
Keywordscognitive functioning, Cognitive level of job, cognitive reserve, education, Family and friends, leisure activities, life course, older adults, Psychological stress, social capital
Abstract

Aims: The present study set out to investigate the relation of psychological stress to cognitive performance and its interplay with key life course markers of cognitive reserve and social capital in a large sample of older adults. Methods: We assessed cognitive performance (verbal abilities and processing speed) and psychological stress in 2,812 older adults. The Participants reported information on education, occupation, leisure activities, family, and close friends. Results: Greater psychological stress was significantly related to lower performance in verbal abilities and processing speed. Moderation analyses suggested that the relations of psychological stress to cognitive performance were reduced in individuals with higher education, a higher cognitive level of the first profession practiced after education, a larger number of midlife leisure activities, a larger number of significant family members, and a larger number of close friends. Conclusion: Cognitive reserve and social capital accrued in early and midlife may reduce the detrimental influences of psychological stress on cognitive functioning in old age.

URLhttps://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/488052
DOI10.1159/000488052
PubMed ID29870984

Cognitive complaints mediate the effect of cognition on emotional stability across 12 years in old age

TitleCognitive complaints mediate the effect of cognition on emotional stability across 12 years in old age
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsAschwanden, D, Kliegel, M, Allemand, M
JournalPsychology and Aging
Volume33
Number3
Pagination425–438
ISSN0882-7974
Keywordsaging, cognition, cognitive complaints, cognitive impairment, emotional stability, longitudinal mediation, old age, protective factors, Test Construction
Abstract

Previous research supports a positive relationship between cognition and emotional stability, although findings regarding healthy older adults are inconsistent. Additionally, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this association. Thus, the present study investigated the mediating effect of cognitive complaints on the bidirectional longitudinal association between cognition and emotional stability in old age. The study sample consisted of 500 older individuals (M age 62.97 years, SD 0.91, range 60–64 years; 52% male) from the Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study on Adult Development. The results showed that cognitive complaints mediated the effect of cognition on emotional stability over 12 years even when taking baseline emotional stability, baseline cognitive complaints, depressive affect, gender, sensory functioning, and objective and subjective health into account. However, cognitive complaints did not mediate the effect of emotional stability on cognition. The results of the current study emphasize the importance of investigating cognition as a predictor of personality traits, and indicate that cognitive resources may serve as a protective factor for emotional stability in old age.

URLhttps://psycnet.apa.org/fulltext/2018-21485-004.html
DOI10.1037/pag0000246

Adaptation to loss and major life change

TitleAdaptation to loss and major life change
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsJopp, D
Book TitleThe wiley blackwell Encyclopedia of adulthood and aging
PublisherWiley-Blackwell
Place PublishedOxford, UK

Validation of the Hebrew version of the Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale (MDS-H): Evidence for a generalizable measure of pathological daydreaming

TitleValidation of the Hebrew version of the Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale (MDS-H): Evidence for a generalizable measure of pathological daydreaming
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsJopp, D, Dupuis, M, Somer, E, Hagani, N, Herscu, O
JournalPsychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice
ISSN2326-5531(Electronic),2326-5523(Print)
KeywordsDaydreaming, Factor Analysis, Factor Structure, Fantasies (Thought Disturbances), Foreign Language Translation, Mental Disorders, Pathology, Test Construction, Test Reliability, Test Validity
Abstract

Maladaptive daydreaming (MD) is a newly described mental disorder characterized by extensive mental fantasy activity featuring addiction-like longing for fantasizing, accompanying repetitive movement, and feeling hindered in everyday life. This study describes the first validation of a non-English version of the Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale (MDS) and provides additional evidence for MD as a clinical phenomenon. The Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale–Hebrew version (MDS-H) is an adaptation of the 14-item English MDS (Somer, Lehrfeld, Bigelsen, & Jopp, 2016), a self-report questionnaire developed on the basis of qualitative information provided by self-identified maladaptive daydreamers (MDers). The MDS-H was administered to 280 individuals aged 13 to 73 years, including 45 self-identified MDers. Findings confirmed the expected 3-factorial structure, scalar invariance in comparison to the English MDS validation sample, and good psychometric properties. MDS-H scores were associated with dissociation, obsessive-compulsive behavior, and attentiondeficit/hyperactivity. Given high sensitivity and specificity separating MDers and non-MDers, the MDS-H represents a useful tool to assess MD among Hebrew speakers, suggesting the relevance of MD in a non-English speaking culture, and highlighting the potential value of the MDS for world-wide investigation of this condition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)

DOI10.1037/cns0000162
Custom 1

{:status: Advance online publication}

Short TitleValidation of the Hebrew version of the Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale (MDS-H)

