Parental and paternity leave proposals in Switzerland: Do they promote gender equality?

TitleParental and paternity leave proposals in Switzerland: Do they promote gender equality?
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsValarino, I
JournalLIVES Working Papers
Volume2016
Issue53
Pagination1-32
PublisherNCCR LIVES
Keywordsfamily policies, gender equality, parental leave, paternity leave, Switzerland
Abstract

Leave policies are part of the institutional setting that shapes gender relations and parenthood. In Switzerland fathers do not have access to a federal statutory parental or paternity leave. The article analyses the leave policy proposals submitted from 1995 to 2014 by members of the Parliament and their potential implications for gender equality. Content analysis results show that only few proposals – stemming from left-wing political actors – would create incentives for fathers to use these leaves and would therefore promote gender equality. On the contrary, several proposals would produce further gender inequalities, or create inequalities based on social class or citizenship. The article discusses future challenges for leave policy development in Switzerland from a gender equality perspective.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2016.53

Using dynamic microsimulation to understand professional trajectories of the active Swiss population

TitleUsing dynamic microsimulation to understand professional trajectories of the active Swiss population
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsAdamopoulos, P, Ritschard, G, Berchtold, A
Book TitleProceedings of the International Conference on Sequence Analysis and Related Methods (LaCOSA II)
Pagination151-154
PublisherNCCR LIVES
Place PublishedLausanne, Switzerland
Keywordslongitudinal data, Markov models, microsimulation, professional trajectories
Abstract

Within the social and economic sciences and of particular interest to demographers are life course events. Looking at life sequences we can better understand which states, or life events, precede or are precursors to vulnerability. A tool that has been used for policy evaluation and recently has been gaining ground in life course sequence simulation is dynamic microsimulation. Within this context dynamic microsimulation consists in generating entire life courses from the observation of portions of the trajectories of individuals of different ages. In this work, we aim to use dynamic microsimulation in order to analyse individual professional trajectories with a focus on vulnerability. The primary goal of this analysis is to deepen upon current literature by providing insight from a longitudinal perspective on the signs of work instability and the process of precarity. The secondary goal of this work which is to show how, by using microsimulation, data collected for one purpose can be analysed under a different scope and used in a meaningful way. The data to be used in this analysis are longitudinal and were collected by NCCR-LIVES IP207 under the supervision of Prof. Christian Maggiori and Dr. Gregoire Bollmann. Individuals aged 25 to 55 residing in the German-speaking and French-speaking regions of Switzerland were followed annually for four years. These individuals were questioned regarding, amongst their personal, professional and overall situations and well-being. At the end of the fourth wave, there were 1131 individuals who had participated in all waves. The sample remained representative of the Swiss population with women and the unemployed slightly over represented. Using the information collected from these surveys, we use simulation to construct various longitudinal data modules where each data module represents a specific life domain. We postulate the relationship between these modules and layout a framework of estimation. Within certain data modules a set of equations are created to model the process therein. For every dynamic (time-variant) data module, such as the labour-market module, the transition probabilities between states (ex. labour market status) are estimated using a Markov model and then the possible outcomes are simulated. The benefit of using dynamic microsimulation is that longitudinal sample observations instead of stylised profiles are used to model population dynamics. This is one of the main reasons large-scale dynamic microsimulation models are employed by many developed nations. There has been limited use, however, of such approaches with Swiss data. This work contributes to the analysis of professional trajectories of the active Swiss population by utilising dynamic microsimulation methods.

URLhttps://lacosa.lives-nccr.ch/sites/lacosa.lives-nccr.ch/files/lacosa2-proceedings.pdf
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Discovering and explaining patterns of work-family reconciliation in Luxembourg

TitleDiscovering and explaining patterns of work-family reconciliation in Luxembourg
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsZhelyazkova, N, Ritschard, G
Book TitleProceedings of the International Conference on Sequence Analysis and Related Methods (LaCOSA II)
Pagination143-147
PublisherNCCR LIVES
Place PublishedLausanne, Switzerland
URLhttps://lacosa.lives-nccr.ch/sites/lacosa.lives-nccr.ch/files/lacosa2-proceedings.pdf
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Markovian-based clustering of internet addiction trajectories

TitleMarkovian-based clustering of internet addiction trajectories
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsTaushanov, Z, Berchtold, A
Book TitleProceedings of the International Conference on Sequence Analysis and Related Methods (LaCOSA II)
Pagination179-182
PublisherNCCR LIVES
Place PublishedLausanne, Switzerland
Abstract

A hidden Markov clustering procedure is applied to a sample of n=185 longitudinal Internet Addiction Test trajectories collected in Switzerland. The best solution has 4 groups. This solution is related to the level of emotional wellbeing of the subjects, but no relation is observed with age, gender and BMI.

