Partnerschaft in der zweiten Lebenshälfte – Herausforderungen, Verluste und Gewinne: Studiendesign und methodisches Vorgehen

TitlePartnerschaft in der zweiten Lebenshälfte – Herausforderungen, Verluste und Gewinne: Studiendesign und methodisches Vorgehen
Publication TypeReport
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsPerrig-Chiello, P, Margelisch, K
Date Published03/2015
PublisherUniversity of Bern
Place PublishedBern
URLhttp://www.entwicklung.psy.unibe.ch/content/forschung/lives/index_ger.html
Citation Key1457

Histoire et parcours de vie: la perception des changements sociohistoriques

TitleHistoire et parcours de vie: la perception des changements sociohistoriques
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsMartenot, A, Cavalli, S
JournalTemporalités
Volume2014
Issue20
Pagination1-15
Keywordsâge, changements, cohortes, histoire, parcours de vie, perception
Abstract

Dans cet article, nous nous intéressons à la mémoire de l'histoire rapportée par des adultes appartenant à cinq groupes d'âge allant de 20-24 à 80-84 ans. En particulier, nous nous focalisons sur les événements et changements sociohistoriques, survenus au cours de leur vie, que ces personnes ont retenus comme particulièrement saillants. Sur la base de deux enquêtes menées à Genève en 2004 et 2009, nous avons procédé à une double comparaison : entre les groupes d'âge (ou cohortes) d'une part, entre les réponses données à cinq ans d'intervalle d'autre part. Certains événements (Deuxième Guerre mondiale, chute du mur de Berlin, attentats du 11 septembre par exemple) sont particulièrement rappelés par le groupe d'âge qui entre dans la vie adulte au moment de leur apparition. Ainsi, la perception d'un épisode historique varie selon l'âge des individus au moment de son déroulement et les changements qui se produisent entre dix et trente ans ont un grand impact sur la mémoire. Toutefois, ceci ne constitue pas un mécanisme universel, mais reste soumis à plusieurs conditions, notamment que l'histoire soit porteuse d'un ou de plusieurs changements à cette période.

URLhttp://temporalites.revues.org/2882
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Racial preferences in online dating across European countries

TitleRacial preferences in online dating across European countries
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsPotârcă, G, Mills, M
JournalEuropean Sociological Review
Volume2015
Pagination1-16
Keywordscross-national comparison, online dating, race/ethnicity
Abstract

Knowledge about how race governs partner selection has been predominantly studied in the United States, yet it is unclear whether these results can be generalized to nations with different racial and immigration patterns. Using a large-scale sample of online daters in nine European countries, we engage in the first cross-national analysis of race-related partner preferences and examine the link between contextual factors and ethnic selectivity. We provide a unique test of contact, conflict, and in-group identification theories. We show that individuals uniformly prefer to date same-race partners and that there is a hierarchy of preferences both among natives and minority groups. Notable country differences are also found. Europeans living in countries with a large foreign-born population have an increased preference for minority groups. The ethnically heterogeneous Swiss population displays the strongest preference for minorities, with the more homogenous Poland, Spain, and Italy, the least. Anti-immigrant attitudes are related to stronger in-group preferences among natives. Unexpectedly, non-Arabic minority daters belonging to large-size communities have strong preferences for Europeans. The results have implications for immigrant integration policies and demonstrate that Internet dating allows efficient selection by racial divisions, perpetuating country-specific racial inequalities.

DOI10.1093/esr/jcu093
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Relationship preferences among gay and lesbian online daters: Individual and contextual influences

TitleRelationship preferences among gay and lesbian online daters: Individual and contextual influences
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsPotârcă, G, Mills, M, Neberich, W
JournalJournal of Marriage and Family
Volume77
Issue2
Pagination523–541
Keywordsgay, lesbian, mate selection, multilevel models, online dating
Abstract

There is currently little knowledge about what gay men and lesbians seek in a romantic relationship. This study extends the literature on gay men and lesbians’ partnership preferences by engaging in the first large-scale empirical study of the long-term dating intentions and monogamy beliefs of gay and lesbian online daters across 53 regions in 8 European countries (N=24,598). Looking at profile and preference information, the authors examined both individual and contextual determinants in a series of multilevel logistic regression analyses. They show that lesbians give more importance to monogamy but show less interest in starting a long-term relationship. The data also reveal the importance of life course aspects such as relationship history and presence of children. Finally, the authors empirically demonstrate that social tolerance and legal recognition of same-sex unions are associated with higher long-term dating intentions and stronger monogamy beliefs.

