Family salience across nations: Configurations of morphological conditions

TitleFamily salience across nations: Configurations of morphological conditions
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsGanjour, O, Widmer, E
Book TitleFamily continuity and change
Series TitlePalgrave Macmillan Studies in Family and Intimate Life
EditionFirst
Pagination33-59
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan
Place PublishedLondon, United Kingdom
KeywordsFamily change
Abstract

Family change across societies is a complex issue that raised considerable debates throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Particular attention was given at the time to the unequal pace of family change according to countries or regions in the world, with a hypothesized similar turn to the dominance of the nuclear family in all national contexts, Western or non- Western (e.g., Goode 1963). Since then, family sociology has rebuffed the nuclearization thesis and has, to the contrary, stressed historical trends of family pluralization away from the nuclear family that are present in all Western nations (Lesthaeghe 1995)

Refereed DesignationRefereed

Conclusion

TitleConclusion
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsCesnuityté, V, Lück, D, Widmer, E
Book TitleFamily continuity and change
Series TitlePalgrave Macmillan Studies in Family and Intimate Life
EditionFirst
Pagination27-31
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan
Place PublishedLondon, United Kingdom
Abstract

This chapter has set out three different approaches to the study of family life: practice theory, historical contextualization, and narrative analysis. The choice of approach, of course, will depend on which aspects of family life are of interest—the everyday or whether the focus is over long stretches of a life’s course or across family generations. In addition, time and place are important factors in any analysis. In relation to the micro routine or habitual aspects of family lives, I have pointed to social practice theories. It is obvious that the habitual aspects of people’s lives alter and are modified over time. Yet such behaviours are not easily subject to recall or reflection by their practitioners and are therefore among the most difficult for researchers to study.

Refereed DesignationRefereed

Introduction

TitleIntroduction
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsWidmer, E, Cesnuityté, V, Lück, D
Book TitleFamily continuity and change
Series TitlePalgrave Macmillan Studies in Family and Intimate Life
EditionFirst
Pagination1-5
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan
Place PublishedLondon, United Kingdom
KeywordsFamily change
Abstract

The goal of this book is to present a variety of empirical research on continuity and family change within the European space, with respect to three dimensions: family understanding or theorizing, family transitions across its individual life course, and family practices. Researchers from nine European countries investigate families, their conceptualization, transitions, and practices between persisting needs and flowing circumstances, between holding on to traditional routines and adapting to a fast-changing socioeconomic environment, and between individual agency and social constraints.

Refereed DesignationRefereed

Family continuity and change

TitleFamily continuity and change
Publication TypeBook
Year of Publication2017
Series EditorWidmer, E, Cesnuityté, V, Lück, D
EditionFirst
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan
Place PublishedLondon, United Kingdom
KeywordsFamily change, life course
Abstract

The goal of this book is to present a variety of empirical research on continuity and family change within the European space, with respect to three dimensions: family understanding or theorizing, family transitions across its individual life course, and family practices. Researchers from nine European countries investigate families, their conceptualization, transitions, and practices between persisting needs and flowing circumstances, between holding on to traditional routines and adapting to a fast-changing socioeconomic environment, and between individual agency and social constraints.

Refereed DesignationRefereed

Multidimensionality of well-being and spillover effects across life domains: How do parenthood and personality affect changes in domain-specific satisfaction?

TitleMultidimensionality of well-being and spillover effects across life domains: How do parenthood and personality affect changes in domain-specific satisfaction?
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsBernardi, L, Bollmann, G, Potârcă, G, Rossier, J
JournalResearch in Human Development
Volume14
Issue1
Pagination26–51
Date Published02/2017
ISSN1542-7609, 1542-7617
Abstract

Whether having children improves our well-being is a long-standing topic of debate. Demographic and sociological research has investigated changes in individuals’ overall well-being and partnership satis- faction when they become parents. However, little is known about how becoming parent may produce vulnerability—observable as an enduring decrease in well-being—in life domains that are strongly interdependent with the family domain, such as work and leisure. Linking life-course and personality psychology perspectives, the authors examine the trajectories of subjective well-being—measured as satisfaction with life, work, and leisure—3 years before and 3 years after the transition to parenthood. The authors particularly focus on the moderating effects of gender and personality. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (1984–2013) and multilevel growth curve modeling, the authors show strong gender-based vulnerability in how people react to parenthood. Although men display a nonlinear pathway of decreasing life satisfaction and a stable trajectory of job satisfaction, women experience more changes in their satisfaction with work and more dramatic decreases in leisure satisfaction. Contrary to most of our expectations, the moderating effects of personality were modest. Extraversion influenced the trajectories of work satisfaction, whereas neuroticism and conscientiousness affected the pathway of leisure satisfaction for women only. This article shows that the transition to parenthood influences well- being trajectories in specific domains, and this influence differs between women and men.