URLhttps://lacosa.lives-nccr.ch/sites/lacosa.lives-nccr.ch/files/lacosa2-proceedings.pdf
Refereed DesignationUnknown

A discussion on hidden Markov models for life course data

TitleA discussion on hidden Markov models for life course data
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsBolano, D, Berchtold, A, Ritschard, G
Book TitleProceedings of the International Conference on Sequence Analysis and Related Methods (LaCOSA II)
Pagination241-260
PublisherNCCR LIVES
Place PublishedLausanne, Switzerland
Keywordshidden Markov model, Life course approach, sequence analysis
Abstract

This is an introduction on discrete-time Hidden Markov models (HMM) for longitudinal data analysis in population and life course studies. In the Markovian perspective, life trajectories are considered as the result of a stochastic process in which the probability of occurrence of a particular state or event depends on the sequence of states observed so far. Markovian models are used to analyze the transition process between successive states. Starting from the traditional formulation of a first-order discrete-time Markov chain where each state is liked to the next one, we present the hidden Markov models where the current response is driven by a latent variable that follows a Markov process. The paper presents also a simple way of handling categorical covariates to capture the effect of external factors on the transition probabilities and existing software are briefly overviewed. Empirical illustrations using data on self reported health demonstrate the relevance of the different extensions for life course analysis.

URLhttps://lacosa.lives-nccr.ch/sites/lacosa.lives-nccr.ch/files/lacosa2-proceedings.pdf
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Normalization of distance and similarity in sequence analysis

TitleNormalization of distance and similarity in sequence analysis
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsElzinga, C, Studer, M
Book TitleProceedings of the International Conference on Sequence Analysis and Related Methods (LaCOSA II)
Pagination445-468
PublisherNCCR LIVES
Place PublishedLausanne, Switzerland
Keywordsdistance, normalization, sequence analysis, similarity
Abstract

We explore the relations between the notion of distance and a feature set based concept of similarity and show that this concept of similarity has a spatial interpretation that is complementary to distance: it is interpreted as “direction”. Furthermore, we show how proper normalization leads to distances that can be directly interpreted as dissimilarity: closeness in normalized space implies and is implied by similarity of the same objects while remoteness implies and is implied by dissimilarity. Finally, we show how, in research into de-standardization of the life course, properly normalizing may drastically and unequivocally change our interpretation of inter-cohortal distances.

URLhttps://lacosa.lives-nccr.ch/sites/lacosa.lives-nccr.ch/files/lacosa2-proceedings.pdf
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Methodological approaches to profiling and modelling disadvantaged employment pathways. An application to employment trajectories in Australia

TitleMethodological approaches to profiling and modelling disadvantaged employment pathways. An application to employment trajectories in Australia
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsBolano, D, Haynes, M
Book TitleProceedings of the International Conference on Sequence Analysis and Related Methods (LaCOSA II)
Pagination851-862
PublisherNCCR-LIVES
Place PublishedLausanne, Switzerland
Abstract

This paper investigates the employment pathways of men and women in Australia and profiles the characteristics of individuals who are at risk of disadvantage defined by unstable employment histories and frequent transitions into unemployment. The paper focuses on the transitions of respondents, aged 15-64 years, between different employment states over a span of 13 years (2001-2013) using panel data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey. To describe employment trajectories and to analyse the likelihood of transition from one employment state to another, we will rely on sequence analysis and two probabilistic models that might account for state dependence: dynamic multinomial logit random effects models and Markov models. Sequence analysis was used to identify typology of employment pathways and the associated sociodemographic characteristics and intergenerational links. The preliminary results confirm the presence of gender differences in employment. Women are more likely to be employed part time or not in the labour force while men are more likely to experience stable employment trajectories of full time work. Women also experience a slightly higher proportion of employment transitions. Among the sociodemographic and background factors considered, mature age workers, those with health problems and less educated parents, in particular father-son and mother-daughter links, are mainly at risk of experiencing unstable employment pathways

URLhttps://lacosa.lives-nccr.ch/sites/lacosa.lives-nccr.ch/files/lacosa2-proceedings.pdf
Refereed DesignationRefereed

The interplay between international migration and the welfare state in the context of the ageing of the migrant population

