Vulnerability as a heuristic for interdisciplinary research: Assessing the thematic and methodological structure of empirical life-course studies

TitleVulnerability as a heuristic for interdisciplinary research: Assessing the thematic and methodological structure of empirical life-course studies
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsHanappi, D, Bernardi, L, Spini, D
JournalLongitudinal and Life Course Studies
Volume6
Issue1
Pagination59-87
Keywordslife course, resources, risks, social context, stress process, vulnerability
AbstractChanges in human lives are studied in psychology, sociology, and adjacent fields as outcomes of developmental processes, institutional regulations and policies, culturally and normatively structured life courses, or empirical accounts. However, such studies have used a wide range of complementary, but often divergent, concepts. This review has two aims. First, we report on the structure that has emerged from scientific life course research by focusing on abstracts from longitudinal and life course studies beginning with the year 2000. Second, we provide a sense of the disciplinary diversity of the field and assess the value of the concept of ‘vulnerability’ as a heuristic tool for studying human lives. Applying correspondence analysis to 10,632 scientific abstracts, we find a disciplinary divide between psychology and sociology, and observe indications of both similarities of—and differences between—studies, driven at least partly by the data and methods employed. We also find that vulnerability takes a central position in this scientific field, which leads us to suggest several reasons to see value in pursuing theory development for longitudinal and life course studies in this direction.
DOI10.14301/llcs.v6i1.302
Citation Key1427
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Multidimensional Deprivation in Contemporary Switzerland Across Social Groups and Time

TitleMultidimensional Deprivation in Contemporary Switzerland Across Social Groups and Time
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsLucchini, M, Butti, C, Assi, J, Spini, D, Bernardi, L
JournalSociological Research Online
Volume19
Issue1
Pagination1-14
ISSN1360-7804
Keywordsmultidimensional well-being and deprivation, self-organizing-maps, Swiss Household Panel, transition probabilities
AbstractWe have investigated the phenomenon of deprivation in contemporary Switzerland through the adoption of a multidimensional, dynamic approach. By applying Self Organizing Maps (SOM) to a set of 33 non-monetary indicators from the 2009 wave of the Swiss Household Panel (SHP), we identified 13 prototypical forms (or clusters) of well-being, financial vulnerability, psycho-physiological fragility and deprivation within a topological dimensional space. Then new data from the previous waves (2003 to 2008) were classified by the SOM model, making it possible to estimate the weight of the different clusters in time and reconstruct the dynamics of stability and mobility of individuals within the map. Looking at the transition probabilities between year t and year t+1, we observed that the paths of mobility which catalyze the largest number of observations are those connecting clusters that are adjacent on the topological space.
DOI10.5153/sro.3260
Citation Key1426
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Towards a capabilities perspective on vulnerable young people in Europe: An introduction

TitleTowards a capabilities perspective on vulnerable young people in Europe: An introduction
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsZiegler, H, Berthet, T, Atzmüller, R, Bonvin, J-M, Kjeldsen, CC
EditorOtto, H-U, Atzmüller, R, Berthet, T, Bifulco, L, Bonvin, J-M, Chiappero-Martinetti, E, Egdell, V, Halleröd, B, Kjeldsen, CC, Kwiek, M, Schröer, R, Vero, J, Zieleńska, M
Book TitleFacing trajectories from school to work. Towards a capability-friendly youth policy in Europe
Pagination3-17
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedDordrecht
ISBN Number978-3-319-11435-4
AbstractThe volume at hand was developed out of the insights and results of an EU collaborative research project with the title “Making Capabilities Work”. Within this project, 13 partner institutions from different disciplines (educational science, sociology, economics, philosophy, political studies and social work), which are located in ten European countries, have collaborated in a multidimensional research process. This project was the first that applies the so-called capability approach to the topic of vocational education and training as well as labour market policies of the EU and its member states. Based on the insights of this project, the interdisciplinary chapters of this volume aim at assessing the policy strategies dealing with local youngsters’ education, labour market demands and regional inequalities with respect to their potential of enabling young people to participate in working life and society.
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-11436-1_1
Citation Key1425

Educación, equidad y creencias distributivas: Evidencias del caso chileno

TitleEducación, equidad y creencias distributivas: Evidencias del caso chileno
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsCastillo, JC, Madero Cabib, I, Miranda, D
JournalSociedad Hoy
Volume24
Issue1
Pagination13-31
ISSN0717-3512
Keywordsdistributive beliefs, equity, higher education, International Social Survey Program
AbstractDuring the year 2011, Chile has been scenario of several student’s demonstrations claiming for more equity in the access to the higher education. The high support to the protests by the side of the general population (nearly 89% of approval in public opinion polls) seems to suggest the existence of a large consensus about the weaknesses of the Chilean educative model, a model that would challenge the traditional ideals of meritocracy and social mobility that are at the core of the educational systems in modern societies. In this context, a question that remains open is to what extent these claims are mostly based on consensual equality ideals, or whether they are influenced by individual socio-economic determinants vis-à-vis rational motives. Using data of the social inequality module International Social Survey Program (ISSP) of 2009, this research analyzes perceptions and beliefs about education and the distributive system as well as the influence of income and educational variables, through a structural equation modeling framework. Preliminary results indicate the presence of socioeconomic cleavages in relation to the fairness of the educational system, questioning the assumption about a normative consensus.
URLhttp://sociedadhoy.cl/sites/default/files/SH24-03.pdf
Citation Key1424
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Clivajes partidarios y cambios en preferencias distributivas en Chile

