Decreased well-being after job loss: testing omitted causes

TitleDecreased well-being after job loss: testing omitted causes
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsBaumann, I
JournalLIVES Working Papers
Volume2015
Issue36
Pagination1-33
PublisherNCCR LIVES
ISSN2296-1658
Keywordsjob displacement, social relationships, social status, subjective well-being
Abstract

Job loss is widely known to lead to a substantial decrease in workers’ subjective well-being. Functionalist theories explain this fact by arguing that the fundamental needs that work fulfills are absent during unemployment. Recent evidence from longitudinal studies however contradicts this approach, showing that workers who find a new job do not fully regain their former level of well-being upon reemployment. Therefore other mechanisms must be at work. We suggest that changes in social or economic domains of workers’ lives – triggered by job displacement – lead to the observed changes in well-being. Drawing on a unique data set from a survey of workers displaced by plant closure in Switzerland after the financial crisis of 2008, our analysis confirms the previous result that finding a job after displacement does not completely restore workers’ pre-displacement level of well-being. The factors that best explain this outcome are changes in social domains, notably changes in workers’ job-related social status and their relationships to friends. This result provides valuable insights about the long lasting scars job displacement leaves on workers’ lives.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2015.36
Citation Key1390

Swiss banking elites: between internationalization and national career patterns

TitleSwiss banking elites: between internationalization and national career patterns
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsAraujo, P, Bühlmann, F
JournalLIVES Working Papers
Volume2015
Issue35
Pagination1-32
PublisherNCCR LIVES
ISSN2296-1658
Keywordsbanking elites, career, cosmopolitan capital, internationalization, social capital, Switzerland
Abstract

The aim of this paper is to explore how the restructuration of the Swiss banking field over the last four decades has affected the careers of Swiss banking elites. During this period the Swiss banking system has undergone a concentration process, has shifted its activities from retail to investment banking and has been thoroughly internationalized. Inspired by a bourdieusian framework, we examine the impact of these changes on top bankers careers. We conceptualize careers as dynamics of acquisition, accumulation and conversion of different types of capital and investigate different forms of internationality and mobility of top bankers. Using a database of 487 Executive and Non Executive Directors from 37 Swiss banks in 2010 we first perform a sequence analysis to understand different types of international and intersectoral careers. This is then completed by a multiple correspondence analysis which allows us to identify combinations of educational, social and cosmopolitan capital that lead to top positions in different areas of the Swiss banking field. Our findings show that a large part of Swiss bankers still pursue exclusively national careers and that truly international trajectories are limited to a small group of top bankers working in investment banking. These international careers in big banks, foreign banks and stock exchange banks are related to a large amount and particularly international type of educational capital, whereas careers of bank managers with no university education remain restricted to the national space. However, also managers of these regional and cantonal banks tend to imitate the internationality of big banker’s careers. They often spend a brief spell abroad at the beginning of their career or attend a short executive management program in order to give their career an international flavour.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2015.35
Citation Key1382

The role of cognitive resources for subjective work ability and health in nursing

TitleThe role of cognitive resources for subjective work ability and health in nursing
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsIhle, A, Borella, E, Rahnfeld, M, Müller, SR, Enge, S, Hacker, W, Wegge, J, Oris, M, Kliegel, M
JournalEuropean Journal of Ageing
Volume12
Issue2
Pagination131-140
ISSN1613-9372
Keywordsaging workforce, cognition, nursing, subjective health, subjective work ability
Abstract

Cognitive resources can be considered to be key variables in the context of work ability and health, particularly in the aging workforce. However, research on this issue is sparse, lacking a comprehensive examination of specific cognitive functions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the association of cognitive resources with subjective work ability and health in more detail. In 166 geriatric care workers (mean age 42.1 years, SD = 11.5, range 20–62), subjective work ability and health were assessed. Additionally, a comprehensive battery of cognitive tests measuring crystallized intelligence, cognitive speed, short-term memory, working memory, and inhibition was administered in a standardized procedure. Controlling for individual differences in age, education, depressive symptoms, self-regulation strategies (in terms of selective optimization with compensation), and cognitive resources (particularly better performance in short-term memory, working memory, and inhibition) were related to better subjective work ability and health. The present results demonstrate the relation of a variety of specific cognitive functions with subjective work ability and health over and above individual differences in age, education, depressive symptoms, and self-regulation strategies. Implications to explicitly consider a set of cognitive resources in models of work and organizational psychology, particularly with respect to the aging workforce, are discussed.

