WeightedCluster Library Manual: A practical guide to creating typologies of trajectories in the social sciences with R

TitleWeightedCluster Library Manual: A practical guide to creating typologies of trajectories in the social sciences with R
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsStuder, M
JournalLIVES Working Papers
Volume2013
Issue24
Pagination1-32
PublisherNCCR LIVES
Place PublishedLausanne
Type of ArticleTechnical report
ISSN2296-1658
Keywordsanalysis of sequences, cluster, cluster quality measure, distance, life course, optimal matching, R, trajectory, typology, weighting
Abstract

This manual has a twofold aim: to present the WeightedCluster library and offer a step-by-step guide to creating typologies of sequences for the social sciences. In particular, this library makes it possible to represent graphically the results of a hierarchical cluster analysis, to group identical sequences in order to analyse a larger number of sequences, to compute a set of measures of partition quality and also an optimized PAM (Partitioning Around Medoids) algorithm taking account of weightings. The library also offers procedures to facilitate the choice of a particular clustering solution and to choose the optimal number of groups.

In addition to the methods, we also discuss the building of typologies of sequences in the social sciences and the assumptions underlying this operation. In particular we clarify the place that should be given to the creation of typologies in the analysis of sequences. We thus show that these methods offer an important descriptive point of view on sequences by bringing to light recurrent patterns. However, they should not be used in a confirmatory analysis, since they can point to misleading conclusions.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2013.24
Citation Key706

Vulnerability and Growth. Developmental dynamics and differential effects of the loss of an intimate partner in the second half of life

TitleVulnerability and Growth. Developmental dynamics and differential effects of the loss of an intimate partner in the second half of life
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsHutchison, S, Perrig-Chiello, P, Höpflinger, F, Morselli, D, van Rhee, E, Spini, D
JournalLIVES Working Papers
Volume2013
Issue23
Pagination1-34
PublisherNCCR LIVES
Place PublishedLausanne
Type of ArticleResearch report
ISSN2296-1658
Keywordsbereavement, design, divorce, long-term marriage, methods
Abstract

This working report gives an overview of the Individual Project 12 “Vulnerability and growth. Developmental dynamics and differential effects of the loss of an intimate partner in the second half of life” of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research LIVES led by Pasqualina Perrig-Chiello, University of Bern. This longitudinal and interdisciplinary project aims at examining vulnerability and personal growth after a critical life event, namely the break-up of a long-term intimate relationship in the second half of life, be it due to divorce or due to bereavement. In this report we present details about the rationale, the main research questions, the hypotheses and the methods of the study. Special attention is given to the methodological approach. The authors give a first sample description and report on the validity of the data by comparing the sample with Swiss Labour Force Survey and Swiss Health Survey data.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2013.23
Citation Key705

Multidimensional deprivation in contemporary Switzerland across social groups and time

TitleMultidimensional deprivation in contemporary Switzerland across social groups and time
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsLucchini, M, Butti, C, Assi, J, Spini, D, Bernardi, L
JournalLIVES Working Papers
Volume2013
Issue22
Pagination1-29
PublisherNCCR LIVES
Place PublishedLausanne
Type of ArticleResearch paper
ISSN2296-1658
Keywordsmultidimensional deprivation, self-organizing maps, Swiss Household Panel, transition probabilities
Abstract

We have investigated the phenomenon of deprivation in contemporary Switzerland through the adoption of a multidimensional, dynamic approach. By applying Self Organizing Maps (SOM) to a set of 33 non-monetary indicators from the 2009 wave of the Swiss Household Panel (SHP), we identified 13 prototypical forms (or clusters) of well-being and deprivation within a topological, two-dimensional space. Then new data from the previous waves (2003 to 2008) were classified by the SOM model trained with the data of wave 2009, making it possible to estimate the weight of the different clusters in time and reconstruct the dynamics of stability and mobility of individuals within the two-dimensional output space. During the period from 2003 to 2009, the size of the clusters remained basically unchanged. Looking at the transition matrices between year t and year t+1, we observed a high mobility among the adjacent multidimensional forms compared to those which are more distant, a sign that well-being and deprivation in contemporary Switzerland show certain stability over time.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2013.22
Citation Key704

Workers’ movement out of declining occupations in Great Britain, Germany and Switzerland

TitleWorkers’ movement out of declining occupations in Great Britain, Germany and Switzerland
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsMurphy, E
JournalLIVES Working Papers
Volume2013
Issue21
Pagination1-40
PublisherNCCR LIVES
Place PublishedLausanne
Type of ArticleResearch paper
ISSN2296-1658
Keywordsevent history analysis, intra-generational mobility, occupational change
Abstract

The employment structure undergoes constant change. Some occupations grow while others decline under the pressure of technological advances, welfare state reforms and globalisation. This evolution at the aggregate level has been well documented. Our knowledge of how macro-level change in the employment structure is brought about through micro-level career adjustments is less extensive. Drawing on panel data, this paper examines what type of workers are most likely to leave occupations that have declined over the past 20 years, and the destination of these individual exits in Great Britain, Germany and Switzerland. In all three countries, we find that male production workers are less likely to exit a declining occupation, but are more likely to become unemployed if they do leave. In comparison, the most probable route out of declining occupations for female clerical workers is into high paid growing occupations.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2013.21
Citation Key698