The family as (one- or two-step) social capital: mechanisms of support during labor market transitions

TitleThe family as (one- or two-step) social capital: mechanisms of support during labor market transitions
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsVacchiano, M, Yepes-Cayuela, L, Martí, J
JournalCommunity, Work & Family
Pagination1–17
ISSN1366-8803
Keywordscapital social, familia, family, juventud, labour market, mercado de trabajo, networks, redes, social capital, youth
Abstract

This paper uses a life-history grid to collect narrative data on the labor market transitions of young people aged 20–34 (n = 98) in order to analyze the support provided by relatives in the Barcelona Metropolitan Area. Drawing on social capital theory, we explore these mechanisms by analysing the flow of resources within family networks (one-step social capital) and how relatives mediate with other agents in the labor market (two-step social capital). Hence, we address the diversity of material, symbolic and informational resources provided by relatives during labor transitions in order to understand the mechanisms involved in the intergenerational reproduction of occupation inequalities. Although the ‘strength of weak ties’ thesis usually associates the use of family networks among disadvantaged groups, our results show that the mobilization of relatives is equally important in upper-class background, in which mechanisms such as nepotism and influence on third-party employers are activated. Among the working classes, family ties help job seekers to reach non-redundant connections in the secondary segment of the labor market. The article contributes by providing a detailed map of the roles played by relatives in a southern European context characterized by precariousness and unemployment.

URLhttps://doi.org/10.1080/13668803.2019.1687425
DOI10.1080/13668803.2019.1687425

Validating sequence analysis typologies using bootstrapping

TitleValidating sequence analysis typologies using bootstrapping
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsStuder, M
JournalLIVES Working paper
Volume80
Pagination1-33
Date Published10/2019
ISSN2296-1658
KeywordsBootstrapping, methodology, Null model, sequence analysis
Abstract

In this article, we propose a methodology for the validation of sequence analysis typologies based on bootstraps. The method works by comparing the quality of the obtained clustering with the quality obtained by clustering similar but unstructured data. Several models are proposed in order to test the different structuring aspects of the sequences that are important in life course research, namely sequencing, timing and duration. The framework is extended to multichannel sequence analysis by looking at the structure stemming from the association between the channels.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2019.80

The great recession and trajectories of vulnerability to unemployment in the UK and Switzerland

TitleThe great recession and trajectories of vulnerability to unemployment in the UK and Switzerland
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsOrsholits, D, Studer, M, Ritschard, G
JournalLIVES Working paper
Volume79
Pagination1-31
Date Published09/2019
ISSN2296-1658
Keywordsemployment, labour market, recession, Switzerland, unemployment, United Kingdom, vulnerability
Abstract

The Great Recession had a profound impact on the labour market. Unemployment increased substantially and rapidly in almost all developed countries in the aftermath. While the unemployment rate began to decrease shortly after the crisis, this did not necessarily translate into a return to pre-recession levels. In fact, it took ten years for employment levels to recover to pre-2008 levels.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2019.79

Inequality beyond networking: personal networks and mobilization of contacts by young job seekers in Barcelona

TitleInequality beyond networking: personal networks and mobilization of contacts by young job seekers in Barcelona
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsSaura, DMuntanyola, Barranco, O, Vacchiano, M
JournalRevista Española de Sociología
Volume28
Number2
Pagination207–226
ISSN2445-0367
Keywordsinequality, labour market, Networking, social capital, social network analysis
Abstract

How young job seekers mobilize their contacts in the labour market? We look at mobilization of personal networks of young adults in Barcelona. We consider the strength of ties and status homophily as mecha- nisms of personal networks as for the consolidation of social capital. Our qualitative analysis of 18 in- terviews with job seekers explores their personal networks and labour market trajectories. We applied Social Network Analysis (SNA). Our analysis of social capital indicates the existence of a relation between the cultural and economic capitals of job seekers and the compositional features of their networks. Re- sults show how networks are similarly heterogeneous in terms of strength of ties, and mostly homophilous in educational levels. But these similarities in terms of social capital come with sharp inequalities in the patterns of mobilized contacts and their success in finding a job. These differences can be explained by the type and volume of capitals of job seekers. Those with better positions in the social structure and sta- ble trajectories seem to mobilize fewer contacts more efficiently, getting better outcomes.