TitleThe interplay between international migration and the welfare state in the context of the ageing of the migrant population
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsCiobanu, RO, Bolzman, C
JournalScientific Annals of the “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University
Volume8
Issue2
Number2
Pagination9-31
Keywordsageing migrants, health services, international migration, pension, Portugal, Switzerland, transnationalism, welfare state
Abstract

The article revisits the literature on international migration and the welfare state by focusing on the emerging population of ageing migrants. The scope is to develop a theoretical model that would allow the understanding of the inclusion of ageing migrants in the welfare state. The article enquires how do ageing migrants become included in the welfare system. Further, it narrows down and compares the Portuguese and Swiss welfare states with a focus on access to health care and pensions. The conclusion points to a heterogeneous population of ageing migrants that policies and states are not yet ready to accommodate.

Refereed DesignationRefereed

Personnes âgées, migrations et care: Enjeux intergénérationnels et pour les politiques sociales

TitlePersonnes âgées, migrations et care: Enjeux intergénérationnels et pour les politiques sociales
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsBolzman, C
EditorHajji, N, Lescarret, O
Book TitleLes mouvements sociaux à l’épreuve de l’interculturel
Series TitleEspaces interculturels
Pagination189-209
PublisherL'Harmattan
Place PublishedParis
ISBN Number978-2-343-07170-1
Refereed DesignationUnknown

Grand âge et transformations du pouvoir sur soi et son environnement. Entre déprise et exclusion

TitleGrand âge et transformations du pouvoir sur soi et son environnement. Entre déprise et exclusion
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsLavoie, J-P, Caradec, V, Bickel, J-F, Bouisson, J, Mallon, I, Membrado, M
EditorViriot-Durandal, J-P, Raymond, E, Moulaert, T, Charpentier, M
Book TitleDroits de vieillir et citoyenneté des aînés. Pour une perspective internationale
EditionFirst
Pagination343-355
PublisherPresses de l'Université du Québec
Place PublishedQuébec
Keywordsaging, disengagement, identity, social exclusion
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Marital breakup in later adulthood and self-rated health: a cross-sectional survey in Switzerland

TitleMarital breakup in later adulthood and self-rated health: a cross-sectional survey in Switzerland
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsKnöpfli, B, Cullati, S, Courvoisier, D, Perrig-Chiello, P, Burton-Jeangros, C
JournalInternational Journal of Public Health
Volume61
Issue3
Number3
Pagination357-366
Date Publishedjan
Keywordslater adulthood, marital breakup, relationship status, resources, self-rated health
Abstract

This research examines the impact of relationship status on self-rated health (SRH) by taking into account intrapersonal and social resources. Data stem from a Swiss-based survey of 1355 participants aged 40-65 years. Three groups are compared: continuously married (n = 399), single divorcees (n = 532) and repartnered divorcees (n = 424). Linear regression models are used to examine the predictive role of relationship status on SRH and to investigate the moderating role of intrapersonal and social resources on SRH. Single divorcees show the lowest SRH scores, whereas their repartnered counterparts reported scores comparable to the continuously married – even after controlling for socio-demographic and economic variables. Although single divorcees reported higher levels of loneliness and agreeableness in addition to lower levels of resilience when compared with the other groups, none of these variables had a significant modification effect on SRH. Our results underscore the positive effect of relationship status on SRH, and contribute new insights on the impact of later-life divorce. Given the growing number of divorcees, related public health challenges are likely to increase.

DOI10.1007/s00038-015-0776-6
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Vulnerability following a critical life event: Temporary crisis or chronic distress? A psychological controversy, methodological considerations, and empirical evidence

TitleVulnerability following a critical life event: Temporary crisis or chronic distress? A psychological controversy, methodological considerations, and empirical evidence
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsPerrig-Chiello, P, Hutchison, S, Knöpfli, B
EditorOris, M, Roberts, C, Joye, D, Ernst Stähli, M
Book TitleSurveying human vulnerabilities across the life course
Chapter4
Pagination87-111
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedNew York
ISBN Number978-3-319-24155-5
Abstract