DOI10.1007/s10433-014-0331-y
Citation Key1379
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Quand démocratisation rime avec reproduction: les inégalités sociales dans le système éducatif suisse depuis le début du XXe siècle

TitleQuand démocratisation rime avec reproduction: les inégalités sociales dans le système éducatif suisse depuis le début du XXe siècle
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsFalcon, J
JournalLIVES Working Papers
Volume2015
Issue34
Pagination1-30
PublisherNCCR LIVES
Place PublishedLausanne
Keywordsdémocratisation du système éducatif, inégalités sociales
Abstract

Cette étude analyse l’évolution de la distribution des inégalités sociales suite à la démocratisation du système éducatif suisse au cours du XXe siècle. Nos analyses, menées à partir de données issues de 21 enquêtes réalisées entre 1972 et 2013, révèlent que, même si la démocratisation scolaire a généré une égalisation de l’accès à l’éducation post-obligatoire, de fortes inégalités sociales subsistent en Suisse. Nous concluons que le système éducatif suisse, caractérisé par de larges filières de formations professionnelles, joue un rôle important dans la persistance de ces inégalités.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2015.34
Citation Key1375

Adult age differences in prospective memory in the laboratory: are they related to higher stress levels in the elderly?

TitleAdult age differences in prospective memory in the laboratory: are they related to higher stress levels in the elderly?
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsIhle, A, Kliegel, M, Hering, A, Ballhausen, N, Lagner, P, Benusch, J, Cichon, A, Zergiebel, A, Oris, M, Schnitzspahn, KM
JournalFrontiers in Human Neuroscience
Volume8
Issue1021
Pagination1-9
ISSN1662-5161
Keywordsage differences, laboratory testing situation, prospective memory, relaxation, stress
Abstract

To explain age deficits found in laboratory-based prospective memory (PM) tasks, it has recently been suggested that the testing situation per se may be more stressful for older adults, thereby impairing their performance. To test this assumption, subjective and physiological stress levels were assessed at several times during the experiment in 33 younger and 29 older adults. In addition, half of participants were randomized in a condition where they completed a relaxation intervention before performing a time-based PM task. Results confirmed the age deficit in laboratory PM. Subjective and physiological stress levels showed no age difference and no detrimental association with PM. The intervention successfully reduced stress levels in both age groups but had no effect on PM or the age deficit. In conclusion, data suggest that age deficits usually observed in laboratory PM may not be due to higher stress levels in the older adults.

DOI10.3389/fnhum.2014.01021
Citation Key1373
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Career Adapt-Abilities Scale Short Form (CAAS-SF): Construction and validation

TitleCareer Adapt-Abilities Scale Short Form (CAAS-SF): Construction and validation
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsMaggiori, C, Rossier, J, Savickas, ML
JournalJournal of Career Assessment
Volume25
Issue2
Pagination312-325
KeywordsCAAS, career adaptability, confirmatory factor analyses, measurement equivalence, scale validation, short format
Abstract

The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS) has become one of the most widely used questionnaires to assess career adaptability. To facilitate its integration into large surveys, in varied settings, the aim of this article was to develop a brief 12-item version, the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale–Short Form (CAAS-SF). A sample of 2,800 French- and German-speaking adults living in Switzerland completed the CAAS. On a first random subsample, a principal component analyses conducted on the CAAS-SF suggested a four-factor solution. A one-to-one association was found between these components and the subscales of the CAAS-SF. Confirmatory factor analyses, conducted on a second random subsample, confirmed the hierarchical factor structure of this short version. Based on Cheung and Rensvold’s criteria, the CAAS-SF reached measurement equivalence across linguistic and gender groups. Furthermore, the 12- and 24-item versions were strongly associated. The results supported the CAAS-SF as pertinent and economical alternative to the 24-item version.