DOI10.1111/jomf.12177
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Do informal contacts increase labor market inequality? Social ties, job access and wages for the unemployed

TitleDo informal contacts increase labor market inequality? Social ties, job access and wages for the unemployed
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsOesch, D, von Ow, A
JournalLIVES Working Papers
Volume2015
Issue38
Pagination1-30
PublisherNCCR LIVES
ISSN2296-1658
Keywordsinformal contacts, job recruitment, social class, social networks, unemployment
Abstract

This paper analyzes, for a large sample of unemployed workers, who finds a job through a personal contact and how using a personal contact affects job quality. We argue that the distinction between work-related and communal contacts is decisive. Using a dataset for Switzerland which merges register data with a longitudinal survey of unemployed jobseekers, we find that work contacts are disproportionately used by privileged jobseekers: male mid-aged professionals and managers. In contrast, communal contacts act as search method of last resort; they are used by immigrants, the working class, the very young and elderly. Using a communal contact does not affect wages, but is associated with longer unemployment.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2015.38

Right to work and individual responsibility in contemporary welfare states. A capability approach to activation policies for the unemployed

TitleRight to work and individual responsibility in contemporary welfare states. A capability approach to activation policies for the unemployed
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsBonvin, J-M, Moachon, E
EditorDermine, E, Dumont, D
Book TitleActivation policies for the unemployed, the right to work and the duty to work
Series TitleWork & Society
Pagination179-205
PublisherP.I.E. Peter Lang
Place PublishedBruxelles
ISBN Number978-2-87574-232-2

Smooth transition or permanent exit? Evidence on job prospects of displaced industrial workers

TitleSmooth transition or permanent exit? Evidence on job prospects of displaced industrial workers
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsOesch, D, Baumann, I
JournalSocio-Economic Review
Volume13
Issue1
Pagination101-123
Keywordseconomic sociology, labour markets, manufacturing, political economy, unemployment, wages
Abstract

This article examines the job prospects of displaced industrial workers in Switzerland. Based on a survey of 1,203 workers who were dismissed after their manufacturing plants closed down, we analyse the determinants of re-employment, the sector of re-employment and the change in wages. Two years after displacement, a majority of workers were back in employment: 69% were re-employed, 17% unemployed and 11% retired. Amongst re-employed workers, two thirds found a job in manufacturing and one third in services. Contrary to a common belief, low-end services are not the collecting vessel of redundant industrial workers. Displaced workers aged 55 and older seem particularly vulnerable after a plant closes down: over 30% were long-term unemployed, and those older workers who found a new job suffered disproportionate wage losses. Advanced age—and not low education—appears as the primary handicap after mass redundancy.

DOI10.1093/ser/mwu023
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Welfare regimes and change in the employment structure: Britain, Denmark and Germany since 1990

TitleWelfare regimes and change in the employment structure: Britain, Denmark and Germany since 1990
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsOesch, D
JournalJournal of European Social Policy
Volume25
Issue1
Pagination94-110
KeywordsEsping-Andersen, polarization, social class, unemployment, welfare state
Abstract

Welfare states are often reduced to their role as providers of social protection and redistribution. In 1990, Esping-Andersen argued that they also affect employment creation and the class structure. We analyse the stratification outcomes for three welfare regimes – Britain, Germany and Denmark – over the 1990s and 2000s. Based on individual-level surveys, we observe a disproportionate increase among professionals and managers, and a decline among production workers and clerks. The result is clear-cut occupational upgrading in Denmark and Germany. In Britain, high and low-end service jobs expanded, resulting in a polarized version of upgrading. Growth in low-end service jobs – and thus polarization – is no precondition for full employment. Both Britain and Denmark halved their low-educated unemployment rate between 1995 and 2008. Yet low-end service jobs expanded only in Britain, not in Denmark. The cause is the evolution of labour supply: rising educational attainment means that fewer low-educated workers look for low-skilled jobs.

DOI10.1177/0958928714556972
Refereed DesignationRefereed

General framework and model building in the class of Hidden Mixture Transition Distribution models

TitleGeneral framework and model building in the class of Hidden Mixture Transition Distribution models
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsBolano, D, Berchtold, A
JournalComputational Statistics & Data Analysis
Volume93
Pagination131-145
Date Published01/2016
KeywordsBIC, hidden Markov model, mixture model, mixture transition distribution model, model selection, panel data
Abstract

Modeling time series that present non-Gaussian features plays as central role in many fields, including finance, seismology, psychological, and life course studies. The Hidden Mixture Transition Distribution model is an answer to the complexity of such series. The observed heterogeneity can be induced by one or several latent factors, and each level of these factors is related to a different component of the observed process. The time series is then treated as a mixture and the relation between the components is governed by a Markovian latent transition process. This framework generalizes several specifications that appear separately in related literature. Both the expectation and the standard deviation of each component are allowed to be functions of the past of the process. The latent process can be of any order, and can be modeled using a discrete Mixture Transition Distribution. The effects of covariates at the visible and hidden levels are also investigated. One of the main difficulties lies in correctly specifying the structure of the model. Therefore, we propose a hierarchical model selection procedure that exploits the multilevel structure of our approach. Finally, we illustrate the model and the model selection procedure through a real application in social science.