URLhttps://recyt.fecyt.es/index.php/res/article/view/66536
DOI10.22325/fes/res.2019.01

Presentation of the Study LIVES_SHPHealth on Experiences after Psychological and Physical Health Problems. A Cross-sectional Study within a Longitudinal Panel-survey

TitlePresentation of the Study LIVES_SHPHealth on Experiences after Psychological and Physical Health Problems. A Cross-sectional Study within a Longitudinal Panel-survey
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsKlaas, HS, Morselli, D, Tillmann, R, Pin, S, Spini, D
JournalLIVES Working paper
Volume78
Pagination1-66
Date Published06/2019
ISSN2296-1658
Keywordshealth, health survey, mental health, survey design, Swiss Household Panel
Abstract

Background. In Switzerland, recovery-oriented mental health research collecting nonclinical population data remains scarce. People experiencing psychological health problems (HPs) are more likely to be stigmatised than people experiencing physical HPs. Here, we present a study in which participants of the Swiss Household Panel (SHP) were contacted for an auto-administered questionnaire survey in order to report on the impact that psychological or physical HPs had on their identity, experiences of stigmatisation, subjective state of recovery as well as positive and negative consequences for various aspects of their lives. This report describes the study aims, procedure, measures, sample selection and response analyses, sample composition and health characteristics.

Methods. 1426 persons were selected based on their health reports in the SHP, 713 for a psychological and 713 for a physical HP. We analysed the impact of the selection and the response process on sociodemographic characteristics and on psychosocial variables (social integration and mental health indicators). We also investigated mode (online versus paperpencil) effects. Difference between groups were analysed using Chi-Square and t-tests.

Results. The response rate was 60.17%; 47.83% of the data could be used for analyses. There were slight mode effects, especially regarding sociodemographic variables. Respondents, in comparison to non-respondents, showed higher levels of education, social trust, and satisfaction in several domains. Finally, we obtained a heterogeneous convenience sample from the German and French speaking parts of the Swiss population that had experienced past or ongoing health problems. Women, individuals with high educational
levels, Swiss nationals, and individuals living in the French-speaking part were overrepresented. The principal HPs reported were the most frequent and burdensome for the Swiss population, mainly depression, burnout, anxiety, orthopaedic problems, allergies and cardiac problems. Most participants had received treatment for their HP and had experienced it already for some years.

Conclusion. Using these data enables to analyse the impact of frequent and burdensome psychological and physical HPs on people’s lives in a heterogeneous convenience sample that has already had some time to deal with their HPs. Future research should try to reach more socially isolated individuals, stigmatised illness groups and individuals without treatment.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2019.78

DAISIE - Country report: Sweden

TitleDAISIE - Country report: Sweden
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsKrekula, C
JournalLIVES Working paper
Volume77.6
Pagination1-30
Date Published05/2019
ISSN2296-1658
KeywordsAgeism in the labour market, Extended working life, gender mainstreaming, gendered labour market, precarious labour
Abstract

The DAISIE project explores the gendered impacts of policies and practices aimed at extending working life (EWL) in five contrasting national settings (the Czech Republic, Ireland, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK), using a mixed methods research design inspired by insights from lifecourse and gender studies. The project addresses two significant and timely issues: labour market participation in later life and the influence of labour market and family trajectories on the experiences of older workers in different national and occupational contexts. This report explores the issue of extending working life in the Swedish context. It begins by discussing the Swedish gender equality politics, which follows by a presentation of the pension system, pension trends and obstacles against an extended working life. The processes towards an extended working life illustrates the difficulties in implementing gender equality in practice. In the Swedish debate on raised retirement age, older women’s and men’s equal opportunity to work into old age is not identified as a core issue, although this is an essential goal of the general gender equality policy in Sweden. Nor has the gender segregated labour market been emphasised to any great extent, despite being at the heart of gender inequalities in terms of wages, pensions and sick leave and parental leave. It is further shown that the argument for an extended working life is mainly based on demographic statistics and economic arguments about the sustainability of the Swedish welfare and pension systems, while organisational factors, such as ageism and age norms in work organisations have not highlighted as a real obstacle to older people’s participation in working life. Finally, it is argued that the Swedish gender equality project also has to include the older age groups and that the question of extended working life is an example of contemporary gender equality issues.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2019.77.6