TitleClivajes partidarios y cambios en preferencias distributivas en Chile
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsCastillo, JC, Madero Cabib, I, Salamovich, A
JournalRevista de Ciencia Política
Volume33
Issue2
Pagination469-488
ISSN0716-1417
KeywordsChile, distributive preferences, left-right, partisan cleavages, party identification
AbstractBeliefs about how goods and resources should be distributed in society constitute a central element in the identification with political parties. In this sense, the preference for a more or less active role of the state in redistribution is expected to be related with different party identifications and with the left-right continuum. The present article challenges this assumption, proposing that processes of ideological destructuration have led to that party identification does not constitute a current political cleavage in Chile. The data to be analyzed correspond to the International Social Survey Programme survey implemented in Chile in 1999 and 2009. Results indicate there are scarce differences in distributional preferences by the identification with political parties.
URLhttp://www.revistacienciapolitica.cl/rcp/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/03_vol_33_2.pdf
Citation Key1423
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Cross-cultural adjustment of skilled migrants in a multicultural and multilingual environment: an explorative study of foreign employees and their spouses in the Swiss context

TitleCross-cultural adjustment of skilled migrants in a multicultural and multilingual environment: an explorative study of foreign employees and their spouses in the Swiss context
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsRavasi, C, Salamin, X, Davoine, E
JournalThe International Journal of Human Resource Management
Volume26
Issue10
Pagination1335-1359
Keywordscross-cultural adjustment, international mobility, local language proficiency, relocation practices, skilled migrants, Switzerland
AbstractSkilled migrants are essential to the global economy, and both employers and states depend on them to maintain their competitive advantage. This is particularly true for the Swiss economy, which attracts an impressive number of migrants to counteract the national shortage of skilled workers. The Swiss context is particularly interesting to study because of the strong presence of multinational companies and a situation where the difference between qualified migrants and assigned expatriates is increasingly ethereal. Our study focuses on the adjustment of a population of 152 foreign employees from Swiss-based multinational companies and the adjustment of 126 spouses. We studied different adjustment dimensions focusing on local language proficiency and relocation support practices. Despite the highly multicultural and multilingual Swiss context, our data analysis highlighted relatively low cross-cultural adjustment scores (especially interaction adjustment). We uncovered the degree to which relocation support practices are offered, used and perceived as necessary by foreign employees and showed which support practices could be used to improve the adjustment of migrants.
DOI10.1080/09585192.2014.985328
Citation Key1422
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Coping with structural disadvantage: Overcoming negative effects of perceived barriers through bonding identities

TitleCoping with structural disadvantage: Overcoming negative effects of perceived barriers through bonding identities
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsBakouri, M, Staerklé, C
JournalBritish Journal of Social Psychology
Volume54
Issue4
Pagination648-670
Keywordscollective identities, coping, life-course transitions, relational identities, self-definitions, social bonds, structural disadvantage
AbstractMembers of socially disadvantaged groups often experience societal devaluation, material hardship, and restricted opportunities, especially during critical life-course transitions. In this study, we investigate whether what we term ‘bonding identities’, that is, identities connecting the self to significant persons whether in terms of social relationships (e.g., family relations) or in terms of categorical collective identities, help individuals negotiate structural constraints on life-course opportunities. We develop and test a model according to which greater perceived barriers to one’s life-projects are psychologically harmful. We then test whether bonding identities function as a buffer against these stressors’ negative psychological effects. Data were collected with a standardized questionnaire from pre-apprentices, apprentices and young employees in two institutions (N = 365). Results confirm that perceiving barriers to one’s life-project was harmful for self-esteem. However, for participants who defined themselves in terms of bonding identities, greater perceived barriers did not decrease their perceived coping-efficacy, and were less harmful for their self-esteem. These findings point to the empowering role of bonding identities (and the social relationships that they imply) for disadvantaged group members.
DOI10.1111/bjso.12102
Citation Key1419
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Facing trajectories from school to work. Towards a capability-friendly youth policy in Europe

TitleFacing trajectories from school to work. Towards a capability-friendly youth policy in Europe
Publication TypeBook
Year of Publication2015
Series EditorOtto, H-U, Atzmüller, R, Berthet, T, Bifulco, L, Bonvin, J-M, Chiappero-Martinetti, E, Egdell, V, Halleröd, B, Kjeldsen, CC, Kwiek, M, Schröer, R, Vero, J, Zieleńska, M
Number of Pages394
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedDordrecht
ISBN Number978-3-319-11436-1
Citation Key1414

Evolution de la variabilité cognitive au cours de la vie

TitleEvolution de la variabilité cognitive au cours de la vie
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsFagot, D, Mella, N
EditorJuhel, J, Rouxel, G
Book TitleDifférences et variabilités en psychologie
Pagination179-195
PublisherPresses Universitaires de Rennes
Place PublishedRennes, France
ISBN Number978-2753536227
Citation Key1413

