The Rise of Economic Insecurity in the EU: Concepts and Measures

TitleThe Rise of Economic Insecurity in the EU: Concepts and Measures
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsRanci, C, Parma, A, Bernardi, L, Beckfield, J
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume62
Pagination1-29
PublisherNCCR LIVES
Keywordsclass, family, inequality, poverty, social structure, welfare state
Abstract

Economic instability, an array of social changes, and welfare state retrenchment place the question of economic insecurity high on the scholarly and political agenda. We contribute to these debates by drawing conceptual distinctions between inequality and insecurity. Fundamentally, inequality concerns the distribution of resources across individuals, while insecurity concerns exposure to multiple social risks that can deteriorate living conditions. The multiplicity and dynamism of insecurity inform our development of a new measure of economic insecurity, using longitudinal data from the EU-SILC database. Substantively, we then use our new measure to analyze the distribution of insecurity in Europe. Our analysis shows that insecurity is widespread across Europe, affecting countries with different inequality and welfare structures. Second, it is widespread across the income distribution and social classes affecting a relevant part of the middle classes. This result suggests that the European Social Model is increasingly failing to insulate households from economic insecurity.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2017.62

Gender differences in the acceptance of the Muslim headscarf

TitleGender differences in the acceptance of the Muslim headscarf
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsSarrasin, O
EditorFaniko, K, Lorenzi-Cioldi, F, Sarrasin, O, Mayor, E
Book TitleGender and Social Hierarchies: Perspectives from social psychology
Pagination159–174
PublisherRoutledge
Place PublishedNew York, USA
Keywordsattitudes, gender, headscarf, Muslim
Abstract

Based on data from the 2011 Swiss post-electoral survey Selects (N = 1531), we examined gender differences in the acceptance of the headscarf. On the one hand, women’s greater support for multiculturalism may translate into positive attitudes toward the headscarf as an expression of tolerance towards diversity. On the other hand, women may not approve of a garment often presented as a symbol of patriarchal oppression. Our results gave weight to the former assumption: Swiss women expressed a greater support to the Muslim headscarf than Swiss men, and they did so because they held more left-wing and multicultural ideologies.

Refereed DesignationRefereed

Critical views of the nation, national attachment, and attitudes toward immigrants in Switzerland

TitleCritical views of the nation, national attachment, and attitudes toward immigrants in Switzerland
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsSarrasin, O, Fasel, N, Green, E
EditorSchmidt, P, Seethaler, J, Grimm, J, Huddy, L
Book TitleDynamics of national identity: Media and societal factors of what we are
Pagination192-205
PublisherRoutledge
Place PublishedLondon, united Kingdom
Keywordsattitudes, critical views, immigration, nationalism, patriotism, Switzerland, threat
Refereed DesignationNon-Refereed

Impacts of Globalization Processes on the Swiss National Business Elite Community: A Diachronic Analysis of Swiss Large Corporations (1980–2010)

TitleImpacts of Globalization Processes on the Swiss National Business Elite Community: A Diachronic Analysis of Swiss Large Corporations (1980–2010)
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsDavoine, E, Ginalski, S, Mach, A, Ravasi, C
JournalResearch in the Sociology of Organizations
Volume43
Pagination131-163
Keywordsbusiness elite, corporate network, globalization, Switzerland, transnational community
Abstract

This paper investigates the impacts of globalization processes on the Swiss business elite community during the 1980-2010 period. Switzerland has been characterized in the 20th century by its extraordinary stability and by the strong cohesion of its elite community. To study recent changes, we focus on Switzerland’s 110 largest firms’ by adopting a diachronic perspective based on three elite cohorts (1980, 2000, and 2010). An analysis of interlocking directorates allows us to describe the decline of the Swiss corporate network. The second analysis focuses on top managers’ profiles in terms of education, nationality as well as participation in national community networks that used to reinforce the cultural cohesion of the Swiss elite community, especially the militia army. Our results highlight a slow but profound transformation of top management profiles, characterized by a decline of traditional national elements of legitimacy and the emergence of new “global” elements. The diachronic and combined analysis brings into light the strong cultural changes experienced by the national business elite community.