This contribution deals with psychological vulnerability resulting from marital breakup after a long-term relationship. Despite the existing vast body of consolidated knowledge on divorce and psychological adaptation, there are still several controversies concerning the vulnerabilizing impact of marital breakup. One major issue refers to the question of whether vulnerability after marital breakup is a temporary crisis or rather a chronic strain. In this chapter we want to present two possible methodological options to tackle this question: First, comparing a sample of almost 1000 middle-aged persons, who were married on average 19 years, and who experienced a marital split within the last 5 years (4 time groups), with a group of age-matched married controls with regard to various indicators of psychological vulnerability (such as depression and hopelessness). Second, comparing within the divorced group the most vulnerable individuals (in terms of depression, hopelessness, life satisfaction) with those who were the least affected, regarding intra-personal resources (personality, resilience), divorce circumstances, post-divorce situation, and socio-economic resources. The study results underline the vulnerabilizing impact of marital breakup, but at the same time they reveal individual differences in psychological adaptation especially due to personality, new partnership, economic resources, and last but not least due to time. Furthermore our data strongly suggest that there is not a generalized psychological vulnerability after marital breakup, but that the emotional dimensions such as depression or feelings of not overcoming the loss are more affected than the more cognitive ones such as life satisfaction.

DOI10.1007/978-3-319-24157-9_4

Health and disease at age 100

TitleHealth and disease at age 100
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsJopp, D, Boerner, K, Rott, C
JournalDeutsches Ärzteblatt International
Volume113
Issue12
Number12
Pagination203-210
Abstract

Background: Centenarian studies from around the world have shown that reaching age 100 typically involves substantial health issues. The present study adds to the existing knowledge from other countries by describing health conditions in German centenarians. Methods: A total of 112 centenarians or their primary contacts provided information on acute and chronic health conditions and pain in the context of the Second Heidelberg Centenarian Study (mean age = 100.45 years, Standard deviation [SD] = 0.47, 89% females). Results: Participants showed high comorbidity, with an average of five illnesses (mean = 5.3; SD = 2.20). Health conditions with highest prevalence were sensory (vision, hearing; 94%), mobility (72%) and musculoskeletal conditions (60%). Cardiovascular conditions (57%) and urinary system ailments (55%) were also common. Pain was experienced often by 30% of the participants. Of those reporting any pain, 36% indicated pain exceeding bearable levels. Conclusion: German centenarians experienced a substantial number of ill nesses, dominated by sensory and mobility conditions. Cardiovascular diseases were the only potentially lethal illnesses with high prevalence. Evidence of unaddressed pain seems alarming, requiring future research. Emerging health profiles indicate that even in very advanced age, quality of life may be improved by enhanced diagnostics and optimal disease management. Mobility limitations may be addressed with preventive efforts.

DOI10.3238/arztebl.2016.0203
Refereed DesignationRefereed

The importance of leisure activities in the relationship between physical health and well-being in a life span sample

TitleThe importance of leisure activities in the relationship between physical health and well-being in a life span sample
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsPaggi, M, Jopp, D, Hertzog, C
JournalGerontology
Volume62
Pagination450 - 458
Date Publishedmar
Keywordsleisure, physical health, successful aging, well-being
Abstract

Background: Previous studies have examined the relationships between physical health and leisure activities and between leisure activities and well-being, but, to our knowledge, none has examined these relationships simultaneously. Objective: This study investigated the relationships between leisure activities, health and well-being considering the role of age, and whether leisure activities mediate the relationship between physical health and well-being. Methods: Utilizing a cross-sectional database of 259 adults (ages 18-81 years) who completed several questionnaires, linear regression models and mediation models were tested. Results: Regression analyses indicated that physical health was related to leisure activities and leisure activities were related to well-being. When physical health was measured by subjective ratings, age had a stronger relationship with leisure activities. However, when physical health was indicated by health restrictions, physical health had a stronger relationship with leisure activities than did age. Leisure activities were a partial mediator of the relationship between physical health and well-being. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that the reduction in leisure activities with age has more to do with physical health limitations than with older age itself. In addition, regardless of age, the benefits of physical health for well-being are due in part to the level of leisure activity participation. These results highlight the importance of leisure activities for successful aging throughout the adult life span. Interventions designed to improve well-being through increasing leisure activity participation should take physical health into consideration, particularly for

DOI10.1159/000444415
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Contextual determinants of hopelessness: Investigating socioeconomic factors and emotional climates

TitleContextual determinants of hopelessness: Investigating socioeconomic factors and emotional climates
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsMorselli, D
JournalSocial Indicators Research
Volume133
Issue1
Pagination373-393
Keywordsdepression, emotions, life change events, protective factors, risk factors
Abstract