DAISIE - OECD Policy Recommendations on Extending Working Lives

TitleDAISIE - OECD Policy Recommendations on Extending Working Lives
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsLéime, ÁNí
JournalLIVES Working paper
Volume77.5
Pagination1-15
Date Published05/2019
ISSN2296-1658
KeywordsExtended working life, gender, OECD, Pensions
Abstract

This Working Paper presents an overview of the OECD’s approach to extended working life, in relation to pensions and employment policy. It briefly outlines the role of the OECD and traces the evolution of OECD policy recommendations on extended working life from 2005 onwards to 2018. It discusses how the OECD recommends policies targeted at governments in terms of pension reforms including raising state pension age and linking pension amounts more closely to earnings, and anti-discrimination legislation; at employers and at improving the employability of older workers. The series of publications Pensions at a Glance, published biennially from 2005 to 2017 contains very little explicit reference to gender inequalities in pensions or indeed to
women, apart from some references to family responsibilities. The 2015 report included a chapter on how incomplete careers affect pension entitlements. The critique of the OECD’s approach from a gender perspective in the academic literature is discussed. It is recommended that the OECD conduct gender-proofing to assess the implications of extended working life policy (OECD, 2017b).

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2019.77.5

DAISIE - Country report: Czech Republic

TitleDAISIE - Country report: Czech Republic
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsKřížková, A, Dudová, R
Secondary AuthorsRašticová, M, Bédiová, M
JournalLIVES Working paper
Volume77.4
Pagination1-23
Date Published05/2019
ISSN2296-1658
Keywordsageing, Czech Republic, employment, Extending working life, gender, Pensions, retirement
Abstract

Policies aimed at extending working lives (EWL) have only been introduced in the Czech Republic over the last 15 years. This report first describes the situation of the 50+ age group in the Czech labour market. In the second part, it maps retirement, employment, pension and other relevant policies in the Czech Republic as well as policy documents supporting active ageing. In
conclusion, the authors suggest that the real or potential impact of EWL policies on the situation of women and men aged 50+ should be approached from an intersectional gender and age
perspective.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2019.77.4

DAISIE - Country report: United Kingdom

TitleDAISIE - Country report: United Kingdom
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsJandrić, J, Airey, L, Loretto, W
Secondary AuthorsVickerstaff, S
JournalLIVES Working paper
Volume77.3
Pagination1-32
Date Published05/2019
ISSN2296-1658
KeywordsEmployment policy, Extended working life, gender, Pensions, retirement, State pension age, UK
Abstract

In recent decades, the extension of working life has become a priority for policy makers in the UK. An ageing population, combined with steady increases in life expectancy, have led to a dramatic growth in the proportion of adults above State Pension age, alongside a shrinkage in the number of working-age adults. This has led to government concerns regarding not only the cost of funding State Pensions, but also the skills shortages that have resulted from the loss of older adults from the labour market via retirement. Successive UK governments have implemented a range of measures designed to encourage individuals to continue in paid work for longer. The tone of policy discourse has shifted towards the individual, with a growing emphasis on the need for individual workers to take responsibility for financial planning for their own retirement.

In this report, we consider and discuss extended working life (EWL) policies in light of current academic research. We start by presenting statistical data on UK employment rates, in order to outline the trends in age, gender and employment in recent decades. We then discuss six policy areas related to extending working life. First, we compare women and men’s participation in the labour market over the life-course. Second, policy changes related to age are discussed, including age discrimination legislation and changes to State Pension age. Third, we consider changes to social security benefits. Fourth, we provide an overview of the UK pensions system, including recent changes to the system, the introduction of occupational pensions and autoenrolment, and opportunities for combining pensions and working. Fifth, we discuss policies related to family and caring (including grandparents’ leave). Sixth, we consider flexible work policies in the context of later-life working. The report concludes with a discussion on the potential gaps in research on extending working lives in the UK national context.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2019.77.3

DAISIE - Country report: Ireland

TitleDAISIE - Country report: Ireland
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsLéime, ÁNí, Duvvury, N
JournalLIVES Working paper
Volume77.2
Pagination1-28
Date Published05/2019
ISSN2296-1658
KeywordsEmployment policy, Extended working life, gender, health, Pensions, precarity
Abstract