Early school leaving dynamics in Italy: the heterogeneity of gender effects

TitleEarly school leaving dynamics in Italy: the heterogeneity of gender effects
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsBorgna, C, Struffolino, E
JournalISFOL research paper
Volume2014
Issue20
Pagination1-27
PublisherISFOL
Place PublishedRoma
ISSN2281-499X
Keywordsdropout, gender, school-to-work transitions
AbstractGiven the rising skill demands in the labour market, early school leavers are a category at risk in European societies. Italy is one of the EU-28 countries where this phenomenon is most severe, since about one fifth of Italian young adults do not hold an upper-secondary degree. Despite the relevance of this topic for the equality of life chances, only a few works have investigated the causes and consequences of dropout from secondary schooling in the Italian context. Moreover, even if gender is a crucial dimension of inequality when considering the labour market opportunity structure, gender effects are usually accounted for, but not analysed specifically. By using ISFOL PLUS (waves 2005- 2011) and the “Early school leaving dynamics” (ESLD) survey conducted by ISFOL in 2011, we look directly at gender effects by studying if and to what extent boys more inclined to drop out from upper-secondary schooling than girls, and what are the labour market outcomes for boys and girls who did and did not drop out from high school. The main results of our analyses suggest the existence of different mechanisms for early school leaving for boys and girls, partially mediated by push and pull factors. We find that girls are less likely to drop out from secondary schooling even after accounting for previous scholastic performance, i.e. a key push factor. We argue that pull factors – and especially job-related motivations – may affect boys and girls differently due to differential labour market opportunities. The latter hypothesis is supported by the findings concerning the association between dropout and the area of residence of the pupils and the educational level of their parents. Finally, we analyse the current labour market.
Citation Key1411

The capability approach, education and the labour market

TitleThe capability approach, education and the labour market
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsKjeldsen, CC, Bonvin, J-M
EditorOtto, H-U, Atzmüller, R, Berthet, T, Bifulco, L, Bonvin, J-M, Chiappero-Martinetti, E, Egdell, V, Halleröd, B, Kjeldsen, CC, Kwiek, M, Schröer, R, Vero, J, Zieleńska, M
Book TitleFacing trajectories from school to work. Towards a capability-friendly youth policy in Europe
Pagination19-34
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedDordrecht
ISBN Number978-3-319-11436-1
AbstractThis mainly theoretical article addresses the core idea and concepts within the capability approach and serves as an introduction to our conception of the approach for the readings of the other articles in this volume. The concepts will be presented briefly, and their interdependent relations will be explained with a strong emphasis on the capability for education and work. Due to some differences between the conceptual understanding of capabilities between Martha Nussbaum and Amartya Sen (Robeyns, J Hum Dev 6:93–114, 2005), we will also present our suggestion for an accessible model which combines the strengths of each conceptual perspective.
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-11436-1_2
Citation Key1409

Towards a multi-dimensional theory of post-unemployment scarring: recurrence, instability and downgrading

TitleTowards a multi-dimensional theory of post-unemployment scarring: recurrence, instability and downgrading
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsAntonini, M, Bühlmann, F
JournalLIVES Working Papers
Volume2015
Issue37
Pagination1-31
PublisherNCCR LIVES
ISSN2296-1658
Keywordspost-unemployment trajectories; labor market; downgrading; instability
Abstract

Many studies compare employed and unemployed workers to highlight the effect of unemployment. The majority of them neglect of the dynamic aspect of unemployment trajectories and measure unemployment scarring by wage. We seek to examine post-unemployment in terms of trajectories, which also include re-entries into the labor market and mobility between different occupational categories. Moreover, we seek to study scarring in multiple forms, such as employment instability or social downgrading.

We describe 512 careers touched by a period of unemployment relying on the data from the 1999-2011 waves of the Swiss Household Panel. This main sample is compared to a control sample without any period of unemployment. In both samples, we examine employment careers by a combination of sequence analysis and regression analysis. We seek to relate sex, age, nationality, education, social origin and socio-professional categories to risks and opportunities caused by a period of unemployment.

Our findings show that different groups are exposed to different forms of unemployment scarring, depending on their resources and opportunity structures. We identified three type of scarring: recurrent unemployment, downgrading (i.e. the reintegration in a less prestigious job position) and instability (i.e. frequent changes in the job position). Not one single group is touched by all forms of unemployment scarring and, inversely, specific groups are hit by specific forms of scarring. Not only groups traditionally “vulnerable” (e.g. foreign or elderly workers) are sensitive to scarring due to unemployment. Highly educated workers are also affected by the consequences of a period of unemployment.

This leads us to a broader reflection about the possible relationship across different forms of scarring: individuals may be obliged to choose between different forms of scarring. However, this is not only a question of choice, as specific resources and opportunity structures determine which forms of scaring are available for particular groups. These insights can be used to create group-oriented as well as individual social policies, when considering each worker as a member of different groups at the same time.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2015.37
Citation Key1408