URLhttps://doi.org/10.1080/15427609.2016.1268893
DOI10.1080/15427609.2016.1268893
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Insight as a social identity process in the evolution of psychosocial functioning in the early phase of psychosis

TitleInsight as a social identity process in the evolution of psychosocial functioning in the early phase of psychosis
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsKlaas, H, Clémence, A, Marion-Veyron, R, Antonietti, J-P, Alameda, L, Golay, P, Conus, P
JournalPsychological Medicine
Volume47
Pagination718-729
Date Publishedmar
KeywordsEarly phase of psychosis, insight, schizophrenia, social functioning, social identity, TIPP
Abstract

Awareness of illness (insight) has been found to have contradictory effects for different functional outcomes after the early course of psychosis. Whereas it is related to psychotic symptom reduction and medication adherence, it is also associated with increased depressive symptoms. In this line, the specific effects of insight on the evolution of functioning over time have not been identified, and social indicators, such as socio-occupational functioning have barely been considered. Drawing from social identity theory we investigated the impact of insight on the development of psychosocial outcomes and the interactions of these variables over time. The participants, 240 patients in early phase of psychosis from the Treatment and Early Intervention in Psychosis Program (TIPP) of the University Hospital of Lausanne, Switzerland, were assessed at eight time points over 3 years. Cross-lagged panel analyses and multilevel analyses were conducted on socio-occupational and general functioning [Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF)] with insight, time and depressive symptoms as independent variables. Results from multilevel analyses point to an overall positive impact of insight on psychosocial functioning, which increases over time. Yet the cross-lagged panel analysis did not reveal a systematic positive and causal effect of insight on SOFAS and GAF scores. Depressive symptoms seem only to be relevant in the beginning of the treatment process. Our results point to a complex process in which the positive impact of insight on psychosocial functioning increases over time, even when considering depressive symptoms. Future studies and treatment approaches should consider the procedural aspect of insight.

DOI10.1017/S0033291716002506
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Ethnicity, authority and political participation: Expressing political attitudes in contexts of shifting ethnic salience

TitleEthnicity, authority and political participation: Expressing political attitudes in contexts of shifting ethnic salience
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsBady, Z
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume59.2
Pagination45
PublisherNCCR LIVES
KeywordsEthnicity, political participation, social representations, spiral of silence
Abstract

Since the second half of the twentieth century, ethnicity has come to play an increasingly important role in political phenomena, especially in the justification of armed conflicts. To explain this particular role that ethnic identities seem to play, recent research highlights the strategic mobilization of ethnic identities by elites to obtain and legitimize positions of power. Based on this work, this research aims to answer two main gaps that characterize quantitative studies on the subject and which prevent a better understanding of the role of ethnicity in the acceptance of leaders’ authority. First, quantitative research on ethnicity typically fails to take the social constructivist stance seriously as shown by the use of measurements (i.e. "fractionalization" or "polarization" indices) that treat ethnic identity as a descriptive characteristic, regardless of its subjective relevance for individuals. Second, research generally focuses on either the societal (national) level or the individual level when trying to understand the relationship between ethnicity and violence, and therefore confuses dynamics that happen at the national level with those occurring at more local scales. Relying on the spiral of silence theory and the social representation approach, I propose the following hypothesis to explain how strong leadership may become uncontested: local contexts where the importance of ethnic identities substantially changes are characterized by a questioning of the political norms (i.e. what political stances can be publicly enacted) and constitutes therefore places where otherwise censored political views (e.g. authoritarian) may come to dominate the public sphere. To test this hypothesis, I use data from the first two rounds of the Afrobarometer survey collected in 10 African countries. Using multilevel logistic models, I examine whether regional change in the salience of ethnic identities interacts with the political attitude of individuals (authoritarian vs Democrats) to predict their political participation. As hypothesized, results show that regional volatility selectively affects the enactment of political views. However, the pattern is more complex than predicted and suggests that the spiral of silence framework is be too simplistic to explain processes occurring in these contexts.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2017.59.2

When development is not "right": Understanding the relationship between perceptions, collective action and victimhood

TitleWhen development is not "right": Understanding the relationship between perceptions, collective action and victimhood
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsJayakody, S
Secondary AuthorsUsoof-Thowfeek, R
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume59.1
Pagination39
PublisherNCCR LIVES
Keywordscollective action, conflict, development, victim beliefs
Abstract

Much of the research on effective reconciliation advocates a holistic approach to social harmony in post war settings. However, many state and non-governmental entities choose physical infrastructure development, as a strategy for reconciliation believing that enhanced access to physical resources would dampen any recurrence of violence and conflict. At the end of 30 years of war between the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Ealem (LTTE) and the Sri Lankan military, the Sri Lankan government for several years after, took a similar path. This paper examines community and individual responses to such development, in post war Sri Lanka with special focus on community reactions to development in situations where development is perceived as imposed. The paper specifically examines how these responses relate to support for collective action and whether this relationship is mediated by different forms of victim beliefs that community members hold.
The paper uses data collected in a survey conducted in two districts in Sri Lanka from 202 respondents, representative of all ethnic and religious groups. The survey probed respondents on their own and community views of the development that had taken place in post war Sri Lanka, their beliefs about their group’s victimhood and their support and willingness to engage in collective action. The analysis revealed higher conflict exposure to be associated with higher tendencies to engage in collective action in the presence of certain types of victim beliefs. It revealed that lower receptiveness of development was positively related with collective action, but different types of victim beliefs mediated this relationship.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2017.59.1