This paper presents a discussion of the gender and health impacts of extended working life policies in Ireland. It gives an overview of gendered working patterns in Ireland, focusing particularly on older workers and giving an outline of some of the historical policies that affected women earlier in their working lives, adopting a lifecourse approach in order to account for gender pension and unemployment inequalities. This is followed by an overview of the pension system in Ireland and of gendered patterns and level of coverage. This is followed by a discussion of the policies that have been introduced to extend working life and related pension reforms including health related employment measures and family friendly policies and the gendered division of care labour. There is a brief synopsis of the media debate in Ireland on extended working life policies and pension reforms particularly those related to gender. There is a discussion of the policy and academic literature in gender and extended working life including that on health and precarious employment.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2019.77.2

DAISIE - Country report: Switzerland

TitleDAISIE - Country report: Switzerland
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsLe Feuvre, N
JournalLIVES Working paper
Volume77.1
Pagination1-45
Date Published05/2019
ISSN2296-1658
Keywordsageing, discrimination, employment, Extending working life, gender, Pensions, retirement, Switzerland, working conditions
Abstract

The DAISIE project explores the gendered impacts of policies and practices aimed at extending working life (EWL) in five contrasting national settings (the Czech Republic, Ireland, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK), using a mixed methods research design inspired by insights from lifecourse
and gender studies. The project addresses two significant and timely issues: labour market participation in later life and the influence of labour market and family trajectories on the experiences of older workers in different national and occupational contexts.

This report explores the issue of extending working life in the Swiss context. It begins be mapping the employment patterns of older workers (50+), insisting on the differences in employment histories, working conditions and the transition to employment that are associated with the normative expectations of the dominant “modified male breadwinner” Swiss gender model. The report then goes on to present the three-tier Swiss pension regime and to analyse the consequences of recent – or proposed - policy reforms to this system. It insists on the huge pension gender gap in the Swiss context and analyses the consequences of this gap for the experiences of older workers from different social backgrounds.

The report concludes by summing up the important features of the EWL debate in Switzerland from a gender perspective and identifying gaps in the current state of research on this topic.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2019.77.1

Obdachlosigkeit, Wohnungslosigkeit und Prekäres wohnen. Ausmass, Profil und Bedarf in der Region Basel

TitleObdachlosigkeit, Wohnungslosigkeit und Prekäres wohnen. Ausmass, Profil und Bedarf in der Region Basel
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsDrilling, M
Secondary AuthorsDittmann, J, Bischoff, T
Tertiary AuthorsTemesvary, Z
JournalLIVES Working paper
Volume76
Pagination1-65
Date Published04/2019
ISSN2296-1658
KeywordsArmut, Obdachlosigkeit, Wohnungslosigkeit
Abstract

Über Ausmass und Struktur von Obdachlosigkeit in der Schweiz gibt es aktuell wenig empirische Erkenntnisse. Mit der vorliegenden Studie wurde am Beispiel der Region Basel erstmals für die Schweiz die europäische Typologie für Obdachlosigkeit, Wohnungslosigkeit und prekäre Wohnversorgung (ETHOS) angewendet und die Quantität, Qualität und Dynamik der Thematik erforscht. Methodisch baut die Studie auf einem Methodenmix auf: (1) stichtagsbezogene Nutzendenbefragung in 12 Einrichtungen der Obdachlosenhilfe (2) ethnographische Ansätze in vier dieser Einrichtungen während mehrerer Monate, (3) teilstrukturierte Interviews mit ExpertInnen, (4) Auswertung von Statistiken der Einrichtungen.
Auf Basis der stichtagsbezogenen Nutzendenbefragung und unter Hinzuziehung der Ergebnisse einer Nachtzählung sowie der Statistik der Notschlafstelle ermittelt die Studie zum Zeitpunkt der Befragung rund 100 obdachlose Menschen in Basel. Von den 469 Befragten fallen insgesamt 206 unter die Kategorien Obdachlosigkeit, Wohnungslosigkeit, ungesichertes Wohnen oder unzureichendes Wohnen. Aus der dynamischen Analyse resultiert, dass mit 362 Befragten rund 77% aller 469 Personen mindestens einmal in ihrem Leben obdachlos, wohnungslos oder in einer unzureichenden oder ungesicherten Wohnsituation waren oder es noch sind. Zudem zeigt sich eine hohe Zahl von Nutzenden aus den zentral- und osteuropäischen Ländern und eine eher geringe Zahl von Personen, die im Asylwesen betreut werden. Entsprechende an den Auftraggeber der Studie gerichtete Empfehlungen schlagen Veränderungen in der Vergabepraxis von Notschlafplätzen vor, diskutieren eine Housing-First Strategie und weisen auf den engen Zusammenhang von Obdachlosigkeit mit dem städtischen Wohnbestand hin.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2019.76