DOI10.1177/1069072714565856
Citation Key778
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Spell sequences, state proximities and distance metrics

TitleSpell sequences, state proximities and distance metrics
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsElzinga, C, Studer, M
JournalSociological Methods & Research
Volume44
Issue1
Pagination3-47
Keywordsduration-weighting, OM, sequence analysis, soft-matching, subsequence
Abstract

Because OM-distance is not very sensitive to differences in the order of events or states, we introduce a subsequence-based distance measure that can be adapted to subsequence length, to subsequence duration and to soft-matching of states or events. Using a simulation technique developed by Studer 2012, we investigate the sensitivity, relative to OM, of several variants of this metric to variations in order, timing and duration of states. The results show that the behavior of the metric is as intended. Furthermore, we use family formation data from the Swiss Household Panel to compare a few variants of the new metric to OM. The new metrics have been implemented in the freely available TraMineR-package.

DOI10.1177/0049124114540707
Citation Key1369
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Improving everyday prospective memory performance in older adults: Comparing cognitive process and strategy training

TitleImproving everyday prospective memory performance in older adults: Comparing cognitive process and strategy training
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsBrom, S, Kliegel, M
JournalPsychology and Aging
Volume29
Issue3
Pagination744-755
Keywordscognition, elderly, memory, training
Abstract

Considering the importance of prospective memory for independence in old age recently, research has started to examine interventions to reduce prospective memory errors. Two general approaches can be proposed: (a) process training of executive control associated with prospective memory functioning, and/or (b) strategy training to reduce executive task demands. The present study was the first to combine and compare both training methods in a sample of 62 community-dwelling older adults (60–86 years) and to explore their effects on an ecologically valid everyday life prospective memory task (here: regular blood pressure monitoring). Even though the training of executive control was successful in enhancing the trained ability, clear transfer effects on prospective memory performance could only be found for the strategy training. However, participants with low executive abilities benefited particularly from the implementation intention strategy. Conceptually, this supports models suggesting interactions between task demands and individual differences in executive control in explaining individual differences in prospective memory performance.

DOI10.1037/a0037181
Citation Key1368
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Short form of the orientations to happiness questionnaire for the German-speaking countries. Development and analysis of the psychometric properties

TitleShort form of the orientations to happiness questionnaire for the German-speaking countries. Development and analysis of the psychometric properties
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsRuch, W, Martínez Martí, ML, Heintz, S, Brouwers, S
JournalSwiss Journal of Psychology
Volume73
Issue4
Pagination225-234
Keywordsengagement, meaning, orientations to happiness, pleasure, positive psychology, well-being
Abstract

This paper addresses the development of a 9-item Short Form of the Orientations to Happiness (OTH) Questionnaire (Peterson, Park, & Seligman, 2005) for German-speaking countries. This questionnaire measures three ways to happiness: life of pleasure, life of engagement, and life of meaning. In Experiment 1 (replication sample, N = 1,336), we replicated the three-factor structure found in the 18-item Parent Form. In Experiment 2 (validation sample, N = 222), we again replicated the three-factor structure, which showed a good fit to the data. The coefficients of congruence between the three factors in Experiments 1 and 2 were very high (.94–.98). The correlations between the corresponding scales of the Short and Parent Form were high (.49–.91). The three scales of the Short Form had acceptable internal consistency. The pattern of relationships of both the OTH Short Form and Parent Form with sociodemographic variables, with the endorsement of prototypical behaviors related to the three orientations to happiness, and with meaning in life were very similar for both OTH forms.