DOI10.1108/S0733-558X20150000043017
Refereed DesignationRefereed

A systematic review of the career adaptability literature and future outlook

TitleA systematic review of the career adaptability literature and future outlook
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsJohnston, C
JournalJournal of Career Assessment
Volume26
Issue1
Number1
Pagination3–30
Date Published11/2018
ISSN1069-0727, 1552-4590
Keywordsadaptability resources, adaptability responses, career adaptability, systematic review
Abstract

Researchers in the career domain have embraced the concept of career adaptability as denoted by a rapid growth in the number of published articles in recent years. Career adaptability is a psychosocial construct including both readiness and resources for successfully facing vocational tasks, occupational transitions, and unexpected challenges. To synthesize the research in this field and to suggest directions for future development, this article systematically reviews the studies on career adaptability. The 116 published pieces covered in the review include book chapters and articles, including cross-sectional, longitudinal, and qualitative papers, along with intervention studies, and theoretical contributions. First, the different instruments available to measure career adaptability are presented, after which the research is reviewed in the categories of adaptability resources and adapting responses. Both resources and responses contribute to positive transitions and personal functioning in teenagers through to adults. The article concludes by offering several suggestions for future research, highlighting the theoretical, practical, empirical, and methodological contributions that future work in this domain could make.

URLhttp://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1069072716679921
DOI10.1177/1069072716679921
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Mit Innovation gegen Armut. Sozial innovative Projekte im Kontext der Armutsprävention und Armutsbekämpfung in Kantonen, Städten und Gemeinden

TitleMit Innovation gegen Armut. Sozial innovative Projekte im Kontext der Armutsprävention und Armutsbekämpfung in Kantonen, Städten und Gemeinden
Publication TypeBook
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsDittmann, J, Heinzmann, S, Knoepfel, L
Series TitleBeiträge zur Sozialen Sicherheit
PublisherBundesamt für Sozialversicherungen
Place PublishedBern, Switzerland
KeywordsArmut, Innovation, Projekte
Abstract

Die Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz hat im Auftrag des Bundesamtes für Sozialversicherungen (BSV) im Rahmen des Nationalen Programms gegen Armut eine empirische Studie über sozial innovative Projekte im Kontext der Armutsprävention und -bekämpfung in allen 26 Kantonen sowie in zehn Städten und 28 Gemeinden durchgeführt. Ziel der Untersuchung war es, sozial innovative Projekte in der Armutsprävention und -Bekämpfung zu erheben, zu systematisieren und zu vertiefen. In der vorliegenden Studie wurde von einem mehrdimensionalen Armutsverständnis ausgegangen, welches über den monetären Mangel hinausgeht. Armut wird in diesem Sinne als Mangel in zentralen Lebensbereichen verstanden. Dem mehrdimensionalen Armutsverständnis folgend wurden Projekte in die Bestandserhebung aufgenommen, welche neben materiellen Aspekten auch soziale und bildungsbezogene Bereiche von Armut beinhalten sollten. Aufgrund der finanziellen und zeitlichen beschränkten Ressourcen musste auf die Erhebung weiterer Projekte für Armutsbetroffene in anderen wichtigen Lebensbereichen, wie z.B. im Bereich der Gesundheit und Wohnen verzichtet werden.

Refereed DesignationNon-Refereed

Test–retest: Agreement or reliability?

TitleTest–retest: Agreement or reliability?
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsBerchtold, A
JournalMethodological Innovations
Volume9
Pagination1-7
Date Publishedoct
Keywordsagreement, Bland–Altman plot, concordance coefficient, correlation, reliability, Test–retest
Abstract

Test–retest is a concept that is routinely evaluated during the validation phase of many measurement tools. However, this term covers at least two related but very different concepts: reliability and agreement. Reliability is the ability of a measure applied twice upon the same respondents to produce the same ranking on both occasions. Agreement requires the measurement tool to produce twice the same exact values. An analysis of research papers showed that the distinction between both concepts remains anything but clear, and that the current practice is to evaluate reliability only, generally on the basis of the sole Pearson’s correlation. This practice is very problematic in the context of longitudinal studies because it becomes difficult to determine whether a difference between two successive observations is attributable to a real change of the respondents or only to the characteristics of the measurement tool, which then leads to a possible misinterpretation of the results. More focus should be given on the real interpretation of linear correlation, and when agreement is required in addition to reliability, then correct alternative, such as the Bland–Altman plot, should be more generally used.