DOI10.1016/j.csda.2014.09.011
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Patterns of psychological adaptation to spousal bereavement in old age

TitlePatterns of psychological adaptation to spousal bereavement in old age
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsSpahni, S, Morselli, D, Perrig-Chiello, P, Bennett, K
JournalGerontology
Volume61
Issue5
Pagination456-468
Keywordsbereavement, psychological adjustment, resources, variability, well-being
Abstract

Background: While the negative effects of spousal bereavement on well-being are well documented in empirical research, the large individual differences in psychological adaptation are still not well understood. Objective: This contribution aims to identify patterns of psychological adaptation to spousal loss in old age and to shed light on the role of intra- and interpersonal resources and contextual factors as discriminant variables among these patterns. Methods: The data stem from a cross-sectional questionnaire study of 402 widowed individuals (228 women, 174 men) aged between 60 and 89 years (mean age 74.41 years), who lost their partner within the last 5 years, and 618 married individuals, who served as controls (312 women, 306 men; mean age 73.82 years). Results: The exploratory latent profile analysis of the well-being outcomes of depressive symptoms, hopelessness, loneliness, life satisfaction and subjective health revealed three different groups in the widowed sample: ‘resilients' (54% of the sample), ‘copers' (39%) and ‘vulnerables' (7%). The most important variables for group allocation were intrapersonal resources - psychological resilience and the Big Five personality traits - but also the quality of the former relationship and how the loss was experienced. Conclusion: Successful adaptation to spousal loss is primarily associated with high scores in psychological resilience and extraversion and low scores in neuroticism. Our results shed light on the variability in psychological adaptation and underline the important role of intrapersonal resources in facing spousal loss in old age.

DOI10.1159/000371444
Refereed DesignationRefereed

The life course determinants of vulnerability in late careers

TitleThe life course determinants of vulnerability in late careers
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsMadero Cabib, I
JournalLongitudinal and Life Course Studies
Volume6
Issue1
Pagination88-106
ISSN1757-9597
Keywordscumulative advantage and disadvantage, late careers, sequence analysis, SHARELIFE data, vulnerability
Abstract

Late career is often seen as a more vulnerable life-stage in the labour market, in which workers may experience a deterioration in job quality. Using a life course perspective and longitudinal data, this article analyses the vulnerability associated with late career by focusing on four occupational dimensions: working-time, career continuity, retirement timing and income change. The research is carried out using data from Switzerland, a country where the age profile of the labour force is an increasing issue. The paper also adopts a cumulative disadvantage perspective to examine the impact of previous work and family life experiences on work life vulnerability at older age. Our data come from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARELIFE). The paper uses cluster analysis, sequence analysis and ordered logistic regression. Results show that women with previous family responsibilities resulting in long-term unemployment or caring, often with health complications, are more likely to be vulnerable to deterioration in job quality in late career. This suggests that experiences in the last period of the working life may be just as gendered as earlier periods.

DOI10.14301/llcs.v6i1.299
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Cohort and gender differences in psychosocial adjustment to later-life widowhood

TitleCohort and gender differences in psychosocial adjustment to later-life widowhood
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsPerrig-Chiello, P, Spahni, S, Höpflinger, F, Carr, D
JournalJournals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Volume71
Issue4
Pagination765-774
Keywordsbereavement, depressive symptoms, gender, marital status, social change, widowhood
Abstract

Objectives. Despite the large body of literature on bereavement, little is known about the impact of sociohistorical context on individual reactions to spousal loss. This study examines the effect of marital status, time period and gender on physical and mental health, and whether reported difficulties following spousal loss differ at 2 distinctive time periods.
Method. Two cohorts of older bereaved persons (n = 753) in Switzerland, surveyed in 1979 and 2011, were compared regarding their reports of difficulties related to marital loss. The bereaved spouses were also compared with a group of married contemporaries (n = 1,517) regarding subjective health and depressive symptoms.
Results. Marital status and gender each have independent effects on subjective health and depressive symptoms. The effects of widowhood on subjective health differed significantly at both time points. Widowed individuals in 2011, especially women, reported fewer social and financial difficulties than their counterparts in 1979. However, the effect of widowhood on depressive symptoms and psychological difficulties did not differ significantly across time points.
Discussion. Social changes in the late 20th century may be protective for older adults’ physical, social, and financial well-being in the face of spousal loss, yet these changes do not alleviate widow(er)s’ psychological distress.

DOI10.1093/geronb/gbv004
Refereed DesignationRefereed