DOI10.1024/1421-0185/a000141
Citation Key1367
Refereed DesignationRefereed

"Vivre/Leben/Vivere": An interdisciplinary survey addressing progress and inequalities of aging over the past 30 years in Switzerland

Title"Vivre/Leben/Vivere": An interdisciplinary survey addressing progress and inequalities of aging over the past 30 years in Switzerland
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsLudwig, C, Cavalli, S, Oris, M
JournalArchives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Volume59
Issue2
Pagination240-248
Date Published09/2014
Keywordsaging, cross-sectional study, inequalities, life conditions, resources
Abstract

In this paper, we present the rationale and the design of "Vivre/Leben/Vivere" (VLV), a large interdisciplinary survey looking at the life and health conditions of individuals who are aged 65 and older and living in Switzerland. VLV is of the third survey of a repeated cross-sectional study, previously conducted in 1979 and 1994 in two French-speaking areas of Switzerland (the cantons of Geneva and Valais). Launched in 2011, VLV extends the original design to additional German and Italian-speaking areas and targets a sample of 4 200 individuals. Quantitative data are collected by means of two questionnaires and a life history calendar, assessing current resources in multiple spheres of the individuals' life (e.g. household conditions, physical and psychological health, social relations, participation, and values) and their accumulation across the life course. The objectives of VLV are twofold: first it aims to provide an updated view of life and health conditions of the population aged 65 and older in Switzerland, with a major concern in assessing diversity and inequalities. Second, VLV aims to compare these conditions to those observed in 1979 and 1994; hence, it aims providing means to question the sustainability of the positive trends, reported in the previous surveys. VLV is a rare opportunity in Europe to acquire exhaustive and cardinal knowledge about the heterogeneity of the life conditions of the aged and their changes over the past 30 years.

DOI10.1016/j.archger.2014.04.004
Citation Key1365
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Health status and quality of life: Results from a national survey in a community-dwelling sample of elderly people

TitleHealth status and quality of life: Results from a national survey in a community-dwelling sample of elderly people
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsLuthy, C, Cedraschi, C, Allaz, A-F, Herrmann, F, Ludwig, C
JournalQuality of Life Research
Volume24
Issue7
Pagination1687-1696
Keywordsaging, community-dwelling elderly, health-related quality of life, life conditions
Abstract

Purpose
To investigate the relation between age and HRQoL indicators in a community-dwelling population aged 65 years and older.
Methods
Data were collected within a sample stratified by age (65–69; 70–74; 75–79; 80–84; 85–89; 90 years and above) and sex and randomly selected in the population records in Switzerland. The EQ-5D was used to assess HRQoL. Analyses were conducted on the entire available sample (N = 3,073) and on the subsample with no missing data in the EQ-5D (N = 2,888), considering age, gender, education and region.
Results
Results of multiple regression analyses showed different age-related patterns across the EQ-5D. The proportion of respondents reporting no problems ranged from 51 % in the 65- to 69-year age group to 20 % in the 90 years and above age group. Odds ratio (OR) for Mobility problems increased from 2.04 in the 75- to 79-year age group to 13.34 in the 90 years and above age group; OR for Usual Activities increased from 1.76 to 11.68 and from 1.55 to 2.32 for Pain/Discomfort; OR for Self-Care increased from 5.26 in the 80- to 84-year age group to 30.36 in the 90 years and above age group. Problems with Self-Care remained low, increasing from 6.22 % in the 80- to 84-year age group to 26.21 % in the oldest age group. The magnitude of the gender, region and education effects was much lower than that of age.
Conclusion
HRQoL is globally preserved in older adults in Switzerland, even if substantial impairment is reported in very old age affecting mainly functional health dimensions. Anxiety/Depression and Pain/Discomfort did not appear to be affected by age; high rates of difficulties were reported for Pain/Discomfort but not for Anxiety/Depression.

DOI10.1007/s11136-014-0894-2
Citation Key1364
Refereed DesignationRefereed