DOI10.1177/2059799116672875
Refereed DesignationRefereed

A direct local search method and its application to a markovian model

TitleA direct local search method and its application to a markovian model
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsTaushanov, Z, Berchtold, A
JournalStatistics, Optimization & Information Computing
Volume5
Issue1
Pagination19–34
Date Published03/2017
ISSN2310-5070
Keywordsheuristic, Hidden Mixture Transition Distribution (HMTD) model, hill-climbing method, longitudinal data, optimization
Abstract

While the hidden mixture transition distribution (HMTD) model is a powerful framework for the description, analysis, and classification of longitudinal sequences of continuous data, it is notoriously difficult to estimate because of the complexity of its solution space. In this paper, we explore how a new heuristic specifically developed for the HMTD performs compared to different standard optimization algorithms. This specific heuristic can be classified as a hill-climbing method, and different variants are proposed, including a jittering procedure to escape local maxima and measures to speed up the convergence.Different popular approaches are used for comparison, including PSO, SA, GA, NM, L-BFGS-B, and DE. The same HMTD model was optimized on different datasets and the results were compared in terms of both fit to the data and estimated parameters. Even if the complexity of the problem implies that no one algorithm can be considered as an overall best, our heuristic performed well in all situations, leading to useful solutions in terms of both fit and interpretability.

URLhttp://www.iapress.org/index.php/soic/article/view/20170302
DOI10.19139/soic.v5i1.253
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Ageing and the reconciliation of history and biographies: An approach to fill the gap

TitleAgeing and the reconciliation of history and biographies: An approach to fill the gap
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsOris, M
EditorMatthijs, K, Hin, S, Matsuo, H, Kok, J
Book TitleThe future of historical demography. Upside down and inside out
Pagination126-129
PublisherAcco
Place PublishedLeuven, Belgium/Den Haag, The Netherlands
Keywordsageing, life calendars, longevity
Refereed DesignationRefereed

La mémoire autobiographique à travers le parcours de vie: Évaluation rétrospective du bonheur et de la vulnérabilité

TitleLa mémoire autobiographique à travers le parcours de vie: Évaluation rétrospective du bonheur et de la vulnérabilité
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsDasoki, N, Morselli, D, Spini, D
JournalCanadian Journal on Aging
Volume35
Issue03
Pagination308-318
Keywordseffet de positivité, mémoire autobiographique, personnes âgées
Abstract

The interest of this study is on the one hand to understand if within the elderly population there are age differences in terms of positivity effect. On the other hand we test if perception of happiness and vulnerability are two independent systems. To test our hypotheses we used the Vivre / Leben / Vivere survey on a population of 65 years and older (N=4200), in Switzerland. Findings show that happiness depends on social and cultural norms while vulnerability on age effect. For happiness there are not age differences unlike vulnerability: the oldest age groups are less likely to report episodes of vulnerability during most of their life. L’intérêt de cette recherche est de comprendre comment les personnes âgées évaluent rétrospectivement leur passé de façon diversifiée. D’une part, nous cherchons à savoir si, au sein de la population âgée, il existe des différences d’âge concernant l’effet de positivité. D’autre part, nous nous demandons si les perceptions de bonheur et de vulnérabilité liées à des souvenirs répondent à deux processus différents de rappel. Pour tester nos hypothèses, nous avons utilisé l’enquête Vivre / Leben / Vivere menée auprès d’individus de 65 ans et plus vivant en Suisse (N=4200). Les résultats montrent que le bonheur dépend des normes culturelles et sociales alors que la vulnérabilité d’un effet d’âge, confirmant l’indépendance de ces deux processus de rappel. Par ailleurs, pour le bonheur, il n’existe pas de différences d’âge, alors que c’est le cas pour la vulnérabilité: les groupes les plus âgés ont globalement moins de probabilité d’indiquer des moments de vulnérabilité.

DOI10.1017/S0714980816000362
Refereed DesignationRefereed

"Neighborhood in Solidarity": A community development methodology that emerged throughout an action research experience

Title"Neighborhood in Solidarity": A community development methodology that emerged throughout an action research experience
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsZwygart, M, Plattet, A, Spini, D
JournalAction Research
PaginationAdvance online publication
Abstract

Abstract Population aging and urbanization are often associated with a restriction of the living environment and an increasing tendency to remain at home. This community development report presents the ‘‘Neighborhood in Solidarity’’ methodology as a response to counter or at least slow this restriction and enhance the ability of elderly persons to be active within their neighborhoods. Co-constructed throughout the action research process, the Neighborhood in Solidarity methodology is based on a 13-year experience, accumulated through 22 projects in 17 cities, with promising results in the Canton of Vaud in Switzerland. The genesis and the emergence of the methodology throughout action research workshops and interregional structures are described in the document. The description of Neighborhood in Solidarity is a snapshot of a living methodology, which continues to evolve on a daily basis. The process focuses on empowering the older people through a five-year methodology, which is intended to create an autonomous community that can resolve its own problems. The methodology comprises six steps described throughout the paper: (1) preliminary analysis, (2) diagnostic, (3) construction, (4) project design, (5) project implementation, and (6) empowerment. In 2013, an external assessment evaluated the Neighborhood in Solidarity methodology as effective at and appropriate for achieving its objectives. The promising results of this original methodology motivated this publication.