Depressive symptoms in the oldest-old: The role of sensory impairments

TitleDepressive symptoms in the oldest-old: The role of sensory impairments
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsCimarolli, VR, Jopp, DS, Boerner, K, Minahan, J
JournalArchives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Volume78
Pagination249–254
ISSN0167-4943
KeywordsCentenarians, depressive symptoms, Hearing loss, Oldest-old, Sensory impairment, Visual impairment
Abstract

Background While a fair amount of research has investigated the impact of sensory impairments on the mental health of young older adults (65–79 years of age), only a few studies have focused on the associations of sensory impairments with mental health outcomes in the oldest-old (80 years and older). To close this gap, this study examined the separate and combined effects of self-reported vision and hearing impairment for depressive symptoms in a sample of oldest-old individuals, controlling for other mental health risks (e.g., functional disability, health interference, and loneliness). Methods Centenarians and near-centenarians (N = 119; average age = 99) were recruited from the community and geriatric healthcare organizations. In-person interviews were conducted at participants’ place of residence. Results Vision impairment and its interaction with hearing impairment as well as functional disability, health interference with desired activities, and loneliness were significant predictors of depressive symptoms in hierarchical regression analyses. Hearing impairment alone was not associated with depressive symptoms, but follow-up analyses clarifying the interaction effect showed that individuals with poor vision had the highest levels of depressive symptoms, if they had a concurrent hearing impairment. Thus, a concurrent presence of poor vision and poor hearing resulted in an increased vulnerability for depressive symptoms. Conclusions Given that a majority of oldest-old has sensory impairments which can result in mental health issues, it is important to facilitate this population’s access to vision and audiological treatment and rehabilitation.

URLhttps://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0167494318301420
DOI10.1016/j.archger.2018.07.009
Short TitleDepressive symptoms in the oldest-old

Centenarians' end-of-life thoughts and plans: Is their social network on the same page?

TitleCentenarians' end-of-life thoughts and plans: Is their social network on the same page?
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsBoerner, K, Kim, K, Kim, Y, Rott, C, Jopp, D
JournalJournal of the American Geriatrics Society
Volume66
Number7
Pagination1311–1317
ISSN1532-5415
Keywordscaregivers, centenarian, death, end of life, very old adults
Abstract

Objectives: To explore how centenarians think about and plan for the end of life (EOL) and to what extent their primary contacts (proxy informants) are aware of these thoughts. Design: Population-based study with semistructured in-person interviews. Setting: Defined geographical region approximately 60 km around Heidelberg, Germany. Participants: Subsample drawn from the larger study of centenarians (N = 78) with data on centenarians' EOL thoughts from the centenarian and the proxy informant. Measurements: Centenarians reported on their thoughts about the EOL, perception of the EOL as threatening, longing for death, engagement in any EOL planning, and type of EOL plan (will, living will, healthcare surrogate) in place. Proxy respondents answered the same set of questions based on what they thought the centenarians' perspective was. Results: In nearly half of cases, proxies misjudged whether the centenarian thought about EOL. Although only few centenarians perceived the EOL as threatening, and approximately one-quarter reported longing for death, proxies overestimated centenarians' reports on the former and underestimated the latter. Proxies reported more centenarian EOL planning than centenarians themselves. Conclusion: Even though enrolled proxies were mostly persons very close to the centenarian, many of them did not seem to be well informed about the centenarians' thoughts and plans regarding the EOL, suggesting a lack of communication between centenarians and social network members in this respect. Healthcare professionals should be aware that, even for very old adults approaching the end of their lives, discussions about EOL and EOL planning may need to be actively encouraged and supported.

URLhttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jgs.15398
DOI10.1111/jgs.15398
Short TitleCentenarians' end-of-life thoughts and plans

Adult children’s relationship to parent influences their views on aging and attitude toward own aging

TitleAdult children’s relationship to parent influences their views on aging and attitude toward own aging
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsJung, S, Jopp, D
JournalThe International Journal of Aging and Human Development
ISSN0091-4150
Keywordsattitude toward own aging, intergenerational relationships, parent–adult children relationships, subjective aging, views on aging
Abstract

The goal of this study was to examine how the quality of relationship between parent and adult children influences adult children’s views on aging and attitude toward their own aging and whether the effects of relationship qualities depend on parents’ health and adult children’s perceptions of how well their parents were aging. The sample included 217 adult children aged 18 to 73. Findings revealed that different parent–child relationship quality dimensions (i.e., support, conflict, depth, ambivalence) differentially influenced adult children’s view on aging (positive and negative) and attitude toward own aging, and some of these effects depended on levels of parental health and the way adult children view how successfully their parents were aging. The quality of the relationship to one’s parents has an important role in shaping adults’ views on aging and experience of their own aging, highlighting the importance of incorporating the role of family context to further enhance our understanding of how individuals develop perceptions of aging.

URLhttps://doi.org/10.1177/0091415018784703
DOI10.1177/0091415018784703
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{:status: Advance online publication}

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