The male marriage premium: selection, productivity, or employer preferences? Evidence from panel data and a survey experiment

TitleThe male marriage premium: selection, productivity, or employer preferences? Evidence from panel data and a survey experiment
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsMcDonald, P
JournalLIVES Working paper
Volume75
Pagination1-38
Date Published03/2019
PublisherNCCR LIVES
ISSN2296-1658
Keywordsemployer preferences, labour market, Male marriage premium, productivity, selection, survey experiment data
Abstract

Survey evidence finds a wage premium for married men over single in most of the western world. Three key theories are put forward as an explanation: 1) marriage makes men more productive and therefore increases their wages; 2) men with higher labour-market productivity, and therefore higher wages, are more likely to be married; 3) employers simply favour married men over unmarried. We use a two-step analysis to test these three theories. In the first step, we analyse national panel data from Switzerland to pinpoint the part of the penalty due to either productivity or selection. We use entropy balancing to match never-married men to married on a set of pre-labour market covariates, thus isolating the selection effect, before we perform fixed effects regressions for productivity effects and to uncover any unexplained residual. We find a premium for married men of 5%, much of which is explained by selection. Next, we seek to uncover employer preferences by using a factorial survey experiment among HR managers (N = 714) in Switzerland. We ask the managers to assign wages to the CVs of fictional job candidates, who vary randomly on their civil status, amongst other characteristics. We can therefore identify employers’ preferences concerning married and unmarried men. We find that recruiters assign a small premium to married men, contingent on the job applied for. Overall, the premiums we find are lower than those previously reported in the literature.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2019.75

Effect of childhood socioeconomic conditions on cancer onset in later life: an ambidirectional cohort study

TitleEffect of childhood socioeconomic conditions on cancer onset in later life: an ambidirectional cohort study
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
Authorsvan der Linden, BWA, Courvoisier, DS, Cheval, B, Sieber, S, Bracke, P, Guessous, I, Burton-Jeangros, C, Kliegel, M, Cullati, S
JournalInternational Journal of Public Health
Volume63
Number7
Pagination799–810
Date Publishedmay
ISSN1661-8556
Keywordsageing, Cancer, life course, old age, Socioeconomic conditions
Abstract

Objectives Living in low socioeconomic conditions during childhood is associated with poor health outcomes in later life. Whether this link also applies to cancer is unclear. We examined whether childhood socioeconomic conditions (CSCs) are associated with cancer risk in later life and whether this effect remained after adjusting for adulthood socioeconomic conditions (ASCs). Methods Data for 26,431 individuals ≥ 50 years old included in SHARE were analysed. CSCs were constructed by using indicators of living conditions at age 10. ASC indicators were education, main occupation, and household income. Gender-stratified associations of CSCs with cancer onset (overall and by site) were assessed by Cox regression. Results In total, 2852 individuals were diagnosed with cancer. For both men and women, risk of overall cancer was increased for advantaged CSCs and remained so after adjusting for ASCs (hazard ratio = 1.36, 95% CI 1.10, 1.63, and 1.70, 95% CI 1.41, 2.07). Conclusions Advantaged CSCs are associated with an increased risk of overall cancer at older age, but results vary by cancer sites and sex. Participation in cancer screening or exposure to risk factors may differ by social conditions. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1007/s00038-018-1111-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6154039/
DOI10.1007/s00038-018-1111-9

Social and productive activities and health among partnered older adults: A couple-level analysis

TitleSocial and productive activities and health among partnered older adults: A couple-level analysis
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsLam, J, Bolano, D
JournalSocial Science & Medicine
Keywordsactive ageing, Asia Pacific, health, Latent class models, Older couples
Abstract