DOI10.1177/1476750316666935
Refereed DesignationRefereed

An internet-based self-help intervention for older adults after marital bereavement, separation or divorce: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

TitleAn internet-based self-help intervention for older adults after marital bereavement, separation or divorce: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsBrodbeck, J, Berger, T, Znoj, H
JournalTrials
Volume18
Issue21
Pagination1-8
Date Published12/2017
ISSN1745-6215
Keywordsbereavement, depression, divorce, grief, Internet-based self-help, older adults, randomized controlled trial, séparation
Abstract

Background: Marital bereavement and separation or divorce are among the most stressful critical life events in later life. These events require a dissolution of social and emotional ties, adjustments in daily routine and changes in identity and perspectives for the future. After a normative grief or distress reaction, most individuals cope well with the loss. However, some develop a prolonged grief reaction. Internet-based self-help interventions have proved beneficial for a broad range of disorders, including complicated grief. Based on the task model and the dual-process model of coping with bereavement, we developed a guided internet-based self-help intervention for individuals who experienced marital bereavement, separation or divorce at least 6 months prior to enrolment. The intervention consists of 10 text-based self-help sessions and one supportive email a week. The primary purpose of this study is the evaluation of the feasibility and efficacy of the intervention compared with a waiting control group. The secondary purpose is to compare the effects in bereaved and separated participants. Furthermore, we aim to analyze other predictors, moderators and mediators of the outcome, such as age, psychological distress and intensity of use of the intervention. Methods: The design is a randomized controlled trial with a waiting control condition of 12 weeks and a 24-weeks follow-up. At least 72 widowed or separated participants will be recruited via our study website and internet forums. Primary outcomes are reductions in grief symptoms, depression and psychological distress. Secondary outcome measures are related to loneliness, satisfaction with life, embitterment and the sessions. Discussion: The trial will provide insights into the acceptance and efficacy of internet-based interventions among adults experiencing grief symptoms, psychological distress and adaptation problems in daily life after spousal bereavement, separation or divorce. Findings will add to existing knowledge by (1) evaluating an internet-based intervention specifically designed for spousal bereavement and its consequences; (2) testing whether this intervention is equally effective for individuals after separation or divorce; and (3) suggesting adaptations to improve the efficacy of the intervention, selective indication and adaptations for different needs.

URLhttp://trialsjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13063-016-1759-5
DOI10.1186/s13063-016-1759-5
Short TitleAn internet-based self-help intervention for older adults after marital bereavement, separation or divorce
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Co-residence as a mechanism of relational proximity: The impact of household trajectories on the diversification of personal networks

TitleCo-residence as a mechanism of relational proximity: The impact of household trajectories on the diversification of personal networks
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsRamos, V, Gouveia, R, Wall, K
Book TitleFamily Continuity and Change
Pagination187-210
PublisherPalgrave
Place PublishedBasingstoke, United Kingdom
Keywordspersonal networks, trajectories
Refereed DesignationNon-Refereed

Apprendre à "Vivre avec le VIH": processus de légitimité et de redéfinition de soi

TitleApprendre à "Vivre avec le VIH": processus de légitimité et de redéfinition de soi
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsFargnoli, V
EditorDemailly, L, Garnoussi, N
Book TitleAller mieux - Approches sociologiques
EditionFirst
Pagination97-110
PublisherPresses Universitaires du Septentrion
Place PublishedLille, France
KeywordsVIH
Refereed DesignationNon-Refereed

Misleading norms and vulnerability in the life course: definition and illustrations

TitleMisleading norms and vulnerability in the life course: definition and illustrations
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsWidmer, E, Spini, D
JournalResearch in Human Development
Volume14
Issue1
Pagination52-67
Date Published02/2017
ISSN1542-7609
Keywordslife course, norms, vulnerability
Abstract

This review paper investigates the potentially misleading effect of some social norms on life trajectories. Conformity to some gender norms related to the division of paid and family work becomes counterproductive for individuals who experience turning points in their life along the way. We present various empirical results mainly drawn from the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research LIVES where conformity to social norms has detrimental effects on life trajectories. We conclude by stressing that the sensitizing concept of misleading norms contributes to a better understanding of vulnerability across the life course.