Perceptions of the future are crucial components of individual well-being. Hopelessness, which is the sense that the future is a dead end, begins with the occurrence of negative life events and develops through the perception of consistent and pervasive negative outcomes. This study investigated the role of the socioeconomic aspects of the context and shared emotions (emotional climates) within a region in reducing or exacerbating hopelessness. Emotional climates have been defined as the emotional relationships constructed among members of a society, and they describe the environmental quality of a particular community. Multilevel modeling with individuals nested into regions (i.e., Swiss cantons) was used to explore the relationship between context and hopelessness. Data from the project “Vulnerability and Growth,” the Swiss Household Panel and official socioeconomic indicators were used. Spatial-weighting methods were applied to estimate depressive and optimistic emotional climates at the canton level. The results show that hopelessness is primarily affected by individual factors such as personality and life events. However, the analyses revealed that socioeconomic conditions and the optimistic and depressive climates that prevail in cantons also affected individuals’ perceptions of hopelessness. Individuals were more likely to feel hopeless in cantons with high unemployment rates and high levels of shared negative emotions. In contrast, positive emotional climates played a protective role against hopelessness. Acknowledgment of the influence of context on individuals’ perceptions of the future and the correlation of their states of anxiety and depression is pivotal for planning effective interventions to prevent depression.

DOI10.1007/s11205-016-1346-x
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Impact of falling on social participation and social support trajectories in a middle-aged and elderly European sample

TitleImpact of falling on social participation and social support trajectories in a middle-aged and elderly European sample
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsPin Le Corre, S, Spini, D
JournalSSM - Population Health
Volume2
Pagination382-389
Keywordsaccidental fall, cohort survey, social participation, social support
Abstract

Whereas falls are frequent and traumatic events for the elderly, their long-term consequences in terms of the social lives of older fallers are understudied. This study aimed to identify the impact of falling on the trajectories of social participation and social support of older people in Europe. Our sample consisted of 16,583 people aged 50 to 95 years from 11 European countries who responded to the first three waves of the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe. The impact of falling on the trajectories of social participation and social support was examined using generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. The effect of the interactions between falling and frailty and between falling and social support on social participation was assessed. Falls were negatively associated with social participation (OR = 0.73, p

DOI10.1016/j.ssmph.2016.05.004
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Patterns of family salience and welfare state regimes: sociability practices and support norms in a comparative perspective

TitlePatterns of family salience and welfare state regimes: sociability practices and support norms in a comparative perspective
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsGanjour, O, Widmer, E
JournalEuropean Societies
Volume18
Issue3
Number3
Pagination201-220
Date Publishedapr
Keywordsdefamilization, family, patterns of sociability practices, patterns of solidarity norms, welfare state regimes
Abstract

This research explores patterns of family salience based on sociability and solidarity norms according to the institutional context. The data come from the International Social Survey Program (ISSP), from respondents living in four types of welfare regime countries: Mediterranean, corporatist, liberal, and social-democratic. Based on cluster analyses, we found that the salience of family in sociability practices and solidarity norms to a significant extent varies according to welfare regimes. Individuals from a Mediterranean welfare regime more often develop a pattern of sociability by a focus on children or parents. Normatively, they develop a pattern stressing the salience of both family and state. Individuals from a corporatist welfare regime more often develop a pattern of sociability focused on extended kin or feature a lack of sociability. At the normative level, they promote either the patterns of state support or reliance on the self. Individuals from a liberal welfare regime stress patterns of family support or self-reliance at the normative level. They develop a pattern of associational activity or show a lack of sociability. Individuals from social-democratic welfare regimes are more frequently normatively oriented toward state support while promoting participation in associations or showing a lack in their sociability.

URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14616696.2016.1158846
DOI10.1080/14616696.2016.1158846
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Switzerland

TitleSwitzerland
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsFassa Recrosio, F, Le Feuvre, N, Posse, M, Kradolfer, S
EditorLe Feuvre, N
Book TitleGarcia Working Papers - Contextualizing Women’s Academic Careers: Comparative Perspectives on Gender, Care and Employment Regimes in Seven European Countries
Volume1
Pagination139-184
PublisherGARCIA
Place PublishedTrento
Keywordsacademic, careers, Europe, gender, occupation
URLhttp://garciaproject.eu/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/GARCIA_report_wp1D1.pdf
Refereed DesignationUnknown

Switzerland

TitleSwitzerland
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsLe Feuvre, N, Kradolfer, S
EditorHerschberg, C, Benschop, Y, Van den Brink, M
Book TitleGarcia Working Papers - Constructing excellence: the gap between formal and actual selection criteria for early career academics
Volume2
Pagination179-240
PublisherGARCIA
Place PublishedTrento
Keywordsacademic, careers, Europe, gender, occupation
URLhttp://garciaproject.eu/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/GARCIA_report_wp2D1.pdf
Refereed DesignationUnknown

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