Objectives: We theorize and test the health of older adults as a result of their activity engagement, as well as a product of their spouse's engagement. Method: We draw on 15 waves of couple-level data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey. Using responses of time engaged in nine different activities, we estimate Latent Class Models to describe activity profiles of partnered older adults. Given potential health selections into activity engagement, we lag older adults' activity engagement by one wave to examine its association with subsequent health. We then investigate associations between the lag of the spouse's activities with respondents' health, controlling for their own activity engagement at the previous wave. Result: We find four activity profiles for men, and three for women. Respondents who were predominantly engaged in community activities generally report better subsequent health. Beyond their own activity engagement, for both older men and women, having a partner who was also community engaged associate with better subsequent health, though for older women, there were little differences between having a husband who was community engaged or inactive. Discussion: Our findings highlight the value of considering activities of partnered older adults at the couple level.

URLhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277953618301837
DOI10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.04.016
Custom 1

{:status: Advance online publication}

The heterogeneity of disability trajectories in later life: Dynamics of activities of daily living performance among nursing home residents

TitleThe heterogeneity of disability trajectories in later life: Dynamics of activities of daily living performance among nursing home residents
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsBolano, D, Berchtold, A, Burge, E
JournalJournal of Aging & Health
KeywordsADL trajectories, longitudinal analysis, multi-state model, nursing home resident, variability disability trajectories
Abstract

Objective: This study investigated the variability in activities of daily living (ADL) trajectories among 6,155 nursing home residents using unique and rich observational data. Method: The impairment in ADL performance was considered as a dynamic process in a multi-state framework. Using an innovative mixture model, such states were not defined a priori but inferred from the data. Results: The process of change in functional health differed among residents. We identified four latent regimes: stability or slight deterioration, relevant change, variability, and recovery. Impaired body functions and poor physical performance were main risk factors associated with degradation in functional health. Discussion: The evolution of disability in later life is not completely gradual or homogeneous. Steep deterioration in functional health can be followed by periods of stability or even recovery. The current condition can be used to successfully predict the evolution of ADL allowing to set and target different care priorities and practices.

URLhttp://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0898264318776071
DOI10.1177/0898264318776071
Short TitleThe heterogeneity of disability trajectories in later life

Sequence analysis: Where are we, where wre we going?

TitleSequence analysis: Where are we, where wre we going?
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsRitschard, G, Studer, M
EditorRitschard, G, Studer, M
Book TitleSequence analysis and related approaches : Innovative methods and applications.
Volume10
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedCham, Switzerland
Notes

\{:status: Advance online publication\}

URLhttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-319-95420-2_1
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-95420-2_1

Does vocational education give a labour market advantage over the whole career? A comparison of the United Kingdom and Switzerland

TitleDoes vocational education give a labour market advantage over the whole career? A comparison of the United Kingdom and Switzerland
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsKORBER, MAILYS
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume74
Pagination1-40
Date Published11/2018
PublisherNCCR LIVES
ISSN2296-1658
Keywordsapprenticeship, earnings, employment, life course, Switzerland, United Kingdom, vocational education and training
Abstract

Research suggests that vocational education and training (VET) tends to reduce youth unemployment by providing specific skills, thus smoothing the transition from education to work. However, we still know relatively little about whether vocational education provides higher employment rate and wages over the entire working trajectory than holders of lower education: after several years of experience, both groups may indeed have similar skills and thus similar situations on the labour market. We compare the situation in the United Kingdom and Switzerland, two countries sharing a tradition of vocational education but which differ in the specificity and standardisation of their VET system.
Creating a pseudo-cohort with repeated rounds of the UK and Swiss labour force surveys, we use regression models and compare the employment rate and hourly wage of our two groups of interest: individuals with vocational education at the upper secondary level and individuals with no more than compulsory education. We find that VET graduates fare better in terms of both employment and wages over the whole career. This advantage is larger for women than men and, contrary to our hypothesis, larger in the UK than in Switzerland with respect to employment prospects.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2018.74