URLhttps://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15427609.2016.1268894
DOI10.1080/15427609.2016.1268894
Short TitleMisleading Norms and Vulnerability in the Life Course
Refereed DesignationRefereed

La transformation des réseaux personnels des femmes et des hommes durant la transition à la parentalité: Contraction des liens et gestation d'inégalités

TitleLa transformation des réseaux personnels des femmes et des hommes durant la transition à la parentalité: Contraction des liens et gestation d'inégalités
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsSapin, M, Widmer, E
EditorLe Goff, J-M, Levy, R
Book TitleDevenir parents, devenir inégaux. Transition à la parentalité et inégalités de genre
Series TitleCollection questions de genre
Pagination164-182
PublisherSeismo
Place PublishedZurich and Geneva, Switzerland
KeywordsParentalité
Abstract

La transition à la parentalité a été à maintes reprises annoncées comme une période de transformation fondamentale des relations avec les proches, touchant particulièrement les futures mères. De fait, diverses études montrent que les relations personnelles changent au cours de cette transition (Belskiy et Rovine, 1984; Power et Parke, 1984; Belsky et al., 1986; McCannel, 1988; Antonucci et Mikus, 1988; Ruble et al, 1990; Cox et Paley, 1997; Bots et al., 2002). Les connaissances manquent cependant sur les changements que les réseaux personnels encourent du point de vue structural, et l'effet des rapports sociaux de sexe en la matière demeure encore incertain, malgré les rares travaux existants (Munch et al., 1997). Ce chapitre entend amener quelques éléments de connaissance et de réflexion sur ces changements.

Refereed DesignationRefereed

Changes in employment uncertainty and the fertility intention-realization link: An analysis based on the Swiss household panel

TitleChanges in employment uncertainty and the fertility intention-realization link: An analysis based on the Swiss household panel
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsHanappi, D, Ryser, V-A, Bernardi, L, Le Goff, J-M
JournalEuropean Journal of Population
Volume33
Issue3
Pagination381-407
Date Publishedfeb
Keywordsemployment uncertainty, fertility intentions, gender, life course, panel data, Switzerland
Abstract

How do changes in employment uncertainty matter for fertility? Empirical studies on the impact of employment uncertainty on reproductive decision-making offer a variety of conclusions, ranging from gender and socio-economic differences in the effect of employment uncertainty on fertility intentions and behaviour, to the effect of employment on changes in fertility intentions. This article analyses the association between a change in subjective employment uncertainty and fertility intentions and behaviour by distinguishing male and female partners’ employment uncertainty, and examines the variation in these associations by education. Using a sample of men and women living in a couple from the Swiss Household Panel (SHP 2002–2011), we examine through multinomial analysis how changes in employment uncertainty and selected socio-demographic factors are related to individual childbearing decisions. Our results show strong gendered effects of changes in employment uncertainty on the revision of reproductive decisions among the highly educated population.

DOI10.1007/s10680-016-9408-y
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Childless at age 30: A qualitative study of the life course plans of working women in East and West Germany

TitleChildless at age 30: A qualitative study of the life course plans of working women in East and West Germany
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsBernardi, L, Keim, S
Book TitleChildlessness in Europe: Contexts, causes, and consequences
Series TitleDemographic Research Monographs
Pagination253-267
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedBerlin, Allemagne
Keywordscombination of family and work, Family formation, life course plans, socialization, unification
Abstract

At German unification, two states with fundamentally different economic and social systems became one. To help us gain a better understanding of the legacies of the past, this paper compares the attitudes of childless women who grew up in the former East and West Germany, but who reached early adulthood in unified Germany. How did these women plan and envisage having children and combining work and family life? We analyzed data from a qualitative research project on social influences on family formation collected in 2004 and 2005 in the two structurally similar towns of Lübeck (West Germany) and Rostock (East Germany). Our results show that the typical family models of the former East and West Germany were still very present in the narrations of these young women, and that the ongoing influence of these models contributes to persistent differences in the strategies these women use in dealing with the issues surrounding family formation and work and family reconciliation. We rely on Bourdieu’s concept of “inertial effect” to interpret the results. This concept stresses the relevance of socialization for the formation of attitudes and values, for the meanings attached to certain behavior, and for perceptions regarding the potential range of action. Our results suggests that family values are rather stable traits that are resistant to change, even when the macro-level societal conditions change radically.

Refereed DesignationRefereed

Pages