Social networks and job access for the unemployed: Work ties for the upper-middle class, communal ties for the working class

TitleSocial networks and job access for the unemployed: Work ties for the upper-middle class, communal ties for the working class
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsOesch, D, von Ow, A
JournalEuropean Sociolocial Review
Volume33
Issue2
Pagination275-291
DOI10.1093/esr/jcx041
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Changes in the order of family life events in 20th-century Europe: A cross-regional perspective

TitleChanges in the order of family life events in 20th-century Europe: A cross-regional perspective
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsBürgin, R, Schumacher, R, Ritschard, G
JournalHistorical life course studies
Volume4
Pagination41-58
Date Publishedmar
Keywordsevent sequences, family-life events, second demographic transition, transition to adulthood
Abstract

This article analyzes the evolution of the sequencing of family life events in Europe during the second half of the 20th century using individual data from the European Social Survey and from the Generation and Gender Program. Considering the four events ‘leaving the parental home‘, ‘first cohabiting union‘, ‘first marriage‘, and ‘first parenthood‘, we hypothesize a transition from a traditional standard event order characterized by a high degree of synchronization between the first three events towards a new standard whose features are a high degree of de-synchronization between first cohabitation and first marriage and a reversal of the traditional order between first marriage and first parenthood. We also hypothesize cross-regional differences in the timing and in the shape of the transition from one standard to another. Applying specifically developed tools to visualize and analyze event sequences, we show important regional variation in the evolution of the sequencing of family life events. Hardly any change can be observed in Southern Europe, where the sequencing behavior of family events has remained highly standardized and rooted in the traditional standard. In Eastern Europe where family event sequences have become less standardized and where a particular sequence characterized by the reversal of the traditional order between leaving home and family formation has been observed, the hypothesized transition is still in its very beginning. In Western Europe the transition is clearly on its way, but no re-standardization towards a new standard can be observed as for now. As expected, the transition is most advanced in Northern Europe, where evidence for a certain re-standardization process in the sequencing of family life events has been found.

Refereed DesignationRefereed

Analyzing state sequences with probabilistic suffix trees: the PST R package

TitleAnalyzing state sequences with probabilistic suffix trees: the PST R package
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsGabadinho, A, Ritschard, G
JournalJournal of Statistical Software
Volume72
Issue3
Pagination1-39
Date Publishedaug
Keywordscategorical sequences, Probabilistic suffix trees, R, Sequence data mining, sequence visualization, state sequences, Variable-length Markov chains
Abstract

This article presents the PST R package for categorical sequence analysis with probabilistic suffix trees (PSTs), i.e., structures that store variable-length Markov chains (VLMCs). VLMCs allow to model high-order dependencies in categorical sequences with parsimonious models based on simple estimation procedures. The package is specifically adapted to the field of social sciences, as it allows for VLMC models to be learned from sets of individual sequences possibly containing missing values; in addition, the package is extended to account for case weights. This article describes how a VLMC model is learned from one or more categorical sequences and stored in a PST. The PST can then be used for sequence prediction, i.e., to assign a probability to whole observed or artificial sequences. This feature supports data mining applications such as the extraction of typical patterns and outliers. This article also introduces original visualization tools for both the model and the outcomes of sequence prediction. Other features such as functions for pattern mining and artificial sequence generation are described as well. The PST package also allows for the computation of probabilistic divergence between two models and the fitting of segmented VLMCs, where sub-models fitted to distinct strata of the learning sample are stored in a single PST.

DOI10.18637/jss.v072.i03
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Memory self-efficacy and memory performance in older adults: The mediating role of task persistence

TitleMemory self-efficacy and memory performance in older adults: The mediating role of task persistence
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsBeaudoin, M, Desrichard, O
JournalSwiss Journal of Psychology
Volume76
Issue1
Pagination23-33
Date Publishedjan
Keywordsaging, memory performance, memory self-efficacy, motivation, persistence, study time
Abstract

The present research examined the role persistence plays in mediating the positive impact of memory self-efficacy (MSE, i.e., one’s confidence in one’s own memory abilities) on older adults’ memory performance. In three studies, 81 to 264 older adults completed an MSE scale and carried out an explicit episodic memory task, during which we recorded their study time as an indicator of task persistence. We found that higher MSE was indirectly related to better memory performance through greater persistence during encoding, as measured by longer study time. Indirect effects were of medium size, with point estimates ranging from 0.64 to 0.85. This mediation effect was independent of factors that could be confounded with study time: chronological age, memory span, prior level of memory performance, episodic memory ability, and use of learning strategies (encoding strategies and self-testing). When confronted with difficult memory tasks, older adults who lack confidence in their memory abilities cease their efforts prematurely, which contributes to a decrease in their performance. Encouraging older adults to persist in the face of difficulties during encoding and retrieval may help alleviate the negative impact of low MSE on memory performance and allow researchers and clinicians to more accurately estimate older adults’ true memory abilities.

DOI10.1024/1421-0185/a000188
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Is Medical Environment Detrimental to Memory? A Test of A White Coat Effect on Older People’s Memory Performance

TitleIs Medical Environment Detrimental to Memory? A Test of A White Coat Effect on Older People’s Memory Performance
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsSchemmler, M, Desrichard, O
JournalClinical Gerontologist
PaginationAdvance Online Publication
Date Publishedmar
Keywordsaging, memory, memory problem testing, memory self-efficacy, Self-efficacy, white coat effect
Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Test if older people’s memory assessment may be impacted by a medical environment and if memory self-efficacy (MSE) will moderate this effect. METHODS: We evaluated memory performance and MSE in 27 older adults in 2 different settings: a (control) university research environment, or a (proxy-medical) neuropsychological examination environment. RESULTS: The results showed a MSE × environment interaction effect on story-recall performance, with older people with low MSE performing less well in the proxy-medical situation than in the control situation and with elders with high MSE performing better in the proxy-medical situation than in the control situation. The same marginally-significant effect for the word-span task was also found. CONCLUSIONS: Testing in a medical environment undermines the memory performance of older people with low MSE and boosts performance of older people with high MSE. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: We encourage neuropsychologists to pay attention to psychosocial determinants of older people’s performance when assessing their memory abilities.

DOI10.1080/07317115.2017.1307891
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Spiritual Care - eine psychologische Annäherung

TitleSpiritual Care - eine psychologische Annäherung
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsPerrig-Chiello, P, Margelisch, K
EditorNoth, I, Wenz, G, Schweizer, E
Book TitlePastoral and Spiritual Care across Religions and Cultures
EditionFirst
Pagination71-82
PublisherVandenhoeck & Ruprecht
Place PublishedGöttingen, Germany
Keywordskritische Lebensereignisse, Psychologie, Schweiz, Spiritual Care
Abstract

Spirituality is a travelling concept among different disciplines. As for psychology, spirituality has long been a neglected topic – especially in the academic context. However, during the last decade there has been an increase of theoretical and empirical work, mainly emerging from positive and life-span developmental psychology. This research focuses spirituality either as an element of well-being or as predictor of well-being and health (e.g. as a coping strategy), or finally as an outcome after dealing with critical life events (i.e. spiritual growth). This knowledge has an impact on spiritual care – and vice-versa spiritual care – as a growing inter- and transdisciplinary field – has an impact on clinical psychological practice. Against this background the aims of the present contribution are: - To provide some empirical data on spiritual and religious practice in Switzerland (Swiss Social Report 2012). - To shed light on the importance of spirituality in times of incertitude, namely critical life events (such as divorce and bereavement), and two biographical transitions, the transition into the second life half (midlife transition), and the transition to very old age.

Refereed DesignationNon-Refereed