Une Vie Florissante Sans Enfant ? Le Cas de la Suisse

TitleUne Vie Florissante Sans Enfant ? Le Cas de la Suisse
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsSauvain-Dugerdil, C
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume72
Pagination1-35
Date Published10/2018
ISSN2296-1658
Keywordsfamille en Suisse, infécondité, qualité de vie, réserve sociale, vie sans enfant, vieillir sans enfant
Abstract

Nous examinons ici si, en Suisse, vivre sans enfant représente une vie florissante, dans le sens de la liberté de «vivre la vie que l’on a raison de valoriser» (Sen, 1999). En utilisant les données de l’enquête suisse sur la famille et les générations (EFG 2013), nous posons trois questions. Nous commençons par examiner si l’existence sans enfant correspond à un mode de vie spécifique qui se répand. Dans un second temps, nous analysons le lien entre l’absence d’enfant et la qualité de vie à travers une série d’indicateurs relatifs au bien-être économique, à la santé, à la gestion du quotidien, aux relations de couple et à la vie sociale. Le bien-être des personnes sans enfants est étudié à deux moments du parcours de vie : durant la période de la parentalité, en comparant les personnes ayant ou non des enfants dans leur ménage, mais aussi pour la vie ultérieure des personnes ayant eu ou non des enfants.

En Suisse, l’infécondité est certes parmi les plus élevées au monde, mais elle ne s’accroît pas et n’apparaît pas comme un projet de vie. D’autre part, les personnes sans enfant n’ont pas une vision plus négative des implications de la parentalité. Nos résultats confirment que dans le contexte suisse les jeunes parents rencontrent des difficultés économiques, vivent au quotidien la pression des tâches familiales et ont une vie de couple de moindre qualité, mais la présence d’enfant au quotidien n’affecte pas la santé de leurs parents. Surtout, nos résultats montrent que vieillir sans enfant est associé à une moins bonne insertion sociale. Les enfants joueraient donc un rôle important dans la construction de liens sociaux forts, «réserves» utiles au grand âge.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2018.72

Le Travail Rémunéré à Temps Plein des Mères : Malédiction ou Bénédiction? - Le Cas Singulier de la Suisse Comparé à la Belgique, la France, l’Allemagne et la Suède

TitleLe Travail Rémunéré à Temps Plein des Mères : Malédiction ou Bénédiction? - Le Cas Singulier de la Suisse Comparé à la Belgique, la France, l’Allemagne et la Suède
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsFioretta, J, Rossier, C
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume69
Pagination1-30
PublisherNCCR LIVES
ISSNISSN 2296-1658
Keywordscomparaison internationale, Conflit-travail famille, politiques familiales, santé, sélection sociale, Suisse, travail à temps plein des mères
Abstract

Les travaux sur le conflit travail-famille montrent que les difficultés de conciliation sont plus fréquentes aux âges de la parentalité et chez les femmes, et qu'elles sont associées négativement à la santé. Les désavantages de la conciliation des rôles professionnel et familial pour les mères, souvent pointés du doigt, doivent toutefois être mis en perspective avec les gains économiques et de santé habituellement liés à une insertion professionnelle durable des femmes. Dans cette étude, nous comparons la Suisse – un pays largement dépourvu de dispositif soutenant la conciliation travail-famille - avec des pays de niveau socioéconomique comparable - la Belgique, la France, l'Allemagne et la Suède, dotés d'une diversité de politiques de conciliation. Grâce aux données de l'Enquête sur les Familles et les Générations 2013 pour la Suisse et des Enquêtes Genre et Générations pour les autres pays, nous montrons qu'en Suisse les parents d'enfants de moins de 13 ans à deux temps pleins ("dual earners") déclarent plus de difficultés à concilier le travail et la famille, ont une moins bonne santé auto-déclarée et éprouvent plus de difficultés financières que les couples où seul l’homme travaille à plein temps. A l'inverse, dans les autres pays, les "dual earners" ont des indicateurs de conflit travail-famille, de santé et de bien-être économique meilleurs que les autres couples. Ces résultats soulignent que les dispositifs de conciliation travail- famille (quelle qu'en soit la nature) permettent d'abord aux mères qui ont plus de ressources de s'investir substantiellement dans la sphère professionnelle, un mécanisme de sélection qui au final compense largement –sur l'ensemble des mères qui travaillent à temps plein- les désavantages liés aux conflits travail-famille.